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In JoVE (1)
- Obtaining Hemocytes from the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid Euprymna scolopes and Observing their Adherence to Symbiotic and Non-Symbiotic Bacteria
Other Publications (12)
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Nature Reviews. Microbiology
- The Biological Bulletin
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Environmental Microbiology
- Seminars in Immunology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- PloS One
- Journal of Bacteriology
Articles by Spencer V. Nyholm in JoVE
Obtaining Hemocytes from the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid Euprymna scolopes and Observing their Adherence to Symbiotic and Non-Symbiotic Bacteria
Andrew J. Collins, Spencer V. Nyholm
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut
This video will demonstrate how to obtain hemocytes (blood cells) from the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes for use in cell biological and bacterial adhesion assays. Hemocytes will be stained with a fluorescent dye and exposed to GFP-labeled bacteria.
Other articles by Spencer V. Nyholm on PubMed
Roles of Vibrio Fischeri and Nonsymbiotic Bacteria in the Dynamics of Mucus Secretion During Symbiont Colonization of the Euprymna Scolopes Light Organ
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12324362
During light organ colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes by Vibrio fischeri, host-derived mucus provides a surface upon which environmental V. fischeri forms a biofilm and aggregates prior to colonization. In this study we defined the temporal and spatial characteristics of this process. Although permanent colonization is specific to certain strains of V. fischeri, confocal microscopy analyses revealed that light organ crypt spaces took up nonspecific bacteria and particles that were less than 2 micro m in diameter during the first hour after hatching. However, within 2 h after inoculation, these cells or particles were not detectable, and further entry by nonspecific bacteria or particles appeared to be blocked. Exposure to environmental gram-negative or -positive bacteria or bacterial peptidoglycan caused the cells of the organ's superficial ciliated epithelium to release dense mucin stores at 1 to 2 h after hatching that were used to form the substrate upon which V. fischeri formed a biofilm and aggregated. Whereas the uncolonized organ surface continued to shed mucus, within 48 h of symbiont colonization mucus shedding ceased and the formation of bacterial aggregations was no longer observed. Eliminating the symbiont from the crypts with antibiotics restored the ability of the ciliated fields to secrete mucus and aggregate bacteria. While colonization by V. fischeri inhibited mucus secretion by the surface epithelium, secretion of host-derived mucus was induced in the crypt spaces. Together, these data indicate that although initiation of mucus secretion from the superficial epithelium is nonspecific, the inhibition of mucus secretion in these cells and the concomitant induction of secretion in the crypt cells are specific to natural colonization by V. fischeri.
Dominance of Vibrio Fischeri in Secreted Mucus Outside the Light Organ of Euprymna Scolopes: the First Site of Symbiont Specificity
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12839763
Previous studies of the Euprymna scolopes-Vibrio fischeri symbiosis have demonstrated that, during colonization, the hatchling host secretes mucus in which gram-negative environmental bacteria amass in dense aggregations outside the sites of infection. In this study, experiments with green fluorescent protein-labeled symbiotic and nonsymbiotic species of gram-negative bacteria were used to characterize the behavior of cells in the aggregates. When hatchling animals were exposed to 10(3) to 10(6) V. fischeri cells/ml added to natural seawater, which contains a mix of approximately 10(6) nonspecific bacterial cells/ml, V. fischeri cells were the principal bacterial cells present in the aggregations. Furthermore, when animals were exposed to equal cell numbers of V. fischeri (either a motile or a nonmotile strain) and either Vibrio parahaemolyticus or Photobacterium leiognathi, phylogenetically related gram-negative bacteria that also occur in the host's habitat, the symbiont cells were dominant in the aggregations. The presence of V. fischeri did not compromise the viability of these other species in the aggregations, and no significant growth of V. fischeri cells was detected. These findings suggested that dominance results from the ability of V. fischeri either to accumulate or to be retained more effectively within the mucus. Viability of the V. fischeri cells was required for both the formation of tight aggregates and their dominance in the mucus. Neither of the V. fischeri quorum-sensing compounds accumulated in the aggregations, which suggested that the effects of these small signal molecules are not critical to V. fischeri dominance. Taken together, these data provide evidence that the specificity of the squid-vibrio symbiosis begins early in the interaction, in the mucus where the symbionts aggregate outside of the light organ.
Nature Reviews. Microbiology. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15263898
Nature. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16306984
Histocompatibility--the ability of an organism to distinguish its own cells and tissue from those of another--is a universal phenomenon in the Metazoa. In vertebrates, histocompatibility is a function of the immune system controlled by a highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which encodes proteins that target foreign molecules for immune cell recognition. The association of the MHC and immune function suggests an evolutionary relationship between metazoan histocompatibility and the origins of vertebrate immunity. However, the MHC of vertebrates is the only functionally characterized histocompatibility system; the mechanisms underlying this process in non-vertebrates are unknown. A primitive chordate, the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, also undergoes a histocompatibility reaction controlled by a highly polymorphic locus. Here we describe the isolation of a candidate gene encoding an immunoglobulin superfamily member that, by itself, predicts the outcome of histocompatibility reactions. This is the first non-vertebrate histocompatibility gene described, and may provide insights into the evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity.
Immunity. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16860765
Histocompatibility in the primitive chordate, Botryllus schlosseri, is controlled by a single, highly polymorphic locus, the FuHC. By taking a forward genetic approach, we have identified a locus encoded near the FuHC, called fester, which is polymorphic, polygenic, and inherited in distinct haplotypes. Somatic diversification occurs through extensive alternative splicing, with each individual expressing a unique repertoire of splice forms, both membrane bound and potentially secreted, all expressed in tissues intimately associated with histocompatibility. Functional studies, via both siRNA-mediated knockdown and direct blocking by monoclonal antibodies raised against fester, were able to disrupt predicted histocompatibility outcomes. The genetic and somatic diversity, coupled to the expression and functional data, suggests that fester is a receptor involved in histocompatibility.
Coupling Metabolite Flux to Transcriptomics: Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Primary Productivity by the Hydrothermal Vent Tubeworm Ridgeia Piscesae
The Biological Bulletin. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18574102
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents host highly productive ecosystems. Many of these communities are dominated by vestimentiferan tubeworms that house endosymbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria that provide the hosts with their primary nutritional needs. Rates of carbon fixation by these symbioses are also among the highest recorded. Despite the breadth of physiological and biochemical research on these associations, the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate host and symbiont metabolite flux and carbon fixation are largely unknown. Here we present metabolite flux and transcriptomics data from shipboard high-pressure respirometry experiments in which we maintained Ridgeia piscesae tubeworms at conditions comparable to those in situ. Host trophosome was used for cDNA library construction and sequencing. Of the 19,132 clones sequenced, 10,684 represented unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The highest proportions of genes are involved with translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis, cellular processing, and signal transduction. There was moderate representation of genes involved in metabolite exchange and acid-base regulation. These data represent the first concomitant surveys of metabolite flux rates and gene expression for a chemoautotrophic symbiosis during net autotrophy, and they suggest that-in the case of Ridgeia piscesae-host-symbiont interactions such as cell cycle regulation may play a significant role in maintaining physiological poise during high productivity.
Journal of Bacteriology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19151142
Environmental Microbiology. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19196278
The light organ crypts of the squid Euprymna scolopes permit colonization exclusively by the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Because the crypt interior remains in contact with seawater, the squid must not only foster the specific symbiosis, but also continue to exclude other bacteria. Investigation of the role of the innate immune system in these processes revealed that macrophage-like haemocytes isolated from E. scolopes recognized and phagocytosed V. fischeri less than other closely related bacterial species common to the host's environment. Interestingly, phagocytes isolated from hosts that had been cured of their symbionts bound five times more V. fischeri cells than those from uncured hosts. No such change in the ability to bind other species of bacteria was observed, suggesting that the host adapts specifically to V. fischeri. Deletion of the gene encoding OmpU, the major outer membrane protein of V. fischeri, increased binding by haemocytes from uncured animals to the level observed for haemocytes from cured animals. Co-incubation with wild-type V. fischeri reduced this binding, suggesting that they produce a factor that complements the mutant's defect. Analyses of the phagocytosis of bound cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting indicated that once binding to haemocytes had occurred, V. fischeri cells are phagocytosed as effectively as other bacteria. Thus, discrimination by this component of the squid immune system occurs at the level of haemocyte binding, and this response: (i) is modified by previous exposure to the symbiont and (ii) relies on outer membrane and/or secreted components of the symbionts. These data suggest that regulation of host haemocyte binding by the symbiont may be one of many factors that contribute to specificity in this association.
The Role of the Immune System in the Initiation and Persistence of the Euprymna Scolopes--Vibrio Fischeri Symbiosis
Seminars in Immunology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20036144
The squid-vibrio symbiosis is an experimental system being studied as a model of the chronic colonization of animal epithelia by bacterial partners. One principal question being asked with this model is: what is the role of the immune system in the dynamics of the onset and maintenance of the symbiotic state? This review focuses upon results of research to date, which have demonstrated that both cell-mediated and cell-free components of the innate immune system are involved in these processes.
Transcriptional Patterns in Both Host and Bacterium Underlie a Daily Rhythm of Anatomical and Metabolic Change in a Beneficial Symbiosis
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20133870
Mechanisms for controlling symbiont populations are critical for maintaining the associations that exist between a host and its microbial partners. We describe here the transcriptional, metabolic, and ultrastructural characteristics of a diel rhythm that occurs in the symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The rhythm is driven by the host's expulsion from its light-emitting organ of most of the symbiont population each day at dawn. The transcriptomes of both the host epithelium that supports the symbionts and the symbiont population itself were characterized and compared at four times over this daily cycle. The greatest fluctuation in gene expression of both partners occurred as the day began. Most notable was an up-regulation in the host of >50 cytoskeleton-related genes just before dawn and their subsequent down-regulation within 6 h. Examination of the epithelium by TEM revealed a corresponding restructuring, characterized by effacement and blebbing of its apical surface. After the dawn expulsion, the epithelium reestablished its polarity, and the residual symbionts began growing, repopulating the light organ. Analysis of the symbiont transcriptome suggested that the bacteria respond to the effacement by up-regulating genes associated with anaerobic respiration of glycerol; supporting this finding, lipid analysis of the symbionts' membranes indicated a direct incorporation of host-derived fatty acids. After 12 h, the metabolic signature of the symbiont population shifted to one characteristic of chitin fermentation, which continued until the following dawn. Thus, the persistent maintenance of the squid-vibrio symbiosis is tied to a dynamic diel rhythm that involves both partners.
Characterizing the Host and Symbiont Proteomes in the Association Between the Bobtail Squid, Euprymna Scolopes, and the Bacterium, Vibrio Fischeri
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21998678
The beneficial symbiosis between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, provides a unique opportunity to study host/microbe interactions within a natural microenvironment. Colonization of the squid light organ by V. fischeri begins a lifelong association with a regulated daily rhythm. Each morning the host expels an exudate from the light organ consisting of 95% of the symbiont population in addition to host hemocytes and shed epithelial cells. We analyzed the host and symbiont proteomes of adult squid exudate and surrounding light organ epithelial tissue using 1D- and 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) in an effort to understand the contribution of both partners to the maintenance of this association. These proteomic analyses putatively identified 1581 unique proteins, 870 proteins originating from the symbiont and 711 from the host. Identified host proteins indicate a role of the innate immune system and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating the symbiosis. Symbiont proteins detected enhance our understanding of the role of quorum sensing, two-component signaling, motility, and detoxification of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) inside the light organ. This study offers the first proteomic analysis of the symbiotic microenvironment of the adult light organ and provides the identification of proteins important to the regulation of this beneficial association.
Draft Genome of Phaeobacter Gallaeciensis ANG1, a Dominant Member of the Accessory Nidamental Gland of Euprymna Scolopes
Journal of Bacteriology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21551313
Phaeobacter gallaeciensis strain ANG1 represents the dominant member of the bacterial consortium within the reproductive accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the squid Euprymna scolopes. We present a 4.59-Mb assembly of its genome, which may provide clues as to how it benefits its host.