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In JoVE (2)
- Dissection of Organizer and Animal Pole Explants from Xenopus laevis Embryos and Assembly of a Cell Adhesion Assay
- Plastic Embedding and Sectioning of Xenopus laevis Embryos
Other Publications (5)
Articles by Souichi Ogata in JoVE
Dissection of Organizer and Animal Pole Explants from Xenopus laevis Embryos and Assembly of a Cell Adhesion Assay
Souichi Ogata, Ken W.Y. Cho
Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine (UCI)
This video demonstrates the technique used for preparation of organizer and animal pole explants from Xenopus laevis embryos, including the use of the eyebrow knife - a specialized dissection tool made of one's eyebrow. The protocol for assembling an adhesion assay is also given, which probes for the presence of key adhesion molecules present on the surface organizer or animal pole cells that are critical for proper development.
Plastic Embedding and Sectioning of Xenopus laevis Embryos
Souichi Ogata1, Shimako Kawauchi1, Anne Calof2, Ken W.Y. Cho1
1Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine (UCI), 2University of California, Irvine (UCI)
Plastic sections maintain true tissue morphology in thin sections of tissue that can be immunostained with fluorescent secondary antibodies, making this method more useful than paraffin-embedded or frozen sections for many types of tissue. The method for staining, plastic embedding, and sectioning is demonstrated in this video.
Other articles by Souichi Ogata on PubMed
The Role of a Williams-Beuren Syndrome-associated Helix-loop-helix Domain-containing Transcription Factor in Activin/nodal Signaling
Genes & Development. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11937490
We investigated the regulation of the activin/nodal-inducible distal element (DE) of the Xenopus goosecoid (gsc) promoter. On the basis of its interaction with the DE, we isolated a Xenopus homolog of the human Williams-Beuren syndrome critical region 11 (XWBSCR11), and further, show that it interacts with pathway-specific Smad2 and Smad3 in a ligand-dependent manner. Interestingly, we also find that XWBSCR11 functions cooperatively with FoxH1 (Fast-1) to stimulate DE-dependent transcription. We propose a mechanism in which FoxH1 functions together with Smads as a cofactor for the recruitment of transcription factors like XWBSCR11 in the process of activin/nodal-mediated gsc-specific induction. This mechanism provides considerable opportunities for modulation of transcription across a variety of activin/nodal-inducible genes, increasing diversity in promoter selection, thus leading to the differential induction of activin/nodal target genes.
Phylogenetic Footprinting and Genome Scanning Identify Vertebrate BMP Response Elements and New Target Genes
Developmental Biology. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15893974
The complex gene regulatory networks governed by growth factor signaling are still poorly understood. In order to accelerate the rate of progress in uncovering these networks, we explored the usefulness of interspecies sequence comparison (phylogenetic footprinting) to identify conserved growth factor response elements. The promoter regions of two direct target genes of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling in Xenopus, Xvent2 and XId3, were compared with the corresponding human and/or mouse counterparts to identify conserved sequences. A comparison between the Xenopus and human Vent2 promoter sequences revealed a highly conserved 21 bp sequence that overlaps the previously reported Xvent2 BMP response element (BRE). Reporter gene assays using Xenopus animal pole ectodermal explants (animal caps) revealed that this conserved 21 bp BRE is both necessary and sufficient for BMP responsiveness. We combine the same phylogenetic footprinting approach with luciferase assays to identify a highly conserved 49 bp BMP responsive region in the Xenopus Id3 promoter. GFP reporters containing multimers of either the Xvent2 or XId3 BREs appear to recapitulate endogenous BMP signaling activity in transgenic Xenopus embryos. Comparison of the Xvent2 and the XId3 BRE revealed core sequence features that are both necessary and sufficient for BMP responsiveness: a Smad binding element (SBE) and a GC-rich element resembling an OAZ binding site. Based on these findings, we have implemented genome scanning to identify over 100 additional putative target genes containing 2 or more BRE-like sequences which are conserved between human and mouse. RT-PCR and in situ analyses revealed that this in silico approach can effectively be used to identify potential BMP target genes.
Schnurri Transcription Factors from Drosophila and Vertebrates Can Mediate Bmp Signaling Through a Phylogenetically Conserved Mechanism
Development (Cambridge, England). Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17008448
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (Bmps) are secreted growth factors that play crucial roles in animal development across the phylogenetic spectrum. Bmp signaling results in the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smads, downstream signal transducers that bind DNA. In Drosophila, the zinc finger protein Schnurri (Shn) plays a key role in signaling by the Bmp2/Bmp4 homolog Decapentaplegic (Dpp), by forming a Shn/Smad repression complex on defined promoter elements in the brinker (brk) gene. Brk is a transcriptional repressor that downregulates Dpp target genes. Thus, brk inhibition by Shn results in the upregulation of Dpp-responsive genes. We present evidence that vertebrate Shn homologs can also mediate Bmp responsiveness through a mechanism similar to Drosophila Shn. We find that a Bmp response element (BRE) from the Xenopus Vent2 promoter drives Dpp-dependent expression in Drosophila. However, in sharp contrast to its activating role in vertebrates, the frog BRE mediates repression in Drosophila. Remarkably, despite these opposite transcriptional polarities, sequence changes that abolish cis-element activity in Drosophila also affect BRE function in Xenopus. These similar cis requirements reflect conservation of trans-acting factors, as human Shn1 (hShn1; HIVEP1) can interact with Smad1/Smad4 and assemble an hShn1/Smad complex on the BRE. Furthermore, both Shn and hShn1 activate the BRE in Xenopus embryos, and both repress brk and rescue embryonic patterning defects in shn mutants. Our results suggest that vertebrate Shn proteins function in Bmp signal transduction, and that Shn proteins recruit coactivators and co-repressors in a context-dependent manner, rather than acting as dedicated activators or repressors.
Genes & Development. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17639085
The molecular mechanisms governing the cell behaviors underlying morphogenesis remain a major focus of research in both developmental biology and cancer biology. TGF-beta ligands control cell fate specification via Smad-mediated signaling. However, their ability to guide cellular morphogenesis in a variety of biological contexts is poorly understood. We report on the discovery of a novel TGF-beta signaling-mediated cellular morphogenesis occurring during vertebrate gastrulation. Activin/nodal members of the TGF-beta superfamily induce the expression of two genes regulating cell adhesion during gastrulation: Fibronectin Leucine-rich Repeat Transmembrane 3 (FLRT3), a type I transmembrane protein containing extracellular leucine-rich repeats, and the small GTPase Rnd1. FLRT3 and Rnd1 interact physically and modulate cell adhesion during embryogenesis by controlling cell surface levels of cadherin through a dynamin-dependent endocytosis pathway. Our model suggests that cell adhesion can be dynamically regulated by sequestering cadherin through internalization, and subsequent redeploying internalized cadherin to the cell surface as needed. As numerous studies have linked aberrant expression of small GTPases, adhesion molecules such as cadherins, and TGF-beta signaling to oncogenesis and metastasis, it is tempting to speculate that this FLRT3/Rnd1/cadherin pathway might also control cell behavior and morphogenesis in adult tissue homeostasis.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19492039
The FLRT family of transmembrane proteins has been implicated in the regulation of FGF signalling, neurite outgrowth, homotypic cell sorting and cadherin-mediated adhesion. In an expression screen we identified the Netrin receptors Unc5B and Unc5D as high-affinity FLRT3 interactors. Upon overexpression, Unc5B phenocopies FLRT3 and both proteins synergize in inducing cell deadhesion in Xenopus embryos. Morpholino knock-downs of Unc5B and FLRT3 synergistically affect Xenopus development and induce morphogenetic defects. The small GTPase Rnd1, which transmits FLRT3 deadhesion activity, physically and functionally interacts with Unc5B, and mediates its effect on cell adhesion. The results suggest that FLRT3, Unc5B and Rnd1 proteins interact to modulate cell adhesion in early Xenopus development.