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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (10)
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Cancer Research
- Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
- Cancer Research
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- PLoS Computational Biology
Articles by Srikumar Sengupta in JoVE
Single Read and Paired End mRNA-Seq Illumina Libraries from 10 Nanograms Total RNA
Srikumar Sengupta1, Jennifer M. Bolin1, Victor Ruotti1, Bao Kim Nguyen1, James A. Thomson1,2,3, Angela L. Elwell1, Ron Stewart1
1Regenerative Biology, Morgridge Institute for Research, 2Department of Cell & Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin, 3Department of Molecular, Cellular, & Regenerative Biology, University of California
Here we describe a method for preparation of both single read and paired end Illumina mRNA-Seq sequencing libraries for gene expression analysis based on T7 linear RNA amplification. This protocol requires only 10 nanograms of starting total RNA and generates highly consistent libraries representing whole transcripts.
Other articles by Srikumar Sengupta on PubMed
Molecular Detection and Identification of Influenza Viruses by Oligonucleotide Microarray Hybridization
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14532180
Microarrays of virus-specific oligonucleotides may provide a method of screening samples for the presence or absence of a large variety of viruses simultaneously. Influenza viruses are ideal for evaluating such microarrays because of their genetic and host diversity, and the availability of an extensive sequence database. A collection of 476 influenza virus-specific oligonucleotides was spotted onto glass slides as probes. Viral RNAs were reverse transcribed and amplified by PCR, and the products were labeled with cyanine dyes. The presence of viruses and their identities were determined by hybridization. The fluorescence intensities of oligonucleotide spots were highly reproducible within each slide and satisfactorily proportional between experiments. However, the intensities of probe spots completely complementary to target sequences varied from background to saturation. The variations did not correlate with base composition, nucleotide sequence, or internal secondary structures. Therefore, thresholds for determining whether hybridization to a spot should be judged as positive were assigned individually. Considering only positive spots from probes predicted to be monospecific for influenza virus species, subtype, host source, or gene segment, this method made correct identifications at the species, hemagglutinin subtype, and gene segment levels. Monospecific neuraminidase (NA) subtype probes were insufficiently diverse to allow confident NA subtype assignment. Incorporating positive spots from polyspecific probes into the identification scheme gave similar results. Overall, the results demonstrate the potential of microarray-based oligonucleotide hybridization for multiple virus detection.
Genome-wide Expression Profiling Reveals EBV-associated Inhibition of MHC Class I Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Cancer Research. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16912175
To identify the molecular mechanisms by which EBV-associated epithelial cancers are maintained, we measured the expression of essentially all human genes and all latent EBV genes in a collection of 31 laser-captured, microdissected nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue samples and 10 normal nasopharyngeal tissues. Global gene expression profiles clearly distinguished tumors from normal healthy epithelium. Expression levels of six viral genes (EBNA1, EBNA2, EBNA3A, EBNA3B, LMP1, and LMP2A) were correlated among themselves and strongly inversely correlated with the expression of a large subset of host genes. Among the human genes whose inhibition was most strongly correlated with increased EBV gene expression were multiple MHC class I HLA genes involved in regulating immune response via antigen presentation. The association between EBV gene expression and inhibition of MHC class I HLA expression implies that antigen display is either directly inhibited by EBV, facilitating immune evasion by tumor cells, and/or that tumor cells with inhibited presentation are selected for their ability to sustain higher levels of EBV to take maximum advantage of EBV oncogene-mediated tumor-promoting actions. Our data clearly reflect such tumor promotion, showing that deregulation of key proteins involved in apoptosis (BCL2-related protein A1 and Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule), cell cycle checkpoints (AKIP, SCYL1, and NIN), and metastasis (matrix metalloproteinase 1) is closely correlated with the levels of EBV gene expression in NPC.
Genes Involved in DNA Repair and Nitrosamine Metabolism and Those Located on Chromosome 14q32 Are Dysregulated in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17119049
Polymorphisms in nitrosamine metabolism, DNA repair, and immune response genes have been associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Studies have suggested chromosomal regions involved in NPC. To shed light on NPC etiology, we evaluated host gene expression patterns in 31 NPC and 10 normal nasopharyngeal tissue specimens using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. We focused on genes in five a priori biological pathways and chromosomal locations. Rates of differential expression within these prespecified lists and overall were tested using a bootstrap method. Differential expression was observed for 7.6% of probe sets overall. Elevations in rate of differential expression were observed within the DNA repair (13.7%; P = 0.01) and nitrosamine metabolism (17.5%; P = 0.04) pathways. Differentially expressed probe sets within the DNA repair pathway were consistently overexpressed (93%), with strong effects observed for PRKDC, PCNA, and CHEK1. Differentially expressed probe sets within the nitrosamine metabolism pathway were consistently underexpressed (100%), with strong effects observed for NQ01, CYP2B6, and CYP2E1. No significant evidence of increases in rate of differential expression was seen within the immune/inflammatory pathway. A significant elevation in rate of differential expression was noted for chromosome 4p15.1-4q12 (13.0%; P = 0.04); both overexpression and underexpression were evident (38% and 62%, respectively). An elevation in the rate of differential expression on chromosome 14q32 was observed (11.3%; P = 0.06) with a consistent pattern of gene underexpression (100%; P < 0.0001). These effects were similar when excluding late-stage tumors. Our results suggest that nitrosamine activation and DNA repair are important in NPC. The consistent down-regulation of expression on chromosome 14q32 suggests loss of heterozygosity in this region.
Fundamental Differences in Cell Cycle Deregulation in Human Papillomavirus-positive and Human Papillomavirus-negative Head/neck and Cervical Cancers
Cancer Research. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17510386
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with nearly all cervical cancers, 20% to 30% of head and neck cancers (HNC), and other cancers. Because HNCs also arise in HPV-negative patients, this type of cancer provides unique opportunities to define similarities and differences of HPV-positive versus HPV-negative cancers arising in the same tissue. Here, we describe genome-wide expression profiling of 84 HNCs, cervical cancers, and site-matched normal epithelial samples in which we used laser capture microdissection to enrich samples for tumor-derived versus normal epithelial cells. This analysis revealed that HPV(+) HNCs and cervical cancers differed in their patterns of gene expression yet shared many changes compared with HPV(-) HNCs. Some of these shared changes were predicted, but many others were not. Notably, HPV(+) HNCs and cervical cancers were found to be up-regulated in their expression of a distinct and larger subset of cell cycle genes than that observed in HPV(-) HNC. Moreover, HPV(+) cancers overexpressed testis-specific genes that are normally expressed only in meiotic cells. Many, although not all, of the hallmark differences between HPV(+) HNC and HPV(-) HNC were a direct consequence of HPV and in particular the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes. This included a novel association of HPV oncogenes with testis-specific gene expression. These findings in primary human tumors provide novel biomarkers for early detection of HPV(+) and HPV(-) cancers, and emphasize the potential value of targeting E6 and E7 function, alone or combined with radiation and/or traditional chemotherapy, in the treatment of HPV(+) cancers.
A Study of the Relationships Between Oligonucleotide Properties and Hybridization Signal Intensities from NimbleGen Microarray Datasets
Nucleic Acids Research. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18385155
Well-defined relationships between oligonucleotide properties and hybridization signal intensities (HSI) can aid chip design, data normalization and true biological knowledge discovery. We clarify these relationships using the data from two microarray experiments containing over three million probes from 48 high-density chips. We find that melting temperature (T(m)) has the most significant effect on HSI while length for the long oligonucleotides studied has very little effect. Analysis of positional effect using a linear model provides evidence that the protruding ends of probes contribute more than tethered ends to HSI, which is further validated by specifically designed match fragment sliding and extension experiments. The impact of sequence similarity (SeqS) on HSI is not significant in comparison with other oligonucleotide properties. Using regression and regression tree analysis, we prioritize these oligonucleotide properties based on their effects on HSI. The implications of our discoveries for the design of unbiased oligonucleotides are discussed. We propose that isothermal probes designed by varying the length is a viable strategy to reduce sequence bias, though imposing selection constraints on other oligonucleotide properties is also essential.
MicroRNA 29c is Down-regulated in Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas, Up-regulating MRNAs Encoding Extracellular Matrix Proteins
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18390668
Using highly sensitive microarray-based procedures, we identified eight microRNAs (miRNAs) showing robust differential expression between 31 laser-capture-microdissected nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) and 10 normal healthy nasopharyngeal epithelial samples. In particular, miRNA mir-29c was expressed at one-fifth the levels in tumors as in normal epithelium. In NPC tumors, the lower mir-29c levels correlated with higher levels of multiple mRNAs whose 3' UTRs can bind mir-29c at target sequences conserved across many vertebrates. In cultured cells, introduction of mir-29c down-regulated these genes at the level of mRNA and inhibited expression of luciferase encoded by vectors having the 3' UTRs of these genes. Moreover, for each of several genes tested, mutating the mir-29c target sites in the 3' UTR abrogated mir-29c-induced inhibition of luciferase expression. Most of the mir-29c-targeted genes identified encode extracellular matrix proteins, including multiple collagens and laminin gamma1, that are associated with tumor cell invasiveness and metastatic potential, prominent characteristics of NPC. Thus, we identify eight miRNAs differentially expressed in NPC and demonstrate the involvement of one in regulating genes involved in metastasis.
Virology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19217135
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) encodes multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) from two primary transcripts, BHRF1 and the BARTs. The expression of BHRF1 miRNAs is dependent on the type of viral latency, whereas the BART miRNAs are expressed in cells during all forms of latency. It is not known how these miRNAs are otherwise regulated, though. We have used quantitative, stem-loop, real-time PCR to measure the expression of EBV's miRNAs and found them to differ nearly 50- and 25-fold among all tested cell lines and among EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphomas, respectively. In addition, the expression of individual BART miRNAs within a cell can differ by 50-fold or more despite the fact these miRNAs are likely transcribed together as a single primary transcript. These measurements are illuminating: they indicate that few of EBV's miRNAs are expressed at levels comparable to those of cellular miRNAs in most cell lines and therefore likely function interdependently.
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19544458
Human embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit a shorter G(1) cell cycle phase than most somatic cells. Here, we examine the role of an abundant, human ES cell-enriched microRNA, miR-92b, in cell cycle distribution. Inhibition of miR-92b in human ES cells results in a greater number of cells in the G(1) phase and a lower number in the S phase. Conversely, overexpression of miR-92b in differentiated cells results in a decreased number of cells in G1 phase and an increased number in S-phase. p57, a gene whose product inhibits G(1) to S-phase progression, is one of the predicted targets of miR-92b. Inhibition of miR-92b in human ES cells increases p57 protein levels, and miR-92b overexpression in differentiated cells decreases p57 protein levels. Furthermore, miR-92b inhibits a luciferase reporter construct that includes part of the 3' untranslated region of the p57 gene containing the predicted target of the miR-92b seed sequence. Thus, we show that the miRNA miR-92b directly downregulates protein levels of the G(1)/S checkpoint gene p57. STEM CELLS 2009;27:1524-1528.
PLoS Computational Biology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19779550
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) posttranscriptionally regulate targeted messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by inducing cleavage or otherwise repressing their translation. We address the problem of detecting m/miRNA targeting relationships in homo sapiens from microarray data by developing statistical models that are motivated by the biological mechanisms used by miRNAs. The focus of our modeling is the construction, activity, and mediation of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) competent for targeted mRNA cleavage. We demonstrate that regression models accommodating RISC abundance and controlling for other mediating factors fit the expression profiles of known target pairs substantially better than models based on m/miRNA expressions alone, and lead to verifications of computational target pair predictions that are more sensitive than those based on marginal expression levels. Because our models are fully independent of exogenous results from sequence-based computational methods, they are appropriate for use as either a primary or secondary source of information regarding m/miRNA target pair relationships, especially in conjunction with high-throughput expression studies.
BioTechniques. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21143212
Preparation of an Illumina sequencing library for gene expression analysis (mRNA-Seq) requires microgram amounts of starting total RNA or PCR-based amplification. Here we describe a protocol based on T7 linear RNA amplification that does not introduce significant bias, requires only 10 ng total RNA, and generates a directional, fully representative, whole-transcript mRNA-Seq Illumina library that is highly consistent across over three orders of magnitude of input RNA.