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In JoVE (2)
- Revealing Neural Circuit Topography in Multi-Color
- Wholemount Immunohistochemistry for Revealing Complex Brain Topography
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Stacey L. Reeber in JoVE
Revealing Neural Circuit Topography in Multi-Color
Stacey L. Reeber, Samrawit A. Gebre, Nika Filatova, Roy V. Sillitoe
Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University
We provide a practical guide for delivering tracers in vivo and use the spinocerebellar pathway as a model system to demonstrate essential steps for successful neuronal circuit analysis in mice. We describe in detail our versatile tracing protocol that exploits wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) conjugated to Alexa fluorophores.
Wholemount Immunohistochemistry for Revealing Complex Brain Topography
Joshua J. White1, Stacey L. Reeber1, Richard Hawkes2, Roy V. Sillitoe1
1Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, 2Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary
Neural circuits are topographically organized into functional compartments with specific molecular profiles. Here, we provide the practical and technical steps for revealing global brain topography using a versatile wholemount immunohistochemical staining approach. We demonstrate the utility of the method using the well-understood cytoarchitecture and circuitry of cerebellum.
Other articles by Stacey L. Reeber on PubMed
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18753371
In vertebrate embryos, most spinal commissural axons cross the ventral midline (VM) and project either alongside or significant distances away from the floor plate (FP). The upregulation of repulsive Robo1/2 receptors on postcrossing commissural axons, in mammals, presumably allows these axons to respond to the midline-associated repellents, Slit1-3, facilitating their expulsion from, and prohibiting their reentry into, the FP. Compelling data suggest that Robo3 represses Robo1/2 function on precrossing axons and that Robo1/2 inhibit attractive guidance receptors on postcrossing axons, thereby ensuring that decussated axons are selectively responsive to midline Slits. However, whether Robo1/2 expel decussated commissural axons from the VM and/or prevent their reentry into the FP has not been explicitly established in vivo. Furthermore, some commissural axons do not require Robo1/2 to elaborate appropriate contralateral projections in the mouse spinal cord. Here, we use unilateral in ovo electroporation together with Atoh1 and Neurog1 enhancer elements to visualize, and assess the consequences of manipulating Robo expression on, dl1 and dl2 chick commissural axons. In response to misexpressing a cytoplasmic truncation of Robo1 and/or Robo2, which should block all Robo-ligand interactions, postcrossing commissural axons extend alongside, but do not project away from or reenter the FP. In contrast, misexpression of full-length Robo2 prevents many commissural axons from crossing the VM. Together, these findings support key and selective in vivo roles for Robo receptors in presumably altering the responsiveness of decussated commissural axons and facilitating their expulsion from the VM within the chick spinal cord.
Leaving the Midline: How Robo Receptors Regulate the Guidance of Post-crossing Spinal Commissural Axons
Cell Adhesion & Migration. Jul-Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19556886
In the developing nervous system, pathfinding axons navigate through a series of intermediate targets in order to form synaptic connections. Vertebrate spinal commissural axons extend toward and across the floor plate (FP), a key intermediate target located at the ventral midline (VM). Subsequently, post-crossing commissural axons grow either alongside or significant distances away from the floor plate (FP), but never re-cross the VM. Consistent with this behavior, post-crossing commissural axons lose responsiveness to the FP-associated chemoattractants, Netrin-1 and SHH, and gain responsiveness to Slits, which are potent midline repellents, in vitro. In addition, the results of several in vivo studies suggest that the upregulation of Slit-binding repulsive Robo receptors, Robo1/2, alters the responsiveness of decussated commissural axons to midline guidance cues. Nevertheless, in vertebrates, it is unclear whether Robo1/2 are the sole or major repellent receptors responsible for driving these commissural axons away from the VM and preventing their re-entry into the FP. We recently re-visited these issues in the chick spinal cord by assessing the consequences of manipulating Robo expression on commissural axons in ovo. Our findings suggest that, at least in chick embryos, the upregulation of repulsive Robos on post-crossing axons alters the responsiveness of these axons to midline repellents and facilitates their expulsion from, but is not likely to have a significant role in preventing their re-entry into the VM.
Neurofilament Heavy Chain Expression Reveals a Unique Parasagittal Stripe Topography in the Mouse Cerebellum
Cerebellum (London, England). Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20127431
Despite the general uniformity in cellular composition of the adult cerebellum (Cb), the expression of proteins such as ZebrinII/AldolaseC and the small heat shock protein HSP25 reveal striking patterns of parasagittal Purkinje cell (PC) stripes. Based on differences in the stripe configuration within subsets of lobules, the Cb can be further divided into four anterior-posterior transverse zones: anterior zone (AZ) = lobules I-V, central zone (CZ) = lobules VI-VII, posterior zone (PZ) = lobules VIII and anterior IX, and the nodular zone (NZ) = lobules posterior IX-X. Here we used whole-mount and tissue section immunohistochemistry to show that neurofilament heavy chain (NFH) expression alone divides all lobules of the mouse Cb into a complex series of parasagittal stripes of PCs. We revealed that the striped pattern of NFH in the vermis of the AZ and PZ was complementary to ZebrinII and phospholipase C ß3 (PLCß3), and corresponded to phospholipase C ß4 (PLCß4). In the CZ and NZ the stripe pattern of NFH was complementary to HSP25 and corresponded to PLCß3. The boundaries of the NFH stripes were not always sharply delineated. Instead, a gradual decrease in NFH expression was observed toward the edges of particular stripes, resulting in domains comprised of overlapping expression patterns. Furthermore, the terminal field distributions of mossy and climbing fibers had a complex but consistent topographical alignment with NFH stripes. In summary, NFH expression reveals an exquisite level of Cb stripe complexity that respects the transverse zone divisions and delineates an intricately patterned target field for Cb afferents.
Brain Structure & Function. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21387082
Neural circuits are organized into complex topographic maps. Although several neuroanatomical and genetic tools are available for studying circuit architecture, a limited number of methods exist for reliably revealing the global patterning of multiple topographic projections. Here we used wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) conjugated to Alexa 555 and 488 for dual color fluorescent mapping of parasagittal spinocerebellar topography in three dimensions. Using tissue section and wholemount imaging we show that WGA-Alexa tracers have three main characteristics that make them ideal tools for analyses of neural projection topography. First, the intense brightness of Alexa fluorophores allows multi-color imaging of patterned afferent projections in wholemount preparations. Second, WGA-Alexa tracers robustly label the entire trajectory of developing and adult projections. Third, long tracts such as the adult spinocerebellar tract can be traced in less than 6 h. Moreover, using WGA-Alexa tracers we resolved a level of complexity in the compartmentalized topography of the spinocerebellar projection map that has never before been appreciated. In summary, we introduce versatile tracers for rapidly labeling multiple topographic projections in three dimensions and uncover wiring complexities in the spinocerebellar map.
Patterned Expression of a Cocaine- and Amphetamine-regulated Transcript Peptide Reveals Complex Circuit Topography in the Rodent Cerebellar Cortex
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21452228
The cerebellum (Cb) of mammals and birds consists of an evolutionarily conserved map defined by Purkinje cell (PC) protein expression. In mice, ZebrinII/aldolaseC is expressed in a striking array of stripes in lobules I-V (anterior zone; AZ) and VIII-anterior IX (posterior zone; PZ), whereas the small heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) is expressed in stripes in lobules VI-VII (central zone, CZ) and posterior IX-X (nodular zone, NZ). Little is known about whether molecularly defined afferent subsets terminate within specific PC stripes or whether their topography is conserved across species. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate in adult mice and rats that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression can be used to partition sensory-motor projections into complex topographic maps. We found that in mice CART was expressed in climbing fiber bands that generally corresponded to the pattern of HSP25-expressing PCs in the CZ/NZ. In contrast, CART was expressed in climbing fiber bands in all four transverse zones of the rat Cb. Within the rat AZ/PZ, climbing fibers terminated selectively within the dendrites of ZebrinII-immunoreactive PCs. In additional experiments, we observed CART expression in loose clusters of spinocerebellar mossy fibers in the mouse AZ/PZ, whereas in rat CART immunoreactive mossy fibers terminated predominantly in the CZ/NZ. We conclude that, although the overall topography of CART-expressing afferents is restricted within a conserved map of PC stripes and transverse zones, their termination patterns also reflect species-specific compartmental features.
Parasagittal Compartmentation of Cerebellar Mossy Fibers As Revealed by the Patterned Expression of Vesicular Glutamate Transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2
Brain Structure & Function. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21814870
The cerebellum receives sensory signals from spinocerebellar (lower limbs) and dorsal column nuclei (upper limbs) mossy fibers. In the cerebellum, mossy fibers terminate in bands that are topographically aligned with stripes of Purkinje cells. While much is known about the molecular heterogeneity of Purkinje cell stripes, little is known about whether mossy fiber compartments have distinct molecular profiles. Here, we show that the vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, which mediate glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles of excitatory neurons, are expressed in complementary bands of mossy fibers in the adult mouse cerebellum. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and anterograde tracing, we found heavy VGLUT2 and weak VGLUT1 expression in bands of spinocerebellar mossy fibers. The adjacent bands, which are in part comprised of dorsal column nuclei mossy fibers, strongly express VGLUT1 and weakly express VGLUT2. Simultaneous injections of fluorescent tracers into the dorsal column nuclei and lower thoracic-upper lumbar spinal cord revealed that upper and lower limb sensory pathways innervate adjacent VGLUT1/VGLUT2 parasagittal bands. In summary, we demonstrate that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are differentially expressed by dorsal column nuclei and spinocerebellar mossy fibers, which project to complementary cerebellar bands and respect common compartmental boundaries in the adult mouse cerebellum.