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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (46)
- Aging Cell
- Science of Aging Knowledge Environment : SAGE KE
- Trends in Neurosciences
- Circulation Research
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
- Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
- Nature Cell Biology
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Aging Cell
- Trends in Neurosciences
- International Review of Neurobiology
- Science of Aging Knowledge Environment : SAGE KE
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- EMBO Reports
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- PLoS Genetics
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Aging Cell
- PloS One
- PloS One
- WormBook : the Online Review of C. Elegans Biology
- Aging Cell
- Physiological Genomics
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- PLoS Genetics
- PloS One
- PloS One
- Cell Metabolism
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- Experimental Gerontology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Aging Cell
- Cell Metabolism
- Seminars in Cancer Biology
- Current Biology : CB
- PloS One
- Science Translational Medicine
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Articles by Simon Melov in JoVE
Profiling única célula transcricional dos cardiomiócitos de rato adulto
James M. Flynn1, Luis F. Santana2, Simon Melov1
1Buck Institute for Research on Aging, 2Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Washington
Perfil de expressão única célula permite a análise detalhada de expressão gênica de células individuais. Descrevemos métodos para o isolamento dos cardiomiócitos, e preparar a lisados resultando tanto para microarray transcriptoma todo ou qPCR de metas específicas.
Other articles by Simon Melov on PubMed
Aging Cell. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12882341
The oxidative stress theory of aging has become increasingly accepted as playing a role in the aging process, based primarily on a substantial accumulation of circumstantial evidence. In recent years, the hypothesis that mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species play a role in organismal aging has been directly tested in both invertebrate and mammalian model systems. Initial results imply that oxidative damage, specifically the level of superoxide, does play a role in limiting the lifespans of invertebrates such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In mammalian model systems, the effect of oxidative stress on lifespan is less clear, but there is evidence that antioxidant treatment protects against age-related dysfunction, including cognitive decline.
Science of Aging Knowledge Environment : SAGE KE. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 14603016
An article in the current Advance Online Publication section of Nature Genetics reports the results of a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen for genes that, when down-regulated, produce enhanced longevity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The down-regulation of a large number of genes related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function yielded animals with increased life-spans, albeit with some additional deleterious phenotypes in some cases. In this Perspective, I discuss the implications of these results and make a plea for a more integrated approach in assessing the role of mitochondrial function, single gene mutations, and longevity.
Trends in Neurosciences. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11852134
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating age-related neurodegenerative disorder that has been intensively studied over the last several years. In vitro and in vivo studies have led to an understanding of some of the physico-chemical properties of amyloid, a well-characterized hallmark of AD. Clioquinol is a drug that acts on amyloid by perturbing amyloid's metallo-chemistry, and Clioquinol treatment has been shown to be beneficial in a mouse model of AD. This short review examines the recent studies relating to Clioquinol and AD, and anticipates the imminent results of a Phase II trial of Clioquinol in AD, due in March 2002.
Circulation Research. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11884366
The identification of a majority of the polypeptides in mitochondria would be invaluable because they play crucial and diverse roles in many cellular processes and diseases. The endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major limiter of life as illustrated by studies in which the transgenic overexpression in invertebrates of catalytic antioxidant enzymes results in increased lifespans. Mitochondria have received considerable attention as a principal source---and target---of ROS. Mitochondrial oxidative stress has been implicated in heart disease including myocardial preconditioning, ischemia/reperfusion, and other pathologies. In addition, oxidative stress in the mitochondria is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as well as aging itself. The rapidly emerging field of proteomics can provide powerful strategies for the characterization of mitochondrial proteins. Current approaches to mitochondrial proteomics include the creation of detailed catalogues of the protein components in a single sample or the identification of differentially expressed proteins in diseased or physiologically altered samples versus a reference control. It is clear that for any proteomics approach prefractionation of complex protein mixtures is essential to facilitate the identification of low-abundance proteins because the dynamic range of protein abundance within cells has been estimated to be as high as 10(7). The opportunities for identification of proteins directly involved in diseases associated with or caused by mitochondrial dysfunction are compelling. Future efforts will focus on linking genomic array information to actual protein levels in mitochondria.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11976207
During the course of normal metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced from within the respiratory chain of the mitochondria. These ROS have the capacity to oxidize and damage a variety of cellular constituents including lipids, DNA, and proteins. We have taken a genetic and pharmacological approach in delineating the range of molecular targets that can be oxidatively damaged by mitochondrial ROS. Specifically, we use mice that are lacking the mitochondrial form of superoxide dismutase (sod 2(-/-) mice) to better understand the possible phenotypes that can arise from mitochondrial oxidative stress. sod 2(-/-) mice can be used to test the efficacy of antioxidants, and more generally the efficacy of antioxidants against mitochondrial oxidative stress. We have evaluated superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics in this mammalian model of mitochondrial oxidative stress, and have shown a high degree of efficacy in protecting against ROS produced within the mitochondria. Similarly, we have employed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to test the hypothesis that effective antioxidant therapy can prolong the life span of an invertebrate.
The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12200034
Oxidative stress is a ubiquitous phenomena in all cell types, and it is primarily produced in mitochondria which are essential for multicellular life. Oxidative stress targets can be wide ranging and include nucleic acids and a variety of macromolecules. This review discusses the role of oxidative stress in the context of animal models, focusing in particular on animal models of aging, as well as the development of a new class of therapeutic small molecular weight antioxidants that have proven effective in extending the lifespan of a simple invertebrate nematode.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12618016
The advent of microarrays in studying gene expression in aging has created tremendous excitement due to its potential for uncovering molecular mechanisms of aging and age-related disease. However, the appropriate implementation of this technology in the science of aging requires serious attention to methodological detail and statistical rigor. This report highlights discussions from the microarray workshop on aging held at the First Conference on Functional Genomics of Aging in Seville, Spain. The topics discussed by the participants included technical issues relating to the printing of arrays, RNA isolation, cDNA labeling and hybridization, optimal design of microarray experiments, and statistical analysis of these data. Microarray analysis of complex tissues through the use of laser capture microdissection was also discussed.
Nature Cell Biology. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12855956
Most mammalian cells do not divide indefinitely, owing to a process termed replicative senescence. In human cells, replicative senescence is caused by telomere shortening, but murine cells senesce despite having long stable telomeres. Here, we show that the phenotypes of senescent human fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) differ under standard culture conditions, which include 20% oxygen. MEFs did not senesce in physiological (3%) oxygen levels, but underwent a spontaneous event that allowed indefinite proliferation in 20% oxygen. The proliferation and cytogenetic profiles of DNA repair-deficient MEFs suggested that DNA damage limits MEF proliferation in 20% oxygen. Indeed, MEFs accumulated more DNA damage in 20% oxygen than 3% oxygen, and more damage than human fibroblasts in 20% oxygen. Our results identify oxygen sensitivity as a critical difference between mouse and human cells, explaining their proliferative differences in culture, and possibly their different rates of cancer and ageing.
Endogenous Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress: Neurodegeneration, Proteomic Analysis, Specific Respiratory Chain Defects, and Efficacious Antioxidant Therapy in Superoxide Dismutase 2 Null Mice
Journal of Neurochemistry. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14720215
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, it is not yet understood how endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress may result in mitochondrial dysfunction. Most prior studies have tested oxidative stress paradigms in mitochondria through either chemical inhibition of specific components of the respiratory chain, or adding an exogenous insult such as hydrogen peroxide or paraquat to directly damage mitochondria. In contrast, mice that lack mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2 null mice) represent a model of endogenous oxidative stress. SOD2 null mice develop a severe neurological phenotype that includes behavioral defects, a severe spongiform encephalopathy, and a decrease in mitochondrial aconitase activity. We tested the hypothesis that specific components of the respiratory chain in the brain were differentially sensitive to mitochondrial oxidative stress, and whether such sensitivity would lead to neuronal cell death. We carried out proteomic differential display and examined the activities of respiratory chain complexes I, II, III, IV, V, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase in SOD2 null mice in conjunction with efficacious antioxidant treatment and observed differential sensitivities of mitochondrial proteins to oxidative stress. In addition, we observed a striking pattern of neuronal cell death as a result of mitochondrial oxidative stress, and were able to significantly reduce the loss of neurons via antioxidant treatment.
Aging Cell. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15153179
We compare the aging of wild-type and long-lived C. elegans by gene expression profiling of individual nematodes. Using a custom cDNA array, we have characterized the gene expression of 4-5 individuals at 4 distinct ages throughout the adult lifespan of wild-type N2 nematodes, and at the same ages for individuals of the long-lived strain daf-2(e1370). Using statistical tools developed for microarray data analysis, we identify genes that differentiate aging N2 from aging daf-2, as well as classes of genes that change with age in a similar way in both genotypes. Our novel approach of studying individual nematodes provides practical advantages, since it obviates the use of mutants or drugs to block reproduction, as well as the use of stressful mass-culturing procedures, that have been required for previous microarray studies of C. elegans. In addition, this approach has the potential to uncover the molecular variability between individuals of a population, variation that is missed when studying pools of thousands of individuals.
Microscale Fractionation Facilitates Detection of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Alzheimer's Disease Brain Samples
Electrophoresis. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15300776
Fractionation enhances the resolution of proteins with similar characteristics by reducing the number of proteins that comigrate in gels, thus facilitating the detection of lower-abundance proteins and the accurate determination of quantitative and qualitative differences in disease and normal samples. An efficient, reproducible microscale fractionation protocol for complex protein mixtures using novel ion-exchange membrane chromatographic substrates (PerkinElmer, Boston, MA, USA; Vivascience, Carlsbad, CA, USA) is described. The fractionation techniques were used in combination with two-dimensional (2-D) gels and orthogonal matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to identify differentially expressed proteins in brain samples from persons with and without Alzheimer's disease.
Trends in Neurosciences. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15374671
Mitochondria and aging are fast becoming two of the most paired terms in biology. As a crucial nexus for the cell, mitochondria are involved in numerous essential aspects of cell function, from energy production via the respiratory chain to steroid biosynthesis, heme assembly, pyrimidine biosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and apoptosis. Mitochondria are also the main producers of reactive oxygen species within the cell. Theories about aging have revolved around mitochondria for decades, but it is only in the past few years that animal models have started to give significant insights into mitochondria-mediated pathophysiology that might be intimately associated with aging. This review will highlight several new animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction in the context of aging.
International Review of Neurobiology. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15482810
Science of Aging Knowledge Environment : SAGE KE. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15498758
The use of microarrays as a tool to investigate fundamental biological questions has become ubiquitous over the past several years. Microarrays are becoming as common as the polymerase chain reaction or any of the other tools in the molecular biologist's armory. Unlike experiments involving other tools, however, the design and analysis of microarray experiments present some unique problems to molecular biologists, problems with which statisticians have long been familiar. In this overview of microarrays and aging-related research, we will review selected highlights of microarray studies that have been carried out to study aging to date, as well as discuss some of the potential problems that routinely arise during these types of experiments, especially in the context of aging.
Gene Expression Profiling in Mitochondrial Disease: Assessment of Microarray Accuracy by High-throughput Q-PCR
Mitochondrion. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 16120406
Mitochondrial diseases are a heterogeneous array of disorders with a complex etiology. Use of microarrays as a tool to investigate complex human disease is increasingly common, however, a principle drawback of microarrays is their limited dynamic range, due to the poor quantification of weak signals. Although it is generally understood that low-intensity microarray 'spots' may be unreliable, there exists little documentation of their accuracy. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) is frequently used to validate microarray data, yet few Q-PCR validation studies have focused on the accuracy of low-intensity microarray signals. Hence, we have used Q-PCR to systematically assess microarray accuracy as a function of signal strength in a mouse model of mitochondrial disease, the superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) nullizygous mouse. We have focused on a unique category of data--spots with only one weak signal in a two-dye comparative hybridization--and show that such 'high-low' signal intensities are common for differentially expressed genes. This category of differential expression may be more important in mitochondrial disease in which there are often mosaic expression patterns due to the idiosyncratic distribution of mutant mtDNA in heteroplasmic individuals. Using RNA from the SOD2 mouse, we found that when spotted cDNA microarray data are filtered for quality (low variance between many technical replicates) and spot intensity (above a negative control threshold in both channels), there is an excellent quantitative concordance with Q-PCR (R2 = 0.94). The accuracy of gene expression ratios from low-intensity spots (R2 = 0.27) and 'high-low' spots (R2 = 0.32) is considerably lower. Our results should serve as guidelines for microarray interpretation and the selection of genes for validation in mitochondrial disorders.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16127459
The abnormal accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in the form of senile (or amyloid) plaques is one of the main characteristics of Alzheimer disease (AD). Both cholesterol and Cu2+ have been implicated in AD pathogenesis and plaque formation. Abeta binds Cu2+ with very high affinity, forming a redox-active complex that catalyzes H2O2 production from O2 and cholesterol. Here we show that Abeta:Cu2+ complexes oxidize cholesterol selectively at the C-3 hydroxyl group, catalytically producing 4-cholesten-3-one and therefore mimicking the activity of cholesterol oxidase, which is implicated in cardiovascular disease. Abeta toxicity in neuronal cultures correlated with this activity, which was inhibited by Cu2+ chelators including clioquinol. Cell death induced by staurosporine or H2O2 did not elevate 4-cholesten-3-one levels. Brain tissue from AD subjects had 98% more 4-cholesten-3-one than tissue from age-matched control subjects. We observed a similar increase in the brains of Tg2576 transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic littermates; the increase was inhibited by in vivo treatment with clioquinol, which suggests that brain Abeta accumulation elevates 4-cholesten-3-one levels in AD. Cu2+-mediated oxidation of cholesterol may be a pathogenic mechanism common to atherosclerosis and AD.
BioTechniques. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16235574
EMBO Reports. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16264422
Mice Transgenic for Alzheimer Disease Beta-amyloid Develop Lens Cataracts That Are Rescued by Antioxidant Treatment
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15607908
Alzheimer disease is characterized by cerebral Abeta deposition, which we have recently discovered occurs also in the lens as cataracts in Alzheimer disease patients. Here we report the presence of significantly increased cataracts in the lenses of an Abeta-transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer disease and their amelioration upon treatment with EUK-189, a synthetic SOD/catalase mimetic. These data support an oxidative etiology for AD-associated lens cataracts and their potential to be treated preventatively with antioxidants.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15964507
The majority of cellular superoxide is generated in the mitochondria as a by-product of normal oxidative metabolism. In the mitochondria, superoxide is detoxified by manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2). Mice lacking SOD2 demonstrate a multifaceted neonatal lethal phenotype, including a spongiform encephalopathy that is preventable through antioxidant treatment. The molecular events behind the observed pathology in the cortex of these mice are unknown. We hypothesized that the lack of SOD2 would result in significant changes in cortical gene expression and that therapeutically beneficial antioxidant treatment would normalize the expression of some genes, providing insight into the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress results in neurodegeneration. We report the identification of gene expression profiles associated with this paradigm, which characterize the degree of response to the pharmacologic intervention. We have identified specific pathways targeted by endogenous oxidative stress, including glutathione metabolism, iron metabolism, and cell-survival pathways centering on the kinase AKT. The normalization of expression of some of these pathways by antioxidant treatment suggests approaches to treating disease in which endogenous oxidative stress plays a role.
Hyperplasia, Reduced E-cadherin Expression, and Developmental Arrest in Mammary Glands Oxidatively Stressed by Loss of Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase
Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland). Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16085231
To investigate the dysregulating effect of excess oxidative stress on mammary gland development, mammary anlage from newborn female mice with normal (+/+) or absent (null, -/-) manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) were excised and implanted under the renal capsule of normal host female nude mice with/without concurrent estrogen supplementation. After 30 days the transplanted glands were excised for wholemount, microscopic and immunohistochemical evaluation. In contrast to the normal growth and maturation of transplanted SOD2+/+ glands, SOD2-/- glands showed arrested development, reduced ductal outgrowth and branching, and absent lumen. These hypomorphic SOD2-/- ducts contained hyperplastic epithelium with increased Ki-67 labelling, loss of E-cadherin expression, and disorganized p63 and cytokeratin (K)-14 expressing basal and myoepithelial components. Estrogen treatment failed to upregulate progesterone receptor or normalize development. These findings suggest that excess oxidative stress from loss of SOD2 function can arrest mammary gland maturation and induce hyperplastic epithelium with early premalignant features.
Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Mice Lacking Superoxide Dismutase 2: Attenuation Via Antioxidant Treatment
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16326710
Mice that lack the mitochondrial form of superoxide dismutase (SOD2) incur severe pathologies and mitochondrial deficiencies, including major depletion of complex II, as a consequence of buildup of endogenous reactive oxygen species (Melov, S., Coskun, P., Patel, M., Tuinstra, R., Cottrell, B., Jun, A. S., Zastawny, T. H., Dizdaroglu, M., Goodman, S. I., Huang, T. T., Miziorko, H., Epstein, C. J., and Wallace, D. C. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 96, 846-851 and Li, Y., Huang, T. T., Carlson, E. J., Melov, S., Ursell, P. C., Olson, J. L., Noble, L. J., Yoshimura, M. P., Berger, C., Chan, P. H., Wallace, D. C., and Epstein, C. J. (1995) Nat. Genet. 11, 376-381). These problems can be greatly attenuated or rescued by synthetic antioxidant treatment, such as with the catalytic antioxidant EUK189 (Hinerfeld, D., Traini, M. D., Weinberger, R. P., Cochran, B., Doctrow, S. R., Harry, J., and Melov, S. (2004) J. Neurochem. 88, 657-667). We have used heart mitochondria from sod2 null mice to better understand mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production both in the absence of SOD2 and following in vivo antioxidant treatment. Isolated heart mitochondria from 5-day-old sod2 null animals respiring on the complex II substrate succinate exhibited statistically significant higher levels of mitochondrial O2* (157%, p < 0.01) but significantly less H2O2 (33%, p < 0.001) than wild type littermates. Treatment of sod2 nullizygous mice with EUK189 proportionately increased the levels of complex II and H2O2. Increased production of O2* resulting from complex II normalization had no effect on steady state levels due to the rapid conversion to H2O2, a process presumably aided by the presence of the EUK189, an SOD mimetic.
Pol II-expressed ShRNA Knocks Down Sod2 Gene Expression and Causes Phenotypes of the Gene Knockout in Mice
PLoS Genetics. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16450009
RNA interference (RNAi) has been used increasingly for reverse genetics in invertebrates and mammalian cells, and has the potential to become an alternative to gene knockout technology in mammals. Thus far, only RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-expressed short hairpin RNA (shRNA) has been used to make shRNA-expressing transgenic mice. However, widespread knockdown and induction of phenotypes of gene knockout in postnatal mice have not been demonstrated. Previous studies have shown that Pol II synthesizes micro RNAs (miRNAs)-the endogenous shRNAs that carry out gene silencing function. To achieve efficient gene knockdown in mammals and to generate phenotypes of gene knockout, we designed a construct in which a Pol II (ubiquitin C) promoter drove the expression of an shRNA with a structure that mimics human miRNA miR-30a. Two transgenic lines showed widespread and sustained shRNA expression, and efficient knockdown of the target gene Sod2. These mice were viable but with phenotypes of SOD2 deficiency. Bigenic heterozygous mice generated by crossing these two lines showed nearly undetectable target gene expression and phenotypes consistent with the target gene knockout, including slow growth, fatty liver, dilated cardiomyopathy, and premature death. This approach opens the door of RNAi to a wide array of well-established Pol II transgenic strategies and offers a technically simpler, cheaper, and quicker alternative to gene knockout by homologous recombination for reverse genetics in mice and other mammalian species.
Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in the Weaver Mouse is Mediated Via Neuroinflammation and Alleviated by Minocycline Administration
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17093086
The murine mutant weaver (gene symbol, wv) mouse, which carries a mutation in the gene encoding the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel Girk2, exhibits a diverse range of defects as a result of postnatal cell death in several different brain neuron subtypes. Loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons in the weaver, unlike cerebellar granule neuronal loss, is via a noncaspase-mediated mechanism. Here, we present data demonstrating that degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in weaver is mediated via neuroinflammation. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the anti-inflammatory agent minocycline attenuates nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This has novel implications for the use of the weaver mouse as a model for Parkinson's disease, which has been associated with increased neuroinflammation.
Dramatic Age-related Changes in Nuclear and Genome Copy Number in the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans
Aging Cell. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17286610
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become one of the most widely used model systems for the study of aging, yet very little is known about how C. elegans age. The development of the worm, from egg to young adult has been completely mapped at the cellular level, but such detailed studies have not been extended throughout the adult lifespan. Numerous single gene mutations, drug treatments and environmental manipulations have been found to extend worm lifespan. To interpret the mechanism of action of such aging interventions, studies to characterize normal worm aging, similar to those used to study worm development are necessary. We have used 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole hydrochloride staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to investigate the integrity of nuclei and quantify the nuclear genome copy number of C. elegans with age. We report both systematic loss of nuclei or nuclear DNA, as well as dramatic age-related changes in nuclear genome copy number. These changes are delayed or attenuated in long-lived daf-2 mutants. We propose that these changes are important pathobiological characteristics of aging nematodes.
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17520024
Human aging is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and functional impairment (sarcopenia). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to sarcopenia. We evaluated whether healthy aging was associated with a transcriptional profile reflecting mitochondrial impairment and whether resistance exercise could reverse this signature to that approximating a younger physiological age. Skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy older (N = 25) and younger (N = 26) adult men and women were compared using gene expression profiling, and a subset of these were related to measurements of muscle strength. 14 of the older adults had muscle samples taken before and after a six-month resistance exercise-training program. Before exercise training, older adults were 59% weaker than younger, but after six months of training in older adults, strength improved significantly (P<0.001) such that they were only 38% lower than young adults. As a consequence of age, we found 596 genes differentially expressed using a false discovery rate cut-off of 5%. Prior to the exercise training, the transcriptome profile showed a dramatic enrichment of genes associated with mitochondrial function with age. However, following exercise training the transcriptional signature of aging was markedly reversed back to that of younger levels for most genes that were affected by both age and exercise. We conclude that healthy older adults show evidence of mitochondrial impairment and muscle weakness, but that this can be partially reversed at the phenotypic level, and substantially reversed at the transcriptome level, following six months of resistance exercise training.
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17579710
Age-related neurodegenerative disease has been mechanistically linked with mitochondrial dysfunction via damage from reactive oxygen species produced within the cell. We determined whether increased mitochondrial oxidative stress could modulate or regulate two of the key neurochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD): tau phosphorylation, and beta-amyloid deposition. Mice lacking superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) die within the first week of life, and develop a complex heterogeneous phenotype arising from mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Treatment of these mice with catalytic antioxidants increases their lifespan and rescues the peripheral phenotypes, while uncovering central nervous system pathology. We examined sod2 null mice differentially treated with high and low doses of a catalytic antioxidant and observed striking elevations in the levels of tau phosphorylation (at Ser-396 and other phospho-epitopes of tau) in the low-dose antioxidant treated mice at AD-associated residues. This hyperphosphorylation of tau was prevented with an increased dose of the antioxidant, previously reported to be sufficient to prevent neuropathology. We then genetically combined a well-characterized mouse model of AD (Tg2576) with heterozygous sod2 knockout mice to study the interactions between mitochondrial oxidative stress and cerebral Ass load. We found that mitochondrial SOD2 deficiency exacerbates amyloid burden and significantly reduces metal levels in the brain, while increasing levels of Ser-396 phosphorylated tau. These findings mechanistically link mitochondrial oxidative stress with the pathological features of AD.
WormBook : the Online Review of C. Elegans Biology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18050504
Great inroads into the understanding of aging have been made using C. elegans as a model system. Several genes have been identified that, when mutated, can extend lifespan. Yet, much about aging remains a mystery, and new technologies that allow the simultaneous assay of expression levels of thousands of genes have been applied to the question of how and why aging might occur. With correct experimental design and statistical analysis, differential gene expression between two or more populations can be obtained with high confidence. The ability to survey the entire genome in an unbiased way is a great asset for the study of complex biological phenomena such as aging. Aging undoubtedly involves changes in multiple genes involved in multiple processes, some of which may not yet be known. Gene expression profiling of wild type aging, and of strains with increased life spans, has provided some insight into potential mechanisms, and more can be expected in the future.
Aging Cell. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18778409
There has been a great deal of interest in identifying potential biomarkers of aging. Biomarkers of aging would be useful to predict potential vulnerabilities in an individual that may arise well before they are chronologically expected, due to idiosyncratic aging rates that occur between individuals. Prior attempts to identify biomarkers of aging have often relied on the comparisons of long-lived animals to a wild-type control. However, the effect of interventions in model systems that prolong lifespan (such as single gene mutations or caloric restriction) can sometimes be difficult to interpret due to the manipulation itself having multiple unforeseen consequences on physiology, unrelated to aging itself. The search for predictive biomarkers of aging therefore is problematic, and the identification of metrics that can be used to predict either physiological or chronological age would be of great value. One methodology that has been used to identify biomarkers for numerous pathologies is gene expression profiling. Here, we report whole-genome expression profiles of individual wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans covering the entire wild-type nematode lifespan. Individual nematodes were scored for either age-related behavioral phenotypes, or survival, and then subsequently associated with their respective gene expression profiles. This facilitated the identification of transcriptional profiles that were highly associated with either physiological or chronological age. Overall, our approach serves as a paradigm for identifying potential biomarkers of aging in higher organisms that can be repeatedly sampled throughout their lifespan.
Global and Targeted Gene Expression and Protein Content in Skeletal Muscle of Young Men Following Short-term Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation
Physiological Genomics. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17957000
Creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation has been shown to increase fat-free mass and muscle power output possibly via cell swelling. Little is known about the cellular response to CrM. We investigated the effect of short-term CrM supplementation on global and targeted mRNA expression and protein content in human skeletal muscle. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind design, 12 young, healthy, nonobese men were supplemented with either a placebo (PL) or CrM (loading phase, 20 g/day x 3 days; maintenance phase, 5 g/day x 7 days) for 10 days. Following a 28-day washout period, subjects were put on the alternate supplementation for 10 days. Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained and were assessed for mRNA expression (cDNA microarrays + real-time PCR) and protein content (Kinetworks KPKS 1.0 Protein Kinase screen). CrM supplementation significantly increased fat-free mass, total body water, and body weight of the participants (P < 0.05). Also, CrM supplementation significantly upregulated (1.3- to 5.0-fold) the mRNA content of genes and protein content of kinases involved in osmosensing and signal transduction, cytoskeleton remodeling, protein and glycogen synthesis regulation, satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA replication and repair, RNA transcription control, and cell survival. We are the first to report this large-scale gene expression in the skeletal muscle with short-term CrM supplementation, a response that suggests changes in cellular osmolarity.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17959600
Lithium (Li(+)) has been used to treat mood affect disorders, including bipolar, for decades. This drug is neuroprotective and has several identified molecular targets. However, it has a narrow therapeutic range and the one or more underlying mechanisms of its therapeutic action are not understood. Here we describe a pharmacogenetic study of Li(+) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Exposure to Li(+) at clinically relevant concentrations throughout adulthood increases survival during normal aging (up to 46% median increase). Longevity is extended via a novel mechanism with altered expression of genes encoding nucleosome-associated functions. Li(+) treatment results in reduced expression of the worm ortholog of LSD-1 (T08D10.2), a histone demethylase; knockdown by RNA interference of T08D10.2 is sufficient to extend longevity ( approximately 25% median increase), suggesting Li(+) regulates survival by modulating histone methylation and chromatin structure.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19038329
Lymphomas adapt to their environment by undergoing a complex series of biochemical changes that are currently not well understood. To better define these changes, we examined the gene expression and gene ontology profiles of thymic lymphomas from a commonly used model of carcinogenesis, the p53(-/-) mouse. These tumors show a highly significant upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial protein translation, mtDNA copy number, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant defenses, proton transport, ATP synthesis, hypoxia response, and glycolysis, indicating a fundamental change in the bioenergetic profile of the transformed T cell. Our results suggest that T cell tumorigenesis involves a simultaneous upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration, and glycolytic activity. These processes would allow cells to adapt to the stressful tumor environment by facilitating energy production and thereby promote tumor growth. Understanding these adaptations is likely to result in improved therapeutic strategies for this tumor type.
A Human Protein Interaction Network Shows Conservation of Aging Processes Between Human and Invertebrate Species
PLoS Genetics. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19293945
We have mapped a protein interaction network of human homologs of proteins that modify longevity in invertebrate species. This network is derived from a proteome-scale human protein interaction Core Network generated through unbiased high-throughput yeast two-hybrid searches. The longevity network is composed of 175 human homologs of proteins known to confer increased longevity through loss of function in yeast, nematode, or fly, and 2,163 additional human proteins that interact with these homologs. Overall, the network consists of 3,271 binary interactions among 2,338 unique proteins. A comparison of the average node degree of the human longevity homologs with random sets of proteins in the Core Network indicates that human homologs of longevity proteins are highly connected hubs with a mean node degree of 18.8 partners. Shortest path length analysis shows that proteins in this network are significantly more connected than would be expected by chance. To examine the relationship of this network to human aging phenotypes, we compared the genes encoding longevity network proteins to genes known to be changed transcriptionally during aging in human muscle. In the case of both the longevity protein homologs and their interactors, we observed enrichments for differentially expressed genes in the network. To determine whether homologs of human longevity interacting proteins can modulate life span in invertebrates, homologs of 18 human FRAP1 interacting proteins showing significant changes in human aging muscle were tested for effects on nematode life span using RNAi. Of 18 genes tested, 33% extended life span when knocked-down in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations indicate that a broad class of longevity genes identified in invertebrate models of aging have relevance to human aging. They also indicate that the longevity protein interaction network presented here is enriched for novel conserved longevity proteins.
Limb Immobilization Induces a Coordinate Down-regulation of Mitochondrial and Other Metabolic Pathways in Men and Women
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19654872
Advancements in animal models and cell culture techniques have been invaluable in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate muscle atrophy. However, few studies have examined muscle atrophy in humans using modern experimental techniques. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in global gene transcription during immobilization-induced muscle atrophy in humans and then explore the effects of the most prominent transcriptional alterations on protein expression and function. Healthy men and women (N = 24) were subjected to two weeks of unilateral limb immobilization, with muscle biopsies obtained before, after 48 hours (48 H) and 14 days (14 D) of immobilization. Muscle cross sectional area (approximately 5%) and strength (10-20%) were significantly reduced in men and women (approximately 5% and 10-20%, respectively) after 14 D of immobilization. Micro-array analyses of total RNA extracted from biopsy samples at 48 H and 14 D uncovered 575 and 3,128 probes, respectively, which were significantly altered during immobilization. As a group, genes involved in mitochondrial bioenergetics and carbohydrate metabolism were predominant features at both 48 H and 14 D, with genes involved in protein synthesis and degradation significantly down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, at 14 D of muscle atrophy. There was also a significant decrease in the protein content of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, and the enzyme activity of cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase after 14 D of immobilization. Furthermore, protein ubiquitination was significantly increased at 48 H but not 14 D of immobilization. These results suggest that transcriptional and post-transcriptional suppression of mitochondrial processes is sustained throughout 14 D of immobilization, while protein ubiquitination plays an early but transient role in muscle atrophy following short-term immobilization in humans.
Eccentric Exercise Activates Novel Transcriptional Regulation of Hypertrophic Signaling Pathways Not Affected by Hormone Changes
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20502695
Unaccustomed eccentric exercise damages skeletal muscle tissue, activating mechanisms of recovery and remodeling that may be influenced by the female sex hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Using high density oligonucleotide based microarrays, we screened for differences in mRNA expression caused by E2 and eccentric exercise. After random assignment to 8 days of either placebo (CON) or E2 (EXP), eighteen men performed 150 single-leg eccentric contractions. Muscle biopsies were collected at baseline (BL), following supplementation (PS), +3 hours (3H) and +48 hours (48H) after exercise. Serum E2 concentrations increased significantly with supplementation (P<0.001) but did not affect microarray results. Exercise led to early transcriptional changes in striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), Rho family GTPase 3 (RND3), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulation and the downstream transcription factor FOS. Targeted RT-PCR analysis identified concurrent induction of negative regulators of calcineurin signaling RCAN (P<0.001) and HMOX1 (P = 0.009). Protein contents were elevated for RND3 at 3H (P = 0.02) and FOS at 48H (P<0.05). These findings indicate that early RhoA and NFAT signaling and regulation are altered following exercise for muscle remodeling and repair, but are not affected by E2.
Insulin-like Signaling Determines Survival During Stress Via Posttranscriptional Mechanisms in C. Elegans
Cell Metabolism. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20816092
The insulin-like signaling (ILS) pathway regulates metabolism and is known to modulate adult life span in C. elegans. Altered stress responses and resistance to a wide range of stressors are also associated with changes in ILS and contribute to enhanced longevity. The transcription factors DAF-16 and HSF-1 are key effectors of the longevity phenotype. We demonstrate that increased intrinsic thermotolerance, due to lower ILS, is not dependent on stress-induced transcriptional responses but instead requires active protein translation. Translation profiling experiments reveal genes that are posttranscriptionally regulated in response to altered ILS during heat shock in a DAF-16-dependent manner. Furthermore, several novel proteins are specifically required for ILS effects on thermotolerance. We propose that lowered ILS results in metabolic and physiological changes. These DAF-16-induced changes precondition a translational response under acute stress to modulate survival.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21215798
Presynaptic nerve terminals require high levels of ATP for the maintenance of synaptic function. Failure of synaptic mitochondria to generate adequate ATP has been implicated as a causative event preceding the loss of synaptic networks in neurodegenerative disease. Endogenous oxidative stress has often been postulated as an etiological basis for this pathology, but has been difficult to test in vivo. Inactivation of the superoxide dismutase gene (Sod2) encoding the chief defense enzyme against mitochondrial superoxide radicals results in neonatal lethality. However, intervention with an SOD mimetic extends the life span of this model and uncovers a neurodegenerative phenotype providing a unique model for the examination of in vivo oxidative stress. We present here studies on synaptic termini isolated from the frontal cortex of Sod2 null mice demonstrating impaired bioenergetic function as a result of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cortical synaptosomes from Sod2 null mice demonstrate a severe decline in mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in response to physiological demand induced by mitochondrial respiratory chain uncoupling with FCCP or by plasma membrane depolarization induced by 4-aminopyridine treatment. However, Sod2 null animals compensate for impaired oxidative metabolism in part by the Pasteur effect allowing for normal neurotransmitter release at the synapse, setting up a potentially detrimental energetic paradigm. The results of this study demonstrate that high-throughput respirometry is a facile method for analyzing specific regions of the brain in transgenic models and can uncover bioenergetic deficits in subcellular regions due to endogenous oxidative stress.
Experimental Gerontology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21296648
Medicinal benefits of Allium vegetables, such as garlic, have been noted throughout recorded history, including protection against cancer and cardiovascular disease. We now demonstrate that garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide (DATS) increases longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans by affecting the skn-1 pathway. Treatment of worms with 5-10 μM DATS increased worm mean lifespan even when treatment is started during young adulthood. To explore the mechanisms involved in the DATS-mediated increase in longevity, we treated daf-2, daf-16, and eat-2 mutants and found that DATS increased the lifespan of daf-2 and daf-16 mutants, but not the eat-2 mutants. Microarray experiments demonstrated that a number of genes regulated by oxidative stress and the skn-1 transcription factor were also changed by DATS treatment. Consistently, DATS treatment leads to the induction of the skn-1 target gene gst-4, and this induction was dependent on skn-1. We also found that the effects of DATS on worm lifespan depend on skn-1 activity in both in the intestine and ASI neurons. Together our data suggest that DATS is able to increase worm lifespan by enhancing the function of the pro-longevity transcription factor skn-1.
Endurance Exercise Rescues Progeroid Aging and Induces Systemic Mitochondrial Rejuvenation in MtDNA Mutator Mice
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21368114
A causal role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis in mammalian aging is supported by recent studies demonstrating that the mtDNA mutator mouse, harboring a defect in the proofreading-exonuclease activity of mitochondrial polymerase gamma, exhibits accelerated aging phenotypes characteristic of human aging, systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, multisystem pathology, and reduced lifespan. Epidemiologic studies in humans have demonstrated that endurance training reduces the risk of chronic diseases and extends life expectancy. Whether endurance exercise can attenuate the cumulative systemic decline observed in aging remains elusive. Here we show that 5 mo of endurance exercise induced systemic mitochondrial biogenesis, prevented mtDNA depletion and mutations, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and respiratory chain assembly, restored mitochondrial morphology, and blunted pathological levels of apoptosis in multiple tissues of mtDNA mutator mice. These adaptations conferred complete phenotypic protection, reduced multisystem pathology, and prevented premature mortality in these mice. The systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation through endurance exercise promises to be an effective therapeutic approach to mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and related comorbidities.
Aging Cell. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21501374
The roundworm C. elegans is widely used as an aging model, with hundreds of genes identified that modulate aging (Kaeberlein et al., 2002. Mech. Ageing Dev.123, 1115-1119). The development and bodyplan of the 959 cells comprising the adult have been well described and established for more than 25 years (Sulston & Horvitz, 1977. Dev. Biol.56, 110-156; Sulston et al., 1983. Dev. Biol.100, 64-119.). However, morphological changes with age in this optically transparent animal are less well understood, with only a handful of studies investigating the pathobiology of aging. Age-related changes in muscle (Herndon et al., 2002. Nature419, 808-814), neurons (Herndon et al., 2002), intestine and yolk granules (Garigan et al., 2002. Genetics161, 1101-1112; Herndon et al., 2002), nuclear architecture (Haithcock et al., 2005. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA102, 16690-16695), tail nuclei (Golden et al., 2007. Aging Cell6, 179-188), and the germline (Golden et al., 2007) have been observed via a variety of traditional relatively low-throughput methods. We report here a number of novel approaches to study the pathobiology of aging C. elegans. We combined histological staining of serial-sectioned tissues, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy with 3D volumetric reconstructions and characterized age-related morphological changes in multiple wild-type individuals at different ages. This enabled us to identify several novel pathologies with age in the C. elegans intestine, including the loss of critical nuclei, the degradation of intestinal microvilli, changes in the size, shape, and cytoplasmic contents of the intestine, and altered morphologies caused by ingested bacteria. The three-dimensional models we have created of tissues and cellular components from multiple individuals of different ages represent a unique resource to demonstrate global heterogeneity of a multicellular organism.
Life Span Extension Via EIF4G Inhibition is Mediated by Posttranscriptional Remodeling of Stress Response Gene Expression in C. Elegans
Cell Metabolism. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21723504
Reducing protein synthesis slows growth and development but can increase adult life span. We demonstrate that knockdown of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G), which is downregulated during starvation and dauer state, results in differential translation of genes important for growth and longevity in C. elegans. Genome-wide mRNA translation state analysis showed that inhibition of IFG-1, the C. elegans ortholog of eIF4G, results in a relative increase in ribosomal loading and translation of stress response genes. Some of these genes are required for life span extension when IFG-1 is inhibited. Furthermore, enhanced ribosomal loading of certain mRNAs upon IFG-1 inhibition was correlated with increased mRNA length. This association was supported by changes in the proteome assayed via quantitative mass spectrometry. Our results suggest that IFG-1 mediates the antagonistic effects on growth and somatic maintenance by regulating mRNA translation of particular mRNAs based, in part, on transcript length.
Seminars in Cancer Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21925603
Cellular senescence is an established cellular stress response that acts primarily to prevent the proliferation of cells that experience potentially oncogenic stress. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that the senescence response is a complex phenotype, which has a variety of cell non-autonomous effects. The senescence-associated secretory phenotype, or SASP, entails the secretion of numerous cytokines, growth factors and proteases. The SASP can have beneficial or detrimental effects, depending on the physiological context. One recently described beneficial effect is to aid tissue repair. Among the detrimental effects, the SASP can disrupt normal tissue structures and function, and, ironically, can promote malignant phenotypes in nearby cells. These detrimental effects in many ways recapitulate the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies that develop during aging. Because the SASP is largely a response to genomic or epigenomic damage, we suggest it may be a model for a cellular damage response that can propagate damage signals both within and among tissues. We propose that both the degenerative and hyperplastic diseases of aging may be fueled by such damage signals.
Current Biology : CB. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21959160
Understanding why and how senescence evolved is of great importance in investigating the multiple, complex mechanisms that influence the course of ageing in humans and other organisms. Compelling arguments eliminate the idea that death is generally programmed by genes for ageing, but there is still a widespread tendency to interpret data in terms of loosely defined 'age regulation', which does not usually make either evolutionary or mechanistic sense. This review critically addresses the role of natural selection in shaping ageing within the life history and examines the implications for research on genetic pathways that influence the life span. It is recognised that in exceptional circumstances the possibility exists for selection to favour limiting survival. In acknowledging that, at least in theory, ageing might occasionally be adaptive, however, the high barriers to validating actual instances of adaptive ageing are made clear.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22174832
Two of the greatest challenges in regenerative medicine today remain (1) the ability to culture human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at a scale sufficient to satisfy clinical demand and (2) the ability to eliminate teratoma-forming cells from preparations of cells with clinically desirable phenotypes. Understanding the pathways governing apoptosis in hESCs may provide a means to address these issues. Limiting apoptosis could aid scaling efforts, whereas triggering selective apoptosis in hESCs could eliminate unwanted teratoma-forming cells. We focus here on the BCL-2 family of proteins, which regulate mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. We used quantitative PCR to compare the steady-state expression profile of all human BCL-2 family members in hESCs with that of human primary cells from various origins and two cancer lines. Our findings indicate that hESCs express elevated levels of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family members NOXA, BIK, BIM, BMF and PUMA when compared with differentiated cells and cancer cells. However, compensatory expression of pro-survival BCL-2 family members in hESCs was not observed, suggesting a possible explanation for the elevated rates of apoptosis observed in proliferating hESC cultures, as well as a mechanism that could be exploited to limit hESC-derived neoplasms.
Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Caused by Sod2 Deficiency Promotes Cellular Senescence and Aging Phenotypes in the Skin
Aging. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22278880
Cellular senescence arrests the proliferation of mammalian cells at risk for neoplastic transformation, and is also associated with aging. However, the factors that cause cellular senescence during aging are unclear. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to cause cellular senescence in culture, and accumulated molecular damage due to mitochondrial ROS has long been thought to drive aging phenotypesin vivo. Here, we test the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative stress can promote cellular senescence in vivo and contribute to aging phenotypes in vivo, specifically in the skin. We show that the number of senescent cells, as well as impaired mitochondrial (complex II) activity increase in naturally aged mouse skin. Using a mouse model of genetic Sod2 deficiency, we show that failure to express this important mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme also impairs mitochondrial complex II activity, causes nuclear DNA damage, and induces cellular senescence but not apoptosis in the epidermis. Sod2 deficiency also reduced the number of cells and thickness of the epidermis, while increasing terminal differentiation. Our results support the idea that mitochondrial oxidative stress and cellular senescence contribute to aging skin phenotypes in vivo.
Science Translational Medicine. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22301554
Massage therapy is commonly used during physical rehabilitation of skeletal muscle to ameliorate pain and promote recovery from injury. Although there is evidence that massage may relieve pain in injured muscle, how massage affects cellular function remains unknown. To assess the effects of massage, we administered either massage therapy or no treatment to separate quadriceps of 11 young male participants after exercise-induced muscle damage. Muscle biopsies were acquired from the quadriceps (vastus lateralis) at baseline, immediately after 10 min of massage treatment, and after a 2.5-hour period of recovery. We found that massage activated the mechanotransduction signaling pathways focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), potentiated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling [nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)], and mitigated the rise in nuclear factor κB (NFκB) (p65) nuclear accumulation caused by exercise-induced muscle trauma. Moreover, despite having no effect on muscle metabolites (glycogen, lactate), massage attenuated the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and reduced heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) phosphorylation, thereby mitigating cellular stress resulting from myofiber injury. In summary, when administered to skeletal muscle that has been acutely damaged through exercise, massage therapy appears to be clinically beneficial by reducing inflammation and promoting mitochondrial biogenesis.