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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (18)

Articles by Shui Qing Ye in JoVE

 JoVE General

RNA-seq Analysis of Transcriptomes in Thrombin-treated and Control Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells

1Children's Mercy Hospital and Clinics, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City


JoVE 4393

This protocol presents a complete and detailed procedure to apply RNA-seq, a powerful next-generation DNA sequencing technology, to profile transcriptomes in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells with or without thrombin treatment. This protocol is generalizable to various cells or tissues affected by different reagents or disease states.

Other articles by Shui Qing Ye on PubMed

Microarray, SAGE and Their Applications to Cardiovascular Diseases

The wealth of DNA data generated by the human genome project coupling with recently invented high-throughput gene expression profiling techniques has dramatically sped up the process for biomedical researchers on elucidating the role of genes in human diseases. One powerful method to reveal insight into gene functions is the systematic analysis of gene expression. Two popular high-throughput gene expression technologies, microarray and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) are capable of producing large amounts of gene expression data with the potential of providing novel insights into fundamental disease processes, especially complex syndromes such as cardiovascular disease, whose etiologies are due to multiple genetic factors and their interplay with the environment. Microarray and SAGE have already been used to examine gene expression patterns of cell-culture, animal and human tissues models of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we will first give a brief introduction of microarray and SAGE technologies and point out their limitations. We will then discuss the major discoveries and the new biological insights that have emerged from their applications to cardiovascular diseases. Finally we will touch upon potential challenges and future developments in this area.

An Improved RSP Method to Detect HpaI Polymorphism in the Apolipoprotein C-1 Gene Promoter

An apolipoprotein C1 gene promoter polymorphism (CGTT insertion at position -317) is associated with familial dysbetalipoprotemia, cardiovascular diseases, and Alzheimer's disease. Restriction site polymorphism (RSP) assays were previously established to detect this polymorphism. In this study, we introduce an improved RSP assay to detect this polymorphism.

Orthologous Gene-expression Profiling in Multi-species Models: Search for Candidate Genes

Microarray-driven gene-expression profiles are generally produced and analyzed for a single specific experimental model. We have assessed an analytical approach that simultaneously evaluates multi-species experimental models within a particular biological condition using orthologous genes as linkers for the various Affymetrix microarray platforms on multi-species models of ventilator-associated lung injury. The results suggest that this approach may be a useful tool in the evaluation of biological processes of interest and selection of process-related candidate genes.

Multiple-laboratory Comparison of Microarray Platforms

Microarray technology is a powerful tool for measuring RNA expression for thousands of genes at once. Various studies have been published comparing competing platforms with mixed results: some find agreement, others do not. As the number of researchers starting to use microarrays and the number of cross-platform meta-analysis studies rapidly increases, appropriate platform assessments become more important. Here we present results from a comparison study that offers important improvements over those previously described in the literature. In particular, we noticed that none of the previously published papers consider differences between labs. For this study, a consortium of ten laboratories from the Washington, DC-Baltimore, USA, area was formed to compare data obtained from three widely used platforms using identical RNA samples. We used appropriate statistical analysis to demonstrate that there are relatively large differences in data obtained in labs using the same platform, but that the results from the best-performing labs agree rather well.

Bioinformatic Identification of Novel Early Stress Response Genes in Rodent Models of Lung Injury

Acute lung injury is a complex illness with a high mortality rate (>30%) and often requires the use of mechanical ventilatory support for respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation can lead to clinical deterioration due to augmented lung injury in certain patients, suggesting the potential existence of genetic susceptibility to mechanical stretch (6, 48), the nature of which remains unclear. To identify genes affected by ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), we utilized a bioinformatic-intense candidate gene approach and examined gene expression profiles from rodent VILI models (mouse and rat) using the oligonucleotide microarray platform. To increase statistical power of gene expression analysis, 2,769 mouse/rat orthologous genes identified on RG_U34A and MG_U74Av2 arrays were simultaneously analyzed by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM). This combined ortholog/SAM approach identified 41 up- and 7 downregulated VILI-related candidate genes, results validated by comparable expression levels obtained by either real-time or relative RT-PCR for 15 randomly selected genes. K-mean clustering of 48 VILI-related genes clustered several well-known VILI-associated genes (IL-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, CCL-2, cyclooxygenase-2) with a number of stress-related genes (Myc, Cyr61, Socs3). The only unannotated member of this cluster (n = 14) was RIKEN_1300002F13 EST, an ortholog of the stress-related Gene33/Mig-6 gene. The further evaluation of this candidate strongly suggested its involvement in development of VILI. We speculate that the ortholog-SAM approach is a useful, time- and resource-efficient tool for identification of candidate genes in a variety of complex disease models such as VILI.

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Canine Pre-B-cell Colony-enhancing Factor

During our previous attempt to search for the candidate genes to acute lung injury (ALI), we unexpectedly identified PBEF as the most highly upregulated gene in a canine model of ALI by crosshybridizing canine lung cRNA to the Affymetrix human gene chip HG-U133A. The result suggested that PBEF may be a potential biomarker in ALI. To extend and translate that finding, we have performed the molecular cloning and characterization of canine PBEF cDNA in this study. Deduced amino acid sequence alignment revealed that the PBEF gene is evolutionarily highly conserved, with the canine PBEF protein sequence 96% identical to human PBEF and 94% identical to both murine and rat PBEF counterparts. Canine PBEF protein was successfully expressed both by in vitro transcription coupled with translation in a cell-free system and by transfection of canine PBEF cDNA into the human lung type II alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line A549. The expressed canine PBEF protein was visualized by either an anti-V5 tag peptide polyclonal antibody or an anti-canine PBEF peptide polyclonal antibody. RT-PCR assay indicates that canine PBEF is expressed in canine lung, brain, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, and muscle, with liver showing the highest expression,followed by muscle. Isolation of the canine PBEF cDNA and expression of its recombinant protein may provide molecular tools to study the molecular mechanism of ALI in the canine model and to elucidate the potential role of PBEF as an ALI biomarker.

Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Upregulates Genes of Lipid Biosynthesis in Obese Mice

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition tightly linked to obesity, leads to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during sleep. There is emerging evidence that OSA is independently associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver disease, suggesting that OSA may affect hepatic lipid metabolism. To test this hypothesis, leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice were exposed to CIH during the light phase (9 AM-9 PM) for 12 wk. Liver lipid content and gene expression profile in the liver (Affymetrix 430 GeneChip with real-time PCR validation) were determined on completion of the exposure. CIH caused a 30% increase in triglyceride and phospholipid liver content (P < 0.05), whereas liver cholesterol content was unchanged. Gene expression analysis showed that CIH upregulated multiple genes controlling 1) cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis [malic enzyme and acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase], 2) predominantly fatty acid biosynthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and stearoyl-CoA desaturases 1 and 2), and 3) triglyceride and phospholipid biosynthesis (mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase). A majority of overexpressed genes were transcriptionally regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1, a master regulator of lipogenesis. A 2.8-fold increase in SREBP-1 gene expression in CIH was confirmed by real-time PCR (P = 0.001). Expression of major genes of cholesterol biosynthesis, SREBP-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, was unchanged. In conclusion, we have shown that CIH may exacerbate preexisting fatty liver of obesity via upregulation of the pathways of lipid biosynthesis in the liver.

A Novel Connexin 50 (GJA8) Mutation in a Chinese Family with a Dominant Congenital Pulverulent Nuclear Cataract

To identify the genetic cause responsible for the autosomal dominant hereditary cataract in a Chinese family.

Interactions Between PBEF and Oxidative Stress Proteins--a Potential New Mechanism Underlying PBEF in the Pathogenesis of Acute Lung Injury

Identification of pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) interacting partners may reveal new molecular mechanisms of PBEF in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). The interactions between PBEF and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1(ND1), ferritin light chain and interferon induced transmembrane 3 (IFITM3) in human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells were identified and validated. ND1, ferritin and IFITM3 are involved in oxidative stress and inflammation. Overexpression of PBEF increased its interactions and intracellular oxidative stress, which can be attenuated by rotenone. The interaction modeling between PBEF and ND1 is consistent with the corresponding experimental finding. These interactions may underlie a novel role of PBEF in the pathogenesis of ALI.

Augmentation of Pulmonary Epithelial Cell IL-8 Expression and Permeability by Pre-B-cell Colony Enhancing Factor

Previous studies in our lab have identified Pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF) as a novel biomarker in acute lung injury (ALI). The molecular mechanism of PBEF involvement in the pathogenesis of ALI is still incompletely understood. This study examined the role of PBEF in regulating pulmonary alveolar epithelial cell IL-8 expression and permeability.

Temporal Gene Expression Analysis of Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells Treated with Simvastatin

Increasing evidence indicates that the beneficial "pleiotropic" effects of statins on clinical events involve nonlipid mechanisms including the modification of blood vessel endothelial cell function. However, the involved molecular events and pathways are not completely understood. In the present study, Affymetrix microarrays were used to monitor the temporal gene expression of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) treated with simvastatin (Sim) to gain insight into statins' direct effects on the endothelial function. We isolated and labeled mRNA from HCAEC treated with Sim for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h and hybridized these samples to Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U95Av2 to analyze the temporal gene expression profile. Out of 12,625 genes present on the HG-U95Av2 GeneChip, expression of 5,432 genes was detected. There were 1,475 of 5,432 genes that displayed the differential expression compared to baseline (0 h). Fifty-four genes were upregulated (< or = twofold) while 61 genes were downregulated ( > or = twofold) at 24-48 h after the Sim treatment. Many new target genes and pathways modulated by Sim were uncovered. This study indicates that many aspects of the pleiotropic effect of Sim on the endothelial cell function can be mediated by transcriptional control. Physiological function of 22% of 115 differentially expressed genes in Sim-treated HCAEC are currently unknown. These newly identified genes could be useful for new mechanistic study and new therapeutic modalities. Expressions of 13 out of 18 genes (> 70%) in the cell cycle/proliferation control process were significantly inhibited by the Sim treatment. CDC25B and ITGB4 gene expressions were validated by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Sim's inhibitory effect of on HCAEC growth was confirmed by the measurement of [3H]thymidine incorporation into the DNA synthesis. Further in-depth analysis of this effect may shed light on molecular mechanisms of Sim's beneficial inhibition of neointima formation in the atherosclerotic artery stenosis.

Critical Role of PBEF Expression in Pulmonary Cell Inflammation and Permeability

Previous studies in our lab have identified pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF) as a novel biomarker in acute lung injury. This study continues to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of PBEF in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in pulmonary cell culture models. Our results revealed that IL-1beta induced PBEF expression in pulmonary vascular endothelial cells at the transcriptional level and a -1535 T-variant in the human PBEF gene promoter significantly attenuated its binding to an IL-1beta-induced unknown transcription factor. This may underlie the reduced expression of PBEF and thus the lower susceptibility to acute lung injury in -1535T carriers. Furthermore, overexpression of PBEF significantly augmented IL-8 secretion and mRNA expression by more than 6-fold and 2-fold in A549 cells and HPAEC, respectively. It also significantly augmented IL-1beta-mediated cell permeability by 44% in A549 cells and 65% in endothelial cells. The knockdown of PBEF expression significantly inhibited IL-1beta-stimulated IL-8 secretion and mRNA level by 60% and 70%, respectively, and the knockdown of PBEF expression also significantly attenuated IL-1beta-induced cell permeability by 29% in epithelial cells and 24% in endothelial cells. PBEF expression also affected the expression of two other inflammatory cytokines (IL-16 and CCR3 genes). These results suggest that PBEF is critically involved in pulmonary vascular and epithelial inflammation and permeability, which are hallmark features in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. This study lends further support to our finding that PBEF is a potential new target in acute lung injury.

Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Pulmonary Epithelial Cells by Pre-B-cell Colony-enhancing Factor Via a Nonenzymatic and AP-1-dependent Mechanism

Although our previous studies found Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) as a highly up-regulated gene in acute lung injury that could stimulate expressions of other inflammatory cytokines, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Growing evidence indicates that PBEF is a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase involved in the mammalian salvage pathway of NAD synthesis. This study was designed to determine whether the effect of PBEF to stimulate expressions of inflammatory cytokines depends on its enzymatic activity. We prepared two human PBEF mutant (H247E and H247A) recombinant proteins and overexpressing constructs for their overexpressions in A549 cells and confirmed that enzymatic activities of both mutants were nearly or completely abolished. Two mutants stimulated interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression at both the mRNA level and protein level just as equally effective as the wild-type PBEF did. These effects were due to the increased transcription, not the mRNA stability, of the IL-8 gene. Reporter gene assays and gel shift experiments indicated that AP-1 transcription factor is required to mediate these effects. SB203580, a p38 MAPK pathway inhibitor, and JNK inhibitor 1 can attenuate these effects. Both PBEF mutants similarly stimulated the expression of two other inflammatory cytokines: IL-16 and CCR3. These results indicate that PBEF stimulated expression of IL-8, IL-16, and CCR3 via its non-enzymatic activity. This effect is AP-1-dependent, in part via the p38 MAPK pathway and the JNK pathway. This finding reveals a new insight, which may manifest a novel role of PBEF in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury and other inflammatory disorders.

Neuronal Protective Role of PBEF in a Mouse Model of Cerebral Ischemia

Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) (also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway for mammalian biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). By synthesizing NAD(+), PBEF functions to maintain an energy supply that has critical roles in cell survival. Cerebral ischemia is a major neural disorder with a high percentage of mortality and disability. Ischemia leads to energy depletion and eventually neuronal death and brain damage. This study investigated the role of PBEF in cerebral ischemia using a photothrombosis mouse model. Using immunostaining, we initially determined that PBEF is highly expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells in the mouse brain. To study the role of PBEF in ischemia in vivo, we used PBEF knockout heterozygous (Pbef+/-) mice. We showed that these mice have lower PBEF expression and NAD(+) level than do wild-type (WT) mice. When subjected to photothrombosis, Pbef+/- mice have significantly larger infarct volume than do age-matched WT mice at 24 hours after ischemia. Higher density of degenerating neurons was detected in the penumbra of Pbef+/- mice than in WT mice using Fluoro-Jade B staining. Our study shows that PBEF has a neuronal protective role in cerebral ischemia presumably through enhanced energy metabolism.

Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Human Diseases

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) was first reported as a pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor in 1994 with little notice, but it has received increasing attention in recent years due to accumulating evidence indicating that NAMPT is a pleiotropic protein such as a growth factor, a cytokine, an enzyme and a visfatin. Now, NAMPT has been accepted as an official name of this protein. Because of NAMPT's multiple functions in a variety of physiological processes, their dysregulations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases or conditions such as acute lung injury, aging, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and sepsis. This review will cover the current understanding of NAMPT's structure and functions with an emphasis on recent progress of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase's pathological roles in various human diseases and conditions. Future directions on exploring its Terra incognita will be offered in the end.

Pre-B-cell Colony-enhancing Factor Exerts a Neuronal Protection Through Its Enzymatic Activity and the Reduction of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in in Vitro Ischemic Models

Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) is known as a rate-limiting enzyme that converts nicotinamide (NAM) to NMN in the salvage pathway of mammalian NAD⁺ biosynthesis. Previously we found PBEF is exclusively expressed in neurons in the mouse brain; heterozygous PBEF knockout (Pbef⁺/⁻) mice have larger ischemic lesion than wild type mice in photothrombosis-induced ischemia. For the mechanistic study of neuronal protective role of PBEF, we used in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and glutamate excitotoxicity models of primary cultured neurons in current study. Our results showed that the treatments of neurons with NAM and NAD⁺, the substrate and downstream product of PBEF, respectively, significantly reduced neuronal death after OGD and glutamate excitotoxicity, while treatment of neurons treated with FK866, a PBEF inhibitor, increased neuronal death after OGD. Furthermore, over-expression of human PBEF reduced glutamate excitotoxicity, while over-expression of human PBEF mutants (i.e. H247A and H247E) without enzymatic activity had no effect on neuronal death. We further tested the effect of PBEF on mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Our results show that addition of NAD⁺ and NAM increased mitochondrial biogenesis in neurons after OGD. Over-expression of PBEF in neurons reduced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization following glutamate stimulation, while over-expression of H247A and H247E did not affect mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization. We conclude that PBEF has a neuroprotective effect in ischemia through its enzymatic activity for NAD⁺ production that can ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction.

RNA-seq Reveals Novel Transcriptome of Genes and Their Isoforms in Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells Treated with Thrombin

The dysregulation of vascular endothelial cells by thrombin has been implicated in the development of a number of pathologic disorders such as inflammatory conditions, cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease. However, transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial cells by thrombin is not completely understood. In the present study, Illumina RNA-seq was used to profile the transcriptome in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) treated with thrombin for 6 h to gain insight into thrombin's direct effects on the endothelial function. Out of 100 million total reads from a paired end sequencing assay, 91-94% of the reads were aligned to over 16,000 genes in the reference human genome. Thrombin upregulated 150 known genes and 480 known isoforms, and downregulated 2,190 known genes and 3,574 known isoforms by at least 2 fold. Of note, thrombin upregulated 1,775 previously unknown isoforms and downregulated 12,202 previously unknown isoforms by at least 2 fold. Many genes displayed isoform specific differential expression levels and different usage of transcriptional start sites after the thrombin treatment. The cross comparisons between our RNA-seq data and those of DNA microarray analysis of either 6 h thrombin treated HUVEC or 5 h TNFα treated HMVEC have provided a significant overlapping list of differentially expressed genes, supporting the robust utility of our dataset. Further in-depth follow-up analysis of the transcriptional regulation reported in this study may shed light on molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying thrombin mediated endothelial dysfunction in various diseases and provide new leads of potential therapeutic targets.

RNA-seq Analysis of Synovial Fibroblasts Brings New Insights into Rheumatoid Arthritis

ABSTRACT:

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