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In JoVE (1)
- A High-throughput Automated Platform for the Development of Manufacturing Cell Lines for Protein Therapeutics
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Shuangping Shi in JoVE
A High-throughput Automated Platform for the Development of Manufacturing Cell Lines for Protein Therapeutics
Shuangping Shi, Russ G.G. Condon, Liang Deng, Jason Saunders, Finn Hung, Yung-Shyeng Tsao, Zhong Liu
Merck Research Laboratory, Merck & Co., Inc
A high-throughput, automated platform of manufacturing cell line development for producing protein therapeutics is described. Implementation of BD FACS Aria Cell Sorter, CloneSelect Imager and TECAN Freedom EVO liquid handling system has demonstrated significantly increased processing capacity in cell line development with improved cell line quality and high reproducibility.
Other articles by Shuangping Shi on PubMed
MyD88 Primes Macrophages for Full-scale Activation by Interferon-gamma Yet Mediates Few Responses to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14517275
Macrophages are activated from a resting state by a combination of cytokines and microbial products. Microbes are often sensed through Toll-like receptors signaling through MyD88. We used large-scale microarrays in multiple replicate experiments followed by stringent statistical analysis to compare gene expression in wild-type (WT) and MyD88-/- macrophages. We confirmed key results by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Surprisingly, many genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, IRG-1, IP-10, MIG, RANTES, and interleukin 6 were induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma from 5- to 100-fold less extensively in MyD88-/- macrophages than in WT macrophages. Thus, widespread, full-scale activation of macrophages by IFN-gamma requires MyD88. Analysis of the mechanism revealed that MyD88 mediates a process of self-priming by which resting macrophages produce a low level of tumor necrosis factor. This and other factors lead to basal activation of nuclear factor kappaB, which synergizes with IFN-gamma for gene induction. In contrast, infection by live, virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) activated macrophages largely through MyD88-independent pathways, and macrophages did not need MyD88 to kill Mtb in vitro. Thus, MyD88 plays a dynamic role in resting macrophages that supports IFN-gamma-dependent activation, whereas macrophages can respond to a complex microbial stimulus, the tubercle bacillus, chiefly by other routes.
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Appears to Lack Alpha-ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase and Encodes Pyruvate Dehydrogenase in Widely Separated Genes
Molecular Microbiology. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16045627
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) persists for prolonged periods in macrophages, where it must adapt to metabolic limitations and oxidative/nitrosative stress. However, little is known about Mtb's intermediary metabolism or antioxidant defences. We recently identified a peroxynitrite reductase-peroxidase complex in Mtb that included products of the genes sucB and lpd, which are annotated to encode the dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) components of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KDH). However, we could detect no KDH activity in Mtb lysates, nor could we reconstitute KDH by combining the recombinant proteins SucA (annotated as the E1 component of KDH), SucB and Lpd. We therefore renamed the sucB product dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT). Mtb lysates contained pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which was lost when the dlaT gene (formerly, sucB) was disrupted. Purification of PDH from Mtb yielded AceE, annotated as an E1 component of PDH, along with DlaT and Lpd. Moreover, anti-DlaT antibody coimmunoprecipitated AceE. Finally, recombinant AceE, DlaT and Lpd, although encoded by genes that are widely separated on the chromosome, reconstituted PDH in vitro with Km values typical of bacterial PDH complexes. In sum, Mtb appears to lack KDH. Instead, DlaT and Lpd join with AceE to constitute PDH.
Expression of Many Immunologically Important Genes in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-infected Macrophages is Independent of Both TLR2 and TLR4 but Dependent on IFN-alphabeta Receptor and STAT1
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16116224
Macrophages respond to several subcellular products of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through TLR2 or TLR4. However, primary mouse macrophages respond to viable, virulent Mtb by pathways largely independent of MyD88, the common adaptor molecule for TLRs. Using microarrays, quantitative PCR, and ELISA with gene-disrupted macrophages and mice, we now show that viable Mtb elicits the expression of inducible NO synthase, RANTES, IFN-inducible protein 10, immune-responsive gene 1, and many other key genes in macrophages substantially independently of TLR2, TLR4, their combination, or the TLR adaptors Toll-IL-1R domain-containing adapter protein and Toll-IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta. Mice deficient in both TLR2 and TLR4 handle aerosol infection with viable Mtb as well as congenic controls. Viable Mtb also up-regulates inducible NO synthase, RANTES, IFN-inducible protein 10, and IRG1 in macrophages that lack mannose receptor, complement receptors 3 and 4, type A scavenger receptor, or CD40. These MyD88, TLR2/4-independent transcriptional responses require IFN-alphabetaR and STAT1, but not IFN-gamma. Conversely, those genes whose expression is MyD88 dependent do not depend on IFN-alphabetaR or STAT1. Transcriptional induction of TNF is TLR2/4, MyD88, STAT1, and IFN-alphabetaR independent, but TNF protein release requires the TLR2/4-MyD88 pathway. Thus, macrophages respond transcriptionally to viable Mtb through at least three pathways. TLR2 mediates the responses of a numerically minor set of genes that collectively do not appear to affect the course of infection in mice; regulation of TNF requires TLR2/4 for post-transcriptional control, but not for transcriptional induction; and many responding genes are regulated through an unknown, TLR2/4-independent pathway that may involve IFN-alphabetaR and STAT1.
Immunology. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16236128
Macrophages respond to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by regulating expression of gene products that initiate a host innate response to this micro-organism. In this study, we report that exposure of murine peritoneal macrophages to heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (HK-Mtb) led to an increase in secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) gene expression and protein secretion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. HK-Mtb-induced SLPI mRNA expression was sensitive neither to a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, nor to an actin polymerization blocker, cytochalasin D. Treatment of macrophages with interferon (IFN)-gamma inhibited HK-Mtb-induced SLPI expression. RAW264.7 cells stably expressing SLPI produced a reduced level of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in response to HK-Mtb as compared with mock transfectants. Aerosol infection of mice with live M. tuberculosis resulted in an induction of SLPI gene expression in infected lungs. Macrophages from Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-/- or MyD88-/- mice responded to M. tuberculosis similarly to wild-type macrophages by exhibiting increased SLPI expression. In contrast, macrophages from TLR2-/- mice were incapable of inducing SLPI in response to M. tuberculosis. This induction signifies the presence of a TLR2-dependent but MyD88-independent M. tuberculosis signalling pathway, suggesting involvement of adaptor protein(s) other than MyD88 in M. tuberculosis-mediated induction of SLPI.
Infection and Immunity. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16368957
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has evolved to persist in host macrophages, where it faces a nutrient-poor environment and is exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress. To defend itself against oxidative/nitrosative stress, M. tuberculosis expresses an NADH-dependent peroxidase and peroxynitrite reductase that is encoded by ahpC, ahpD, lpd, and dlaT. In addition to its central role in the peroxynitrite reductase complex, dlaT (Rv2215) also encodes the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of dlaT in the chromosome of H37Rv resulted in a mutant (H37RvDeltadlaT) that displayed phenotypes associated with DlaT's role in metabolism and in defense against nitrosative stress. The H37RvDeltadlaT strain showed retarded growth in vitro and was highly susceptible to killing by acidified sodium nitrite. Mouse macrophages readily killed intracellular H37RvDeltadlaT organisms, and in mice dlaT was required for full virulence.
Biotechnology Journal. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20222103
The productivity of stably transfected cell lines is of critical importance for the manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Various methods have been successfully implemented to increase the production output of mammalian cell cultures. Increasing evidence suggests that optimization of the gene coding sequences of an expression vector can improve specific cell line yield of the recombinant protein. Here we demonstrate that gene optimization substantially enhances antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary cells. When gene optimization was applied to the heavy and light chain genes of a therapeutic antibody, we observed increased antibody production in transient transfection. Elevated heavy chain mRNA level was associated with the increase of antibody production. Further analysis suggested that the increased antibody expression is attributable to enhanced mRNA stability resulting from gene optimization. Gene optimization also led to increased antibody production in stable clones.
Virulence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Depends on Lipoamide Dehydrogenase, a Member of Three Multienzyme Complexes
Cell Host & Microbe. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21238944
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) adapts to persist in a nutritionally limited macrophage compartment. Lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), the third enzyme (E3) in Mtb's pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), also serves as E1 of peroxynitrite reductase/peroxidase (PNR/P), which helps Mtb resist host-reactive nitrogen intermediates. In contrast to Mtb lacking dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), the E2 of PDH and PNR/P, Lpd-deficient Mtb is severely attenuated in wild-type and immunodeficient mice. This suggests that Lpd has a function that DlaT does not share. When DlaT is absent, Mtb upregulates an Lpd-dependent branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH) encoded by pdhA, pdhB, pdhC, and lpdC. Without Lpd, Mtb cannot metabolize branched-chain amino acids and potentially toxic branched-chain intermediates accumulate. Mtb deficient in both DlaT and PdhC phenocopies Lpd-deficient Mtb. Thus, Mtb critically requires BCKADH along with PDH and PNR/P for pathogenesis. These findings position Lpd as a potential target for anti-infectives against Mtb.