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In JoVE (2)
- Murine Bioluminescent Hepatic Tumour Model
- Ex Vivo Culture of Patient Tissue & Examination of Gene Delivery
Other Publications (10)
Articles by Simon Rajendran in JoVE
Murine Bioluminescent Hepatic Tumour Model
Simon Rajendran1, Slawomir Salwa1, Xuefeng Gao2, Sabin Tabirca2, Deirdre O'Hanlon3, Gerald C. O'Sullivan1, Mark Tangney1
1Cork Cancer Research Centre, Mercy University Hospital and Leslie C. Quick Jnr. Laboratory, University College Cork, 2Department of Computer Science, University College Cork, 3South Infirmary Victoria University Hospital
This article describes a procedure for the induction of orthotopic bioluminescent liver tumours in mice, and subsequent analysis of tumour growth confined to the liver using live whole body luminescence imaging.
Ex Vivo Culture of Patient Tissue & Examination of Gene Delivery
Simon Rajendran1, Slawomir Salwa1, Xuefeng Gao2, Sabin Tabirca2, Deirdre O'Hanlon2, Gerald C. O'Sullivan1, Mark Tangney1
1Cork Cancer Research Centre, Mercy University Hospital and Leslie C. Quick Jnr. Laboratory, University College Cork, 2Department of Computer Science, University College Cork
This article describes the culture of patient tissue slices for gene delivery studies and subsequent analysis of gene expression using IVIS bioluminescence imaging.
Other articles by Simon Rajendran on PubMed
Genetic Vaccines and Therapy. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19272140
The most common cause of death of cancer sufferers is through the occurrence of metastases. The metastatic behaviour of tumour cells is regulated by extracellular growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a ligand for the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant expression/activation of the c-Met receptor is closely associated with metastatic progression. Nk4 (also known as Interleukin (IL)32b) is a competitive antagonist of the HGF c-Met system and inhibits c-Met signalling and tumour metastasis. Nk4 has an additional anti-angiogenic activity independent of its HGF-antagonist function. Angiogenesis-inhibitory as well as cancer-specific apoptosis inducing effects make the Nk4 sequence an attractive candidate for gene therapy of cancer. This study investigates the inhibition of tumour metastasis by gene therapy mediated production of Nk4 by the primary tumour. Optimal delivery of anti-cancer genes is vital in order to achieve the highest therapeutic responses. Non-viral plasmid delivery methods have the advantage of safety and ease of production, providing immediate transgene expression, albeit short-lived in most tumours. Sustained presence of anti-angiogenic molecules is preferable with anti-angiogenic therapies, and the long-term expression mediated by Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) might represent a more appropriate delivery in this respect. However, the incubation time required by AAV vectors to reach appropriate gene expression levels hampers efficacy in many fast-growing murine tumour models. Here, we describe murine trials assessing the effects of Nk4 on the spontaneously metastatic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) model when delivered to primary tumour via plasmid lipofection or AAV2 vector. Intratumoural AAV-Nk4 administration produced the highest therapeutic response with significant reduction in both primary tumour growth and incidence of lung metastases. Plasmid-mediated therapy also significantly reduced metastatic growth, but with moderate reduction in primary subcutaneous tumour growth. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential for Nk4 gene therapy of metastatic tumours, when delivered by AAV or non-viral methods.
Antegrade Deligation of Iatrogenic Distal Ureteric Obstruction Utilising a High Pressure Balloon Dilatation Technique
Gynecologic Oncology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19481789
Iatrogenic trauma is the leading cause of ureteric injury with an incidence in abdominal and pelvic surgery varying between 0.4 and 2.5%.
BMJ Case Reports. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 21691397
BMJ Case Reports. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 21789106
Human Gene Therapy. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20105075
Bacteria-mediated transfer of plasmid DNA to mammalian cells (bactofection) has been shown to have significant potential as an approach to express heterologous proteins in various cell types. This is achieved through entry of the entire bacterium into cells, followed by release of plasmid DNA. In a murine model, we show that Listeria monocytogenes can invade and spread in tumors, and establish the use of Listeria to deliver genes to tumors in vivo. A novel approach to vector lysis and release of plasmid DNA through antibiotic administration was developed. Ampicillin administration facilitated both plasmid transfer and safety control of vector. To further improve on the gene delivery system, we selected a Listeria monocytogenes derivative that is more sensitive to ampicillin, and less pathogenic than the wild-type strain. Incorporation of a eukaryotic-transcribed lysin cassette in the plasmid further increased bacterial lysis. Successful gene delivery of firefly luciferase to growing tumors in murine models and to patient breast tumor samples ex vivo was achieved. The model described encompasses a three-phase treatment regimen, involving (1) intratumoral administration of vector followed by a period of vector spread, (2) systemic ampicillin administration to induce vector lysis and plasmid transfer, and (3) systemic administration of combined moxifloxacin and ampicillin to eliminate systemic vector. For the first time, our results reveal the potential of Listeria monocytogenes for in vivo gene delivery.
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20389288
Certain bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumor specificity, capable of specifically delivering genes or gene products to the tumor environment when intravenously (i.v.) administered to rodent models. We show for the first time that oral administration of bacteria to mice resulted in their translocation from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with subsequent homing to and replication specifically in tumors. The commensal, nonpathogenic Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 harboring a plasmid expressing lux fed to mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c.) tumors were readily detected specifically in tumors, by live whole-body imaging, at levels similar to i.v. administration. Reporter gene expression was visible for >2 weeks in tumors. Mice remained healthy throughout experiments. Cytokine analyses indicated a significant upregulation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the GIT of bifidobacteria-fed mice, which is associated with increases in epithelial permeability. However, B. breve feeding did not increase systemic levels of other commensal bacteria. The presence of tumor was not necessary for translocation to systemic organs to occur. These findings indicate potential for safe and efficient gene-based treatment and/or detection of tumors via ingestion of nonpathogenic bacteria expressing therapeutic or reporter genes.
Preclinical Evaluation of Gene Delivery Methods for the Treatment of Loco-regional Disease in Breast Cancer
Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.). Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21444371
Preclinical results with various gene therapy strategies indicate significant potential for new cancer treatments. However, many therapeutics fail at clinical trial, often due to differences in tissue physiology between animal models and humans, and tumor phenotype variation. Clinical data relevant to treatment strategies may be generated prior to clinical trial through experimentation using intact patient tissue ex vivo. We developed a novel tumor slice model culture system that is universally applicable to gene delivery methods, using a realtime luminescence detection method to assess gene delivery. Methods investigated include viruses (adenovirus [Ad] and adeno-associated virus), lipofection, ultrasound (US), electroporation and naked DNA. Viability and tumor populations within the slices were well maintained for seven days, and gene delivery was qualitatively and quantitatively examinable for all vectors. Ad was the most efficient gene delivery vector with transduction efficiency >50%. US proved the optimal non-viral gene delivery method in human tumor slices. The nature of the ex vivo culture system permitted examination of specific elements. Parameters shown to diminish Ad gene delivery included blood, regions of low viability and secondary disease. US gene delivery was significantly reduced by blood and skin, while tissue hyperthermia improved gene delivery. US achieved improved efficacy for secondary disease. The ex vivo model was also suitable for examination of tissue-specific effects on vector expression, with Ad expression mediated by the CXCR4 promoter shown to provide a tumor selective advantage over the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, this is the first study incorporating patient tissue models in comparing gene delivery from various vectors, providing knowledge on cell-type specificity and examining the crucial biological factors determining successful gene delivery. The results highlight the importance of in-depth preclinical assessment of novel therapeutics and may serve as a platform for further testing of current, novel gene delivery approaches.
Anticancer Research. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21617219
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have significant potential as gene delivery vectors for cancer gene therapy. However, broad AAV2 tissue tropism results in nonspecific gene expression.
Induction of Effective Antitumor Response After Mucosal Bacterial Vector Mediated DNA Vaccination with Endogenous Prostate Cancer Specific Antigen
The Journal of Urology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21683415
The induction of systemic immune responses against antigenic targets that are over expressed by cancer cells represents a powerful therapeutic strategy to target metastatic cancer. We generated specific antitumor immune responses in a murine model of prostate cancer by oral administration of an attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium containing a plasmid coding for murine prostate stem cell antigen.