In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (24)

Articles by Siamak Djafarzadeh in JoVE

Other articles by Siamak Djafarzadeh on PubMed

RNA-binding Activity of Translation Initiation Factor EIF4G1 from Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

RNA (New York, N.Y.). Jul, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12810920

We identified and mapped RNA-binding sites of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae translation initiation factor eIF4G1 and examined their importance for eIF4G1 function in vitro and in vivo. Yeast eIF4G1 binds to single-stranded RNA with three different sites, the regions of amino acids 1-82 (N terminus), 492-539 (middle), and 883-952 (C terminus). The middle and C-terminal RNA-binding sites represent RS (arginine and serine)-rich domains; the N-terminal site is asparagine-, glutamine- and glycine-rich. The three RNA-binding sites have similar affinity for single-stranded RNA, whereas the affinity for single-stranded RNA full-length eIF4G1 is about 100-fold higher (approximate K(d) of 5 x 10(-8) M). Replacement of the arginine residues in the middle RS site by alanine residues abolishes its RNA-binding activity. Deletion of individual RNA-binding sites shows that eIF4G1 molecules lacking one binding site are still active in supporting growth of yeast cells and translation in vitro, whereas eIF4G1 molecules lacking two or all three RNA-binding sites are strongly impaired or inactive. These data suggest that RNA-binding activity is required for eIF4G1 function.

LDL Transcytosis by Protein Membrane Diffusion

The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. Mar, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14687929

Endothelial cell (EC) cultures of different, selected vascular beds and/or organs were screened for receptor-mediated transport of proteins with a semipermeable filter assay. In SVEC4-10 cells, a mouse lymphoid endothelial cell line, orosomucoid, albumin, insulin and LDL were transcytosed from the apical (luminal) to basal (abluminal) side by a receptor-mediated pathway. Specific LDL transcytosis involved transport of intact LDL. A pathway of degradation of LDL and basal release involved vesicles in transport to lysosomes and amino acid merocrine secretion. This newly described transcellular passage of LDL via lysosomes, as well as the standard pathway, were reduced to 70% by PEG(50)-cholesterol (PEG-Chol). Combined results of temperature-dependence analysis and PEG(50)-cholesterol sensitivity show that two pathways contribute to general LDL transcellular passage. We suggest a mechanism of domain hopping by protein membrane diffusion of receptors as the pathway for intact LDL delivery. Based on theoretical considerations we propose that active transport by protein membrane diffusion can be facilitated by an organizational structure of lipid microdomains and polar cellular organization.

Crystal Structure of Yeast Ypr118w, a Methylthioribose-1-phosphate Isomerase Related to Regulatory EIF2B Subunits

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15215245

Ypr118w is a non-essential, low copy number gene product from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It belongs to the PFAM family PF01008, which contains the alpha-, beta-, and delta-subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2B, as well as proteins of unknown function from all three kingdoms. Recently, one of those latter proteins from Bacillus subtilis has been characterized as a 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase, an enzyme of the methionine salvage pathway. We report here the crystal structure of Ypr118w, which reveals a dimeric protein with two domains and a putative active site cleft. The C-terminal domain resembles ribose-5-phosphate isomerase from Escherichia coli with a similar location of the active site. In vivo, Ypr118w protein is required for yeast cells to grow on methylthioadenosine in the absence of methionine, showing that Ypr118w is involved in the methionine salvage pathway. The crystal structure of Ypr118w reveals for the first time the fold of a PF01008 member and allows a deeper discussion of an enzyme of the methionine salvage pathway, which has in the past attracted interest due to tumor suppression and as a target of aniprotozoal drugs.

Norepinephrine to Increase Blood Pressure in Endotoxaemic Pigs is Associated with Improved Hepatic Mitochondrial Respiration

Critical Care (London, England). 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18625036

Low blood pressure, inadequate tissue oxygen delivery and mitochondrial dysfunction have all been implicated in the development of sepsis-induced organ failure. This study evaluated the effect on liver mitochondrial function of using norepinephrine to increase blood pressure in experimental sepsis.

Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha Induction by Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha, but Not by Toll-like Receptor Agonists, Modulates Cellular Respiration in Cultured Human Hepatocytes

Liver International : Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. Nov, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19744167

Genes encoding for some of the mitochondrial proteins are under the control of the transcriptional factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha), which can accumulate under normoxic conditions in inflammatory states. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a hypoxia mimicking agent), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and toll-like receptor (TLR) -2, -3 and -4 agonists on HIF-1 alpha accumulation, and further on HIF-1 alpha-mediated modulation of mitochondrial respiration in cultured human hepatocytes.

Effect of Fluid Resuscitation on Mortality and Organ Function in Experimental Sepsis Models

Critical Care (London, England). 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19930656

Several recent studies have shown that a positive fluid balance in critical illness is associated with worse outcome. We tested the effects of moderate vs. high-volume resuscitation strategies on mortality, systemic and regional blood flows, mitochondrial respiration, and organ function in two experimental sepsis models.

Effects of TLR Agonists on the Hypoxia-regulated Transcription Factor HIF-1alpha and Dendritic Cell Maturation Under Normoxic Conditions

PloS One. 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20539755

Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that represent an important link between innate and adaptive immunity. Danger signals such as toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists induce maturation of DC leading to a T-cell mediated adaptive immune response. In this study, we show that exogenous as well as endogenous inflammatory stimuli for TLR4 and TLR2 induce the expression of HIF-1alpha in human monocyte-derived DC under normoxic conditions. On the functional level, inhibition of HIF-1alpha using chetomin (CTM), YC-1 and digoxin lead to no consistent effect on MoDC maturation, or cytokine secretion despite having the common effect of blocking HIF-1alpha stabilization or activity through different mechanisms. Stabilization of HIF-1alpha protein by hypoxia or CoCl(2) did not result in maturation of human DC. In addition, we could show that TLR stimulation resulted in an increase of HIF-1alpha controlled VEGF secretion. These results show that stimulation of human MoDC with exogenous as well as endogenous TLR agonists induces the expression of HIF-1alpha in a time-dependent manner. Hypoxia alone does not induce maturation of DC, but is able to augment maturation after TLR ligation. Current evidence suggests that different target genes may be affected by HIF-1alpha under normoxic conditions with physiological roles that differ from those induced by hypoxia.

Toll-like Receptor-3-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cultured Human Hepatocytes

Mitochondrion. Jan, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20691286

Several studies have shown the presence of liver mitochondrial dysfunction during sepsis. TLR3 recognizes viral double-stranded RNA and host endogenous cellular mRNA released from damaged cells. TLR3 ligand amplifies the systemic hyperinflammatory response observed during sepsis and in sepsis RNA escaping from damaged tissues/cells may serve as an endogenous ligand for TLR3 thereby modulating immune responses. This study addressed the hypothesis that TLR3 might regulate mitochondrial function in cultured human hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were exposed to TLR-3 ligand (dsRNA--polyinosine-polycytidylic acid; Poly I:C) and mitochondrial respiration was measured. Poly I:C induced a reduction in maximal mitochondrial respiration of human hepatocytes which was prevented partially by preincubation with cyclosporine A (a mitochondrial permeability transition pore-opening inhibitor). Poly-I:C induced activation of NF-κB, and the mitochondrial dysfunction was accompanied by caspase-8 but not caspase-3 activation and by no major alterations in cellular or mitochondrial ultrastructure.

Dimethyloxalylglycine Stabilizes HIF-1α in Cultured Human Endothelial Cells and Increases Random-pattern Skin Flap Survival in Vivo

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Aug, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21788833

The goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effects of up-regulation of the proangiogenic hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α induced by dimethyloxalylglycine on endothelial cell cultures and on skin flap survival.

Effects of Catecholamines on Hepatic and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration After Prolonged Exposure to Faecal Peritonitis in Pigs

Innate Immunity. Apr, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21525237

Use of norepinephrine to increase blood pressure in septic animals has been associated with increased efficiency of hepatic mitochondrial respiration. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the same effect could be reproduced in isolated hepatic mitochondria after prolonged in vivo exposure to faecal peritonitis. Eighteen pigs were randomized to 27 h of faecal peritonitis and to a control condition (n = 9 each group). At the end, hepatic mitochondria were isolated and incubated for one hour with either norepinephrine or placebo, with and without pretreatment with the specific receptor antagonists prazosin and yohimbine. Mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiration were measured for respiratory chain complexes I and II, and state 3 for complex IV using high-resolution respirometry, and respiratory control ratios were calculated. Additionally, skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration was evaluated after incubation with norepinephrine and dobutamine with and without the respective antagonists (atenolol, propranolol and phentolamine for dobutamine). Faecal peritonitis was characterized by decreasing blood pressure and stroke volume, and maintained systemic oxygen consumption. Neither faecal peritonitis nor any of the drugs or drug combinations had measurable effects on hepatic or skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. Norepinephrine did not improve the efficiency of complex I- and complex II-dependent isolated hepatic mitochondrial respiration [respiratory control ratio (RCR) complex I: 5.6 ± 5.3 (placebo) vs. 5.4 ± 4.6 (norepinephrine) in controls and 2.7 ± 2.1 (placebo) vs. 2.9 ± 1.5 (norepinephrine) in septic animals; RCR complex II: 3.5 ± 2.0 (placebo) vs. 3.5 ± 1.8 (norepinephrine) in controls; 2.3 ± 1.6 (placebo) vs. 2.2 ± 1.1 (norepinephrine) in septic animals]. Prolonged faecal peritonitis did not affect either hepatic or skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. Subsequent incubation of isolated mitochondria with norepinephrine and dobutamine did not significantly influence their respiration.

Cancer Therapy Modulates VEGF Signaling and Viability in Adult Rat Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells and Cardiomyocytes

Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. May, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22326847

This work was motivated by the incomplete characterization of the role of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in the stressed heart in consideration of upcoming cancer treatment options challenging the natural VEGF balance in the myocardium. We tested, if the cytotoxic cancer therapy doxorubicin (Doxo) or the anti-angiogenic therapy sunitinib alters viability and VEGF signaling in primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC) and adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM). ARVM were isolated and cultured in serum-free medium. CMEC were isolated from the left ventricle and used in the second passage. Viability was measured by LDH-release and by MTT-assay, cellular respiration by high-resolution oxymetry. VEGF-A release was measured using a rat specific VEGF-A ELISA-kit. CMEC were characterized by marker proteins including CD31, von Willebrand factor, smooth muscle actin and desmin. Both Doxo and sunitinib led to a dose-dependent reduction of cell viability. Sunitinib treatment caused a significant reduction of complex I and II-dependent respiration in cardiomyocytes and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in CMEC. Endothelial cells up-regulated VEGF-A release after peroxide or Doxo treatment. Doxo induced HIF-1α stabilization and upregulation at clinically relevant concentrations of the cancer therapy. VEGF-A release was abrogated by the inhibition of the Erk1/2 or the MAPKp38 pathway. ARVM did not answer to Doxo-induced stress conditions by the release of VEGF-A as observed in CMEC. VEGF receptor 2 amounts were reduced by Doxo and by sunitinib in a dose-dependent manner in both CMEC and ARVM. In conclusion, these data suggest that cancer therapy with anthracyclines modulates VEGF-A release and its cellular receptors in CMEC and ARVM, and therefore alters paracrine signaling in the myocardium.

The Role of Androgens on Hypoxia-inducible Factor (HIF)-1α-induced Angiogenesis and on the Survival of Ischemically Challenged Skin Flaps in a Rat Model

Microsurgery. Sep, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22707412

Effects of androgens on angiogenesis are controversial. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α promotes expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that stimulates angiogenesis.

Effect of Treatment Delay on Disease Severity and Need for Resuscitation in Porcine Fecal Peritonitis

Critical Care Medicine. Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22890256

Early treatment in sepsis may improve outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the delay in starting resuscitation influences the severity of sepsis and the treatment needed to achieve hemodynamic stability.

Effect of Remifentanil on Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption of Cultured Human Hepatocytes

PloS One. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23028840

During sepsis, liver dysfunction is common, and failure of mitochondria to effectively couple oxygen consumption with energy production has been described. In addition to sepsis, pharmacological agents used to treat septic patients may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. This study addressed the hypothesis that remifentanil interacts with hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption. The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and their isolated mitochondria were exposed to remifentanil, with or without further exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured by high-resolution respirometry, Caspase-3 protein levels by Western blotting, and cytokine levels by ELISA. Inhibitory κBα (IκBα) phosphorylation, measurement of the cellular ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells were analysed using commercial ELISA kits. Maximal cellular respiration increased after one hour of incubation with remifentanil, and phosphorylation of IκBα occurred, denoting stimulation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The effect on cellular respiration was not present at 2, 4, 8 or 16 hours of incubation. Remifentanil increased the isolated mitochondrial respiratory control ratio of complex-I-dependent respiration without interfering with maximal respiration. Preincubation with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone prevented a remifentanil-induced increase in cellular respiration. Remifentanil at 10× higher concentrations than therapeutic reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content without uncoupling oxygen consumption and basal respiration levels. TNF-α exposure reduced respiration of complex-I, -II and -IV, an effect which was prevented by prior remifentanil incubation. Furthermore, prior remifentanil incubation prevented TNF-α-induced IL-6 release of HepG2 cells, and attenuated fragmentation of pro-caspase-3 into cleaved active caspase 3 (an early marker of apoptosis). Our data suggest that remifentanil increases cellular respiration of human hepatocytes and prevents TNF-α-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The results were not explained by uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration.

Increasing Mean Arterial Blood Pressure in Sepsis: Effects on Fluid Balance, Vasopressor Load and Renal Function

Critical Care (London, England). 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23363690

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) targets on needs for resuscitation, organ dysfunction, mitochondrial respiration and inflammatory response in a long-term model of fecal peritonitis.

Mitochondrial Function in Sepsis

European Journal of Clinical Investigation. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23496374

The relevance of mitochondrial dysfunction as to pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction and failure in sepsis is controversial. This focused review evaluates the evidence for impaired mitochondrial function in sepsis.

No Evidence for a Local Renin-angiotensin System in Liver Mitochondria

Scientific Reports. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23959064

The circulating, endocrine renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is important to circulatory homeostasis, while ubiquitous tissue and cellular RAS play diverse roles, including metabolic regulation. Indeed, inhibition of RAS is associated with improved cellular oxidative capacity. Recently it has been suggested that an intra-mitochondrial RAS directly impacts on metabolism. Here we sought to rigorously explore this hypothesis. Radiolabelled ligand-binding and unbiased proteomic approaches were applied to purified mitochondrial sub-fractions from rat liver, and the impact of AngII on mitochondrial function assessed. Whilst high-affinity AngII binding sites were found in the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) fraction, no RAS components could be detected in purified mitochondria. Moreover, AngII had no effect on the function of isolated mitochondria at physiologically relevant concentrations. We thus found no evidence of endogenous mitochondrial AngII production, and conclude that the effects of AngII on cellular energy metabolism are not mediated through its direct binding to mitochondrial targets.

Different Contribution of Splanchnic Organs to Hyperlactatemia in Fecal Peritonitis and Cardiac Tamponade

BioMed Research International. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24228242

Changes in hepatosplanchnic lactate exchange are likely to contribute to hyperlactatemia in sepsis. We hypothesized that septic and cardiogenic shock have different effects on hepatosplanchnic lactate exchange and its contribution to hyperlactatemia.

Angiotensin II in Septic Shock: Effects on Tissue Perfusion, Organ Function, and Mitochondrial Respiration in a Porcine Model of Fecal Peritonitis

Critical Care Medicine. Aug, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24797374

To compare effects of norepinephrine and angiotensin II in experimental sepsis on hemodynamics, organ function, and mitochondrial respiration.

Interference of Angiotensin II and Enalapril with Hepatic Blood Flow Regulation

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25059826

Acute reduction of portal vein blood flow (Qpv) increases hepatic arterial perfusion (Qha) [the hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR)]. Angiotensin II (AT-II) reduces Qpv, but its effect on HABR is not known. We explored interactions of AT-II and enalapril with hepatic blood flow regulation. Twenty healthy anesthetized pigs were randomized to receive AT-II (n = 8) from 5 to 61 ng/kg per min, enalapril (n = 8) from 3 to 24 μg/kg per h, or saline (n = 4). HABR was assessed by occluding portal vein and expressed as 1) ratio between changes in Qha and Qpv, 2) hepatic arterial conductance (Cha). AT-II infusion increased mean arterial blood pressure from 74 (66-77) mmHg to 116 (109-130) mmHg (median, IQR; P < 0.0001) and decreased cardiac output, Qpv, and renal artery flow (-24%, -28% and -45%, respectively). The fraction of cardiac output of Qha, carotid, and femoral flows increased. With enalapril, blood pressure decreased, whereas cardiac output was maintained with flow redistribution favoring hepatic and renal arteries. In AT-II group, dQha/dQpv increased from 0.06 (0.03, 0.17) to 0.24 (0.13, 0.31) (P = 0.002), but Cha during acute portal vein occlusion decreased from 4.3 (1.6, 6.6) to 2.9 (1.2, 3.7) ml/mmHg (P = 0.003). Both variables remained unchanged in the enalapril group and in controls. AT-II infusion reduces portal flow in parallel with cardiac output and induces a dose-dependent redistribution of flow, favoring brain, hepatic artery, and peripheral tissues at the expense of renal perfusion. During HABR, AT-II decreases Cha but increases Qha compensation, likely as result of increased hepatic arterial perfusion pressure. Enalapril had no effect on HABR.

Early Changes of Muscle Membrane Properties in Porcine Faecal Peritonitis

Critical Care (London, England). 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25145497

Sepsis-induced myopathy and critical illness myopathy (CIM) are possible causes of muscle weakness in intensive care patients. They have been attributed to muscle membrane dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate membrane properties in the early stage of experimental sepsis by evaluating muscle excitability.

Dose Response of Endotoxin on Hepatocyte and Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration in Vitro

BioMed Research International. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25649304

Results on mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis are controversial. We aimed to assess effects of LPS at wide dose and time ranges on hepatocytes and isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria.

Changes in Mitochondrial Enzymatic Activities of Monocytes During Prolonged Hypobaric Hypoxia and Influence of Antioxidants: A Randomized Controlled Study

Redox Report : Communications in Free Radical Research. Sep, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25867847

Exposure to high altitudes is associated with oxidative cellular damage due to the increased level of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and altered activity of antioxidant systems. Subjects were submitted to prolonged hypoxia, to evaluate changes in mitochondrial enzyme activities of monocytes and their attenuation by supplementation with antioxidants.

The Effects of Fentanyl on Hepatic Mitochondrial Function

Anesthesia and Analgesia. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27089001

Remifentanil interferes with hepatic mitochondrial function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether hepatic mitochondrial function is affected by fentanyl, a more widely used opioid than remifentanil.

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