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In JoVE (1)
- Concentration of Metabolites from Low-density Planktonic Communities for Environmental Metabolomics using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Other Publications (15)
- Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
- The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
- Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- FEMS Microbiology Ecology
- The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Zoological Science
- The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
- Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
- PloS One
- PloS One
Articles by Shigeharu Moriya in JoVE
Concentration of Metabolites from Low-density Planktonic Communities for Environmental Metabolomics using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
R. Craig Everroad*1, Seiji Yoshida*2, Yuuri Tsuboi1, Yasuhiro Date3, Jun Kikuchi2,3,4, Shigeharu Moriya1,2
1Biosphere Oriented Biology Research Unit, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 3Advanced NMR Metabomics Research Team, RIKEN Plant Science Center, 4Graduate School of Bioagricultural Science, Nagoya University
A method for metabolite extraction from microbial planktonic communities is presented. Whole community sampling is achieved by filtration onto specially prepared filters. After lyophilization, aqueous-soluble metabolites are extracted. This approach allows for application of environmental metabolomics to trans-omics investigations of natural or experimental microbial communities.
Other articles by Shigeharu Moriya on PubMed
Molecular Phylogeny of Symbiotic Basidiomycetes of Fungus-growing Termites in Thailand and Their Relationship with the Host
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12092837
Termitomyces-related symbiotic basidiomycetes in the nests of fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) of several genera in Thailand were cultivated and analyzed phylogenetically based on the DNA sequence of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes. The relationships of the symbiotic fungi with host termites and their locality were apparently complex, supporting intricate mechanisms for the termites to acquire the symbionts.
The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. May-Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12836875
Oxymonads are a morphologically well-characterized and highly diverse lineage of protists. They are, however, under sampled at a molecular level. It has recently been demonstrated that a genus of oxymonads, Pyrsonympha, is phylogenetically related to the excavate taxon Trimastix. Here, we addressed issues of internal oxymonad evolution. Pyrsonympha and Dinenympha are shown, by fluorescent in situ hybridization and phylogenetic evidence, to be separate genera and not morphotypes of the same organism. We demonstrated that three genera of oxymonads, Dinenympha, Pyrsonympha, and Oxymonas are each monophyletic and together form a clade which excludes other known eukaryotes. We have presented a taxonomic scheme of oxymonads taking into account their sisterhood with Trimastix and speculated on morphological evolution of oxymonads, particularly of their attachment apparatuses. Our biogeographical analysis with Japanese and Canadian Pyrsonympha and Dinenympha suggests that these genera diverged before the separation of termites that inhabit Eastern Asia and Western North America.
Molecular Phylogenies of Parabasalia Inferred from Four Protein Genes and Comparison with RRNA Trees
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15062795
The molecular phylogeny of parabasalids has mainly been inferred from small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences and has conflicted substantially with systematics based on morphological and ultrastructural characters. This raises the important question, how congruent are protein and SSU rRNA trees? New sequences from seven diverse parabasalids (six trichomonads and one hypermastigid) were added to data sets of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), enolase, alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin and used to construct phylogenetic trees. The GAPDH tree was well resolved and identical in topology to the SSU rRNA tree. This both validates the rRNA tree and suggests that GAPDH should be a valuable tool in further phylogenetic studies of parabasalids. In particular, the GAPDH tree confirmed the polyphyly of Monocercomonadidae and Trichomonadidae and the basal position of Trichonympha agilis among parabasalids. Moreover, GAPDH strengthened the hypothesis of secondary loss of cytoskeletal structures in Monocercomonadidae such as Monocercomonas and Hypotrichomonas. In contrast to GAPDH, the enolase and both tubulin trees are poorly resolved and rather uninformative about parabasalian phylogeny, although two of these trees also identify T. agilis as representing the basal-most lineage of parabasalids. Although all four protein genes show multiple gene duplications (for 3-6 of the seven taxa examined), most duplications appear to be relatively recent (i.e., species-specific) and not a problem for phylogeny reconstruction. Only for enolase are there more ancient duplications that may confound phylogenetic interpretation.
Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Cellulase Gene from a Symbiotic Protist of the Lower Termite, Coptotermes Formosanus
Gene. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15777663
The endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene was cloned from a cDNA library constructed from the mixed population of symbiotic protists in the hindgut of the lower termite, Coptotermes formosanus, using the lambda ZAP II vector. The recombinant phage library was screened for cellulolytic activity by the Congo red staining procedure. The nucleotide sequence comprised 941 nucleotides including a polyA tail sequence and showed high sequence similarity with endoglucanase genes belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 5. Determination of the 5' end of the cellulase gene using the 5'RACE method showed that the full-length cDNA comprised a 921-bp ORF, encoding a putative 33,620 Da protein. The organismal source of this cellulase gene was identified using PCR with gene-specific primers and whole-cell in situ hybridization as the smallest symbiotic hypermastigote protist, Spirotrichonympha leidyi. The optimal pH and temperature of the cellulase heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli were 5.8-6.0 and 70 degrees C, respectively. The Km and Vmax values on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) substrate were 1.90 mg/ml and 148.2 units/mg protein, respectively.
Intra- and Interspecific Comparisons of Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure Support Coevolution of Gut Microbiota and Termite Host
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16269686
We investigated the bacterial gut microbiota from 32 colonies of wood-feeding termites, comprising four Microcerotermes species (Termitidae) and four Reticulitermes species (Rhinotermitidae), using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and clonal analysis of 16S rRNA. The obtained molecular community profiles were compared statistically between individuals, colonies, locations, and species of termites. Both analyses revealed that the bacterial community structure was remarkably similar within each termite genus, with small but significant differences between sampling sites and/or termite species. In contrast, considerable differences were found between the two termite genera. Only one bacterial phylotype (defined with 97% sequence identity) was shared between the two termite genera, while 18% and 50% of the phylotypes were shared between two congeneric species in the genera Microcerotermes and Reticulitermes, respectively. Nevertheless, a phylogenetic analysis of 228 phylotypes from Microcerotermes spp. and 367 phylotypes from Reticulitermes spp. with other termite gut clones available in public databases demonstrated the monophyly of many phylotypes from distantly related termites. The monophyletic "termite clusters" comprised of phylotypes from more than one termite species were distributed among 15 bacterial phyla, including the novel candidate phyla TG2 and TG3. These termite clusters accounted for 95% of the 960 clones analyzed in this study. Moreover, the clusters in 12 phyla comprised phylotypes from more than one termite (sub)family, accounting for 75% of the analyzed clones. Our results suggest that the majority of gut bacteria are not allochthonous but are specific symbionts that have coevolved with termites and that their community structure is basically consistent within a genus of termites.
Symbiotic Fungi Produce Laccases Potentially Involved in Phenol Degradation in Fungus Combs of Fungus-growing Termites in Thailand
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16332742
Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase activity was detected in all the fungus combs examined as well as in the culture supernatants of isolated symbiotic fungi. Conversely, no peroxidase activity was detected in any of the fungus combs or the symbiotic fungal cultures. The laccase cDNA fragments were amplified directly from RNA extracted from fungus combs of five termite species and a fungal isolate using degenerate primers targeting conserved copper binding domains of basidiomycete laccases, resulting in a total of 13 putative laccase cDNA sequences being identified. The full-length sequences of the laccase cDNA and the corresponding gene, lcc1-2, were identified from the fungus comb of Macrotermes gilvus and a Termitomyces strain isolated from the same fungus comb, respectively. Partial purification of laccase from the fungus comb showed that the lcc1-2 gene product was a dominant laccase in the fungus comb. These findings indicate that the symbiotic fungus secretes laccase to the fungus comb. In addition to laccase, we report novel genes that showed a significant similarity with fungal laccases, but the gene product lacked laccase activity. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in symbiotic fungi of all the termite hosts examined.
Environmental CDNA Analysis of the Genes Involved in Lignocellulose Digestion in the Symbiotic Protist Community of Reticulitermes Speratus
FEMS Microbiology Ecology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17239084
To clarify the lignocellulolytic process of the lower termite symbiotic protistan system, we constructed a cDNA library from an as yet uncultivated symbiotic protist community of the lower termite Reticulitermes speratus. The library was constructed by the biotinylated CAP trapper method and analyzed by one-pass sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of actin orthologs confirmed that the resulting library reflected the intact organismal and mRNA composition of the symbiotic system. The contents of the library included abundant numbers of lignocellulolytic genes of the glycosyl hydrolase family orthologs (families 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 26, 43, 45 and 62). Our results clearly indicated that a multiple family of glycosyl hydrolase enzymes was involved in the protistan cellulose degradation system. The data also suggested that the most extensively expressed enzyme was glycosyl hydrolase family 7, a cellobiohydrolase ortholog. This family of enzymes enables the degradation of crystalline cellulose, the principal component of wood biomass.
Molecular Phylogenetic Position of the Genera Stephanonympha and Caduceia (Parabasalia) Inferred from Nuclear Small Subunit RRNA Gene Sequences
The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Jan-Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17300526
Nuclear small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction from trichomonad symbionts of termites that belong to the Devescovinidae (Caduceia versatilis) and polymastigont Calonymphidae (Stephanonympha nelumbium). The unidentified SSU rRNA sequence Nk3, previously obtained from the termite Neotermes koshunensis, has also been shown to derive from a Stephanonympha sp. by in situ hybridization. These sequences were analysed in a broad phylogeny including nearly all identified parabasalid sequences available in the databases, and some as yet unidentified sequences likely deriving from the new order Cristamonadida (Devescovinidae, Calonymphidae, and hypermastigids Lophomonadida). A global phylogeny of parabasalids reveals a partial agreement between the clades identified in this work and the last classification of this phylum into four orders. However, this classification is still incongruent with our data and new taxonomic considerations are proposed. The analysis confirms the monophyly of the Cristamonadida and separates this order into two groups: the first unites nearly all the Devescovinidae including Caduceia and the Calonymphidae Coronympha and Metacoronympha, whereas the second group is composed of a few Devescovinidae, Lophomonadida, and Calonymphidae such as Stephanonympha. Caduceia is closely related to Devescovina, corroborating the marked morphological similarity between these two genera whereas Stephanonympha groups together with the Calonymphidae Snyderella and Calonympha. These data also confirm the polyphyly of the families Devescovinidae and Calonymphidae and support the arrangement of the axostyle-pelta complexes as a valuable character for taxonomic considerations within the Calonymphidae.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17332636
In situ hybridization is one of the most direct and reliable ways to ascertain the origin of the gene from complex mixed cellular systems. This method is essential for studying communities of uncultured microorganism in their natural ecosystem. In this chapter, we introduce our protocols for the in situ hybridization of the messenger RNA of uncultured symbiotic protists of termite hindgut and the ribosomal RNA of the symbiotic bacteria of the protists using nonradioactive labeling protocols. We hope that you will find these protocols useful in your own work to unravel the complex functions and to discover new organisms in the ecosystem.
Transcriptome Analysis of the Digestive Organs of Hodotermopsis Sjostedti, a Lower Termite That Hosts Mutualistic Microorganisms in Its Hindgut
Zoological Science. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18459822
Microorganisms dwell symbiotically in the termite hindgut. In this study, we identified genes that contribute to the role of the host in maintaining this symbiotic relationship with microorganisms. Body tissue and digestive organs (salivary gland, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) dissected from the lower termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti were used for the analyses. The transcriptomes in these organs were investigated using expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. The cDNA libraries from the salivary gland and foregut included not only cellulase genes, but also several genes involved in glucose production, heme-cellulose degradation, chitin degradation, the innate immune system, and anti-microbial activity. We compared the expression level of these genes in the organs and body by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Real time RT-PCR analyses confirmed that the genes associated with cellulose degradation, innate immunity, and anti-microbial proteins are much more strongly expressed in the salivary gland than in other tissues. Our results identify functional genes used by the host in the termite symbiotic system.
Codon Optimization Prevents Premature Polyadenylation of Heterologously-expressed Cellulases from Termite-gut Symbionts in Aspergillus Oryzae
The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19164877
To achieve high expression of glycoside hydrolase family 45 endoglucanase (RsSym45EG1) from a symbiotic protist of the termite Reticulitermes speratus, synthetic sequence RsSym45eg1-co, in which the codon usage was adjusted to that of the highly-expressed tef1 gene encoding translation elongation factor 1alpha, was prepared and introduced into A. oryzae. The transcript level of RsSym45eg1-co was 1.8-fold higher than that of RsSym45eg1. In cells harboring RsSym45eg1, but not RsSym45eg1-co, truncated transcripts in which the coding region was prematurely terminated and followed by a poly A chain were found. The production of endoglucanase in the culture supernatant was improved by codon optimization. Truncated transcripts were also found when cellobiohydrolase and beta-glucosidase from R. speratus symbionts were expressed, and the transcript level of the former was increased by codon-optimization. Our findings suggest that premature polyadenylation frequently occurs in heterologous protein expression in A. oryzae, which might result in the poor yield of expressed proteins.
Heterologous Expression and Characterization of an Endoglucanase from a Symbiotic Protist of the Lower Termite, Reticulitermes Speratus
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19404781
RsSymEG, an endoglucanase of glycosyl hydrolase family (GHF) 7 encoded by a transcript isolated from the symbiotic protist of the termite Reticulitermes speratus, is expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. Interestingly, purified RsSymEG1 has a relatively higher specific activity (603 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) protein) and V(max) value (769.6 unit/mg protein) than previously reported data for GHF7 endoglucanase of Trichoderma ressei. It also has the same K(m) value (1.97 mg/ml) with Clostridium cellulolyticum enzymes that contain cellulose binding module, a property indicative of high affinity to substrate, though no cellulose binding module is found within it. Thin-layer chromatography analysis revealed that RsSymEG1 preferentially hydrolyzes the beta-1,4-cellulosic linkage of cellodextrins into cellobiose and glucose.
Phylogenetic Analysis of Cellulolytic Enzyme Genes from Representative Lineages of Termites and a Related Cockroach
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20072608
The relationship between xylophagous termites and the protists resident in their hindguts is a textbook example of symbiosis. The essential steps of lignocellulose degradation handled by these protists allow the host termites to thrive on a wood diet. There has never been a comprehensive analysis of lignocellulose degradation by protists, however, as it has proven difficult to establish these symbionts in pure culture. The trends in lignocellulose degradation during the evolution of the host lineage are also largely unknown. To clarify these points without any cultivation technique, we performed meta-expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of cDNA libraries originating from symbiotic protistan communities in four termite species and a wood-feeding cockroach. Our results reveal the establishment of a degradation system with multiple enzymes at the ancestral stage of termite-protistan symbiosis, especially GHF5 and 7. According to our phylogenetic analyses, the enzymes comprising the protistan lignocellulose degradation system are coded not only by genes innate to the protists, but also genes acquired by the protists via lateral transfer from bacteria. This gives us a fresh perspective from which to understand the evolutionary dynamics of symbiosis.
High-throughput Recombinant Gene Expression Systems in Pichia Pastoris Using Newly Developed Plasmid Vectors
Plasmid. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20807550
We describe here the construction of Gateway-compatible vectors, pBGP1-DEST and pPICZα-DEST, for rapid and convenient preparation of expression plasmids for production of secretory proteins in Pichia pastoris. Both vectors direct the synthesis of fusion proteins consisting of the N-terminal signal and pro-sequences of Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor, the recognition sites for Kex2 and Ste13 processing proteases, the mature region of a foreign protein flanked by attB1- and attB2-derived sequences at N- and C-termini, respectively, and myc plus hexahistidine tags added at the extreme C-terminus. To test the usefulness of these vectors, production of endo-glucanases and xylanases from termite symbionts, as well as a fungal glucuronoyl esterase, was performed. Enzyme activities were detected in the culture supernatants, indicating that the chimeric proteins were synthesized and secreted as designed.
ECOMICS: a Web-based Toolkit for Investigating the Biomolecular Web in Ecosystems Using a Trans-omics Approach
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22319563
Ecosystems can be conceptually thought of as interconnected environmental and metabolic systems, in which small molecules to macro-molecules interact through diverse networks. State-of-the-art technologies in post-genomic science offer ways to inspect and analyze this biomolecular web using omics-based approaches. Exploring useful genes and enzymes, as well as biomass resources responsible for anabolism and catabolism within ecosystems will contribute to a better understanding of environmental functions and their application to biotechnology. Here we present ECOMICS, a suite of web-based tools for ECosystem trans-OMICS investigation that target metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and meta-metabolomic systems, including biomacromolecular mixtures derived from biomass. ECOMICS is made of four integrated webtools. E-class allows for the sequence-based taxonomic classification of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomal data and the functional classification of selected enzymes. FT2B allows for the digital processing of NMR spectra for downstream metabolic or chemical phenotyping. Bm-Char allows for statistical assignment of specific compounds found in lignocellulose-based biomass, and HetMap is a data matrix generator and correlation calculator that can be applied to trans-omics datasets as analyzed by these and other web tools. This web suite is unique in that it allows for the monitoring of biomass metabolism in a particular environment, i.e., from macromolecular complexes (FT2DB and Bm-Char) to microbial composition and degradation (E-class), and makes possible the understanding of relationships between molecular and microbial elements (HetMap). This website is available to the public domain at: https://database.riken.jp/ecomics/.