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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Shiaulou Yuan in JoVE
Microinjection of mRNA and Morpholino Antisense Oligonucleotides in Zebrafish Embryos.
Shiaulou Yuan, Zhaoxia Sun
Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine
Microinjection is a well-established and effective method for introducing foreign substances into fertilized zebrafish embryos. Here, we demonstrate a robust microinjection technique for performing mRNA overexpression, and morpholino oligonucleotide gene knockdown studies in zebrafish.
Other articles by Shiaulou Yuan on PubMed
Science (New York, N.Y.). Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14593172
Functional analysis of a genome requires accurate gene structure information and a complete gene inventory. A dual experimental strategy was used to verify and correct the initial genome sequence annotation of the reference plant Arabidopsis. Sequencing full-length cDNAs and hybridizations using RNA populations from various tissues to a set of high-density oligonucleotide arrays spanning the entire genome allowed the accurate annotation of thousands of gene structures. We identified 5817 novel transcription units, including a substantial amount of antisense gene transcription, and 40 genes within the genetically defined centromeres. This approach resulted in completion of approximately 30% of the Arabidopsis ORFeome as a resource for global functional experimentation of the plant proteome.
Identification of Inhibitors of Auxin Transcriptional Activation by Means of Chemical Genetics in Arabidopsis
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15466695
Auxin modulates diverse plant developmental pathways through direct transcriptional regulation and cooperative signaling with other plant hormones. Genetic and biochemical approaches have clarified several aspects of the auxin-regulated networks; however, the mechanisms of perception and subsequent signaling events remain largely uncharacterized. To elucidate unidentified intermediates, we have developed a high-throughput screen for identifying small molecule inhibitors of auxin signaling in Arabidopsis. Analysis of 10,000 compounds revealed several potent lead structures that abrogate transcription of an auxin-inducible reporter gene. Three compounds were found to interfere with auxin-regulated proteolysis of an auxin/indole-3-acetic acid transcription factor, and two impart phenotypes indicative of an altered auxin response, including impaired root development. Microarray analysis was used to demonstrate the mechanistic similarities of the two most potent molecules. This strategy promises to yield powerful tools for the discovery of unidentified components of the auxin-signaling networks and the study of auxin's participation in various stages of plant development.
Methods in Cell Biology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21550439
The cilium, a previously little studied cell surface protrusion, has emerged as an important organelle in vertebrate cells. This tiny structure is essential for normal embryonic development, including the formation of left-right asymmetry, limb morphogenesis, and the differentiation of sensory cells. In the adult, cilia also function in a variety of processes, such as the survival of photoreceptor cells, and the homeostasis in several tissues, including the epithelia of nephric ducts. Human ciliary malfunction is associated with situs inversus, kidney cysts, polydactyly, blindness, mental retardation, obesity, and many other abnormalities. The genetic accessibility and optical transparency of the zebrafish make it an excellent vertebrate model system to study cilia biology. In this chapter, we describe the morphology and distribution of cilia in zebrafish embryonic and larval organs. We also provide essential protocols to analyze cilia formation and function.
Target-of-rapamycin Complex 1 (Torc1) Signaling Modulates Cilia Size and Function Through Protein Synthesis Regulation
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22308353
The cilium serves as a cellular antenna by coordinating upstream environmental cues with numerous downstream signaling processes that are indispensable for the function of the cell. This role is supported by the revelation that defects of the cilium underlie an emerging class of human disorders, termed "ciliopathies." Although mounting interest in the cilium has demonstrated the essential role that the organelle plays in vertebrate development, homeostasis, and disease pathogenesis, the mechanisms regulating cilia morphology and function remain unclear. Here, we show that the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) growth pathway modulates cilia size and function during zebrafish development. Knockdown of tuberous sclerosis complex 1a (tsc1a), which encodes an upstream inhibitor of TOR complex 1 (Torc1), increases cilia length. In contrast, treatment of embryos with rapamycin, an inhibitor of Torc1, shortens cilia length. Overexpression of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6k1), which encodes a downstream substrate of Torc1, lengthens cilia. Furthermore, we provide evidence that TOR-mediated cilia assembly is evolutionarily conserved and that protein synthesis is essential for this regulation. Finally, we demonstrate that TOR signaling and cilia length are pivotal for a variety of downstream ciliary functions, such as cilia motility, fluid flow generation, and the establishment of left-right body asymmetry. Our findings reveal a unique role for the TOR pathway in regulating cilia size through protein synthesis and suggest that appropriate and defined lengths are necessary for proper function of the cilium.