Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (17)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
- Journal of Andrology
- The Biochemical Journal
- Reproductive Biomedicine Online
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Biochemical Journal
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- Human Reproduction (Oxford, England)
- Human Fertility (Cambridge, England)
- Biology of Reproduction
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
- Journal of Cell Science
- PloS One
- Plant Physiology
This translation into Arabic was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Stephen J. Publicover in JoVE
تقنيات التصوير كاليفورنيا 2 + في اشارة الى الحيوانات المنوية البشرية
Katherine Nash1, Linda Lefievre2, Ruben Peralta-Arias1, Jennifer Morris1, Aduen Morales-Garcia1, Tom Connolly2, Sarah Costello1, Jackson C. Kirkman-Brown3, Stephen J. Publicover1
1School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, 2School of Medicine, University of Birmingham, 3Centre for Human Reproductive Science, Birmingham Women’s Hospital
التحفيز أثار [CA
Other articles by Stephen J. Publicover on PubMed
Identification and Localization of T-type Voltage-operated Calcium Channel Subunits in Human Male Germ Cells. Expression of Multiple Isoforms
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11751928
Low voltage activated, voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels are expressed in rodent male germ cells and are believed to be pivotal in induction of the acrosome reaction in mouse spermatozoa. However, in humans, very little is known about expression of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels in male germ cells or their function. We have used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and patch clamp recording to investigate the expression of low voltage activated voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels in human male germ cells. We report that full-length transcripts for both alpha(1G) and alpha(1H) low voltage activated channel subunits are expressed in human testis. Multiple isoforms of alpha(1G) are present in the testis and at least two isoforms of alpha(1H), including a splice variant not previously described in the human. Transcripts for all the isoforms of both alpha(1G) and alpha(1H) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on mRNA isolated from human spermatogenic cells. In situ hybridization for alpha(1G) and alpha(1H) localized transcripts both in germ cells and in other cell types in the testis. Within the seminiferous tubules, alpha(1H) was detected primarily in germ cells. Using the whole cell patch clamp technique, we detected T-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) channel currents in isolated human male germ cells, although the current amplitude and frequency of occurrence were low in comparison to the occurrence of T-currents in murine male germ cells. We conclude that low voltage activated voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels are expressed in cells of the human male germ line.
Reproduction (Cambridge, England). Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11866687
The acrosome reaction is a key event in fertilization. Current models for induction of the acrosome reaction incorporate a necessary influx of Ca(2+), which is mediated by agonist-induced gating of ion channels in the sperm plasma membrane. The difficulty of applying electrophysiological techniques to spermatozoa has severely hampered studies on the expression of functional ion channels in these cells. However, during the last few years, a combination of molecular and physiological techniques (applied to immature spermatogenic cells) has elucidated both the expression of Ca(2+) channels in male germ cells and their role in induction of the acrosome reaction. It now appears that a range of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels, similar to those that occur in somatic cells, is expressed in spermatozoa. Male rodent germ cells express a low-voltage activated (T-type) channel that is regulated by membrane potential and provides the primary Ca(2+) influx mechanism in zona pellucida-stimulated spermatozoa. In human spermatozoa, similar channels are apparently expressed, but their function in induction of the acrosome reaction has yet to be established. A range of other, high voltage-activated channels also appear to be present in rodent and human spermatozoa, but their roles are not yet known. In this review, the structure and characteristics of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels are outlined and the evidence for their expression and function in male germ cells is assembled and discussed.
Journal of Andrology. May-Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12002428
The Biochemical Journal. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12614198
Progesterone induces a biphasic Ca(2+) influx and consequent acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. We have used two procedures to vary the stimulus (dosage and prior receptor desensitization) to investigate the encoding of stimulus strength by intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](i)). Acrosome reaction and amplitude (but not kinetics) of the transient [Ca(2+)](i) response (population measurement) showed sigmoidal dose sensitivity over the range 0.3 nM-3 microM, saturating at approximately 300 nM (ED(50) approximately 30 nM). The amplitude of the sustained response saturated at 3 microM. Single-cell imaging showed that the amplitudes of both transient and sustained [Ca(2+)](i) responses were highly dose-dependent, but that their frequency of occurrence and kinetics were largely dose-independent. Fluorimetric measurements confirmed that progesterone-induced [Ca(2+)](i) influx was subject to desensitization, with second and subsequent applications of 3 microM progesterone being ineffective. However, sequential additions of 3 nM, 30 nM and 3 microM progesterone generated transient [Ca(2+)](i) responses at each concentration, the amplitude and duration of the response to 3 microM progesterone being reduced compared with non-pretreated cells. Single-cell imaging revealed that pretreatment had no effect on the proportion of responsive cells, but single-cell responses, similarly to population responses, were smaller and markedly reduced in duration, consistent with an effect of desensitization on a late component of the [Ca(2+)](i) transient. We conclude that the strength of the progesterone stimulus, when varied by dosage or by desensitization, is encoded by an analogue [Ca(2+)](i) signal. Dose dependency of the acrosome reaction is therefore determined not by the number of progesterone-responsive cells but by variation in the probability of exocytosis in a 'constant' responsive population.
Reproductive Biomedicine Online. Oct-Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14753177
This research aims firstly to understand, in cellular and molecular terms, how a mature human spermatozoon is prepared for fertilization, and secondly, to identify what factors are involved in the initial signalling interactions between the egg and spermatozoon. In order to achieve these objectives, a combination of approaches is being used, including single-cell imaging, patch clamping and proteomics. Single-cell imaging reveals hidden complexity and heterogeneity in signalling responses in spermatozoa. Characterization of cell physiology at the single-cell level must be a future aim, including the study of ion channel expression and function by patch clamping. Proteomic experiments are aimed at identifying defects in protein expression in specific subgroups of men, e.g. those with globozoospermia. A better understanding of prefertilization events will allow the development of non-assisted reproductive therapy, drug-based treatments for male infertility.
Stimulation of Human Spermatozoa with Progesterone Gradients to Simulate Approach to the Oocyte. Induction of [Ca(2+)](i) Oscillations and Cyclical Transitions in Flagellar Beating
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15322137
Progesterone is present at micromolar concentrations in the cumulus matrix, which surrounds mammalian oocytes. Exposure of human spermatozoa to a concentration gradient of progesterone (0-3 microM) to simulate approach to the oocyte induced a slowly developing increase in [Ca(2+)](i) upon which, in many cells, slow oscillations were superimposed. [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations often started at very low progesterone (<10 nm), and their frequency did not change during the subsequent rise in concentration. Oscillations also occurred, but in a much smaller proportion of cells, in response to stepped application of progesterone (3 microM). When progesterone was removed, [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations often persisted or quickly resumed. Superfusion with low-Ca(2+) bathing medium (no added Ca(2+)) did not prevent [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations, but they could be abolished by addition of EGTA or La(3+). Inhibitors of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases or inositol trisphosphate signaling had no effect on [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations, but pharmacological manipulation of ryanodine receptors affected both their frequency and amplitude. Staining of live spermatozoa with BODIPY FL-X ryanodine showed localization of ryanodine binding primarily to the caudal part of the head and mid-piece. [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations did not induce acrosome reaction, but in cells generating oscillations, the flagellar beat mode alternated in synchrony with the oscillation cycle. Flagellar bending and lateral movement of the sperm head during [Ca(2+)](i) peaks were markedly increased compared with during [Ca(2+)](i) troughs. This alternating pattern of activity is likely to facilitate zona penetration. These observations show that progesterone initiates unusual and complex store-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) signaling in human spermatozoa and identify a previously unrecognized effect of progesterone in regulating sperm "behavior" during fertilization.
The Biochemical Journal. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14606954
We have used single-cell imaging to investigate intracellular Ca2+ signalling in human spermatozoa stimulated with progesterone (3 microM). In approx. 9% of cells progesterone caused the activation of slow repetitive [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+ concentration) oscillations, with a period of 1-4 min, which persisted for the duration of recording (20-30 min). Pretreatment with nifedipine, which blocks T- and L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channels in spermatogenic cells, did not modify the characteristics of the oscillations, but reduced the proportion of cells in which they were observed. Stimulation with Bay K 8644 or FPL64176 induced [Ca2+]i oscillations in 5-10% of cells, but their frequency was low (period, 4-5 min). Application of valinomycin (1 microM) to clamp membrane potential at E(K) (equilibrium potential for potassium) did not modify activity in oscillating cells, showing that plasma membrane potential and activation of voltage-operated conductances are not involved in the mechanism by which sperm [Ca2+]i oscillations are generated.
Group III Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Activation Inhibits Ca2+ Influx and Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15799084
Nitric oxide (NO) is pivotal to bone physiology. In the central nervous system constitutive, Ca(2+)-calmodulin regulated NO synthase activity and glutamate signalling are intimately linked. Since L-glutamate signalling occurs in bone and is implicated in bone regulation, we have investigated the effect of L-glutamate on NO synthase in bone-derived cells. Treatment of marrow stromal cells with L-glutamate reduced basal NO synthase activity by 40%. Imaging showed that L-glutamate caused a rapid, usually localised and slowly-reversible fall in [Ca(2+)](i). This effect was resistant to disruption of intracellular Ca(2+) stores but sensitive to extracellular La(3+) or omission of extracellular Ca(2+), demonstrating that glutamate acts by inhibition of membrane Ca(2+) influx. The only previous description of such an effect of L-glutamate is via activation of the group III receptor, mGluR6, in the retina. Using Western blotting and RT-PCR we detected mGluR6 protein and transcripts in marrow stromal cells. The effects of L-glutamate on NOS activity and [Ca(2+)](i) in marrow stromal cells were abolished by a group III mGluR inhibitor, (S)-2-amino-2-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric acid. Recording of membrane potential showed that, similarly to the effects of retinal mGluR6 activation, L-glutamate induced membrane hyperpolarisation (-16 +/- 2 mV), which was also sensitive to group III mGluR inhibition. L-glutamate had no effect on cAMP levels. We conclude that activation of a group III mGluR in bone marrow stromal cells inhibits a Ca(2+)-permeable plasma membrane channel, reducing [Ca(2+)](i) and suppressing generation of NO. These observations directly link bone L-glutamate signalling to processes central to bone growth and regulation.
Reassessing the Role of Progesterone in Fertilization--compartmentalized Calcium Signalling in Human Spermatozoa?
Human Reproduction (Oxford, England). Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15980011
Progesterone is present at micromolar concentrations in the vicinity of the oocyte. Human spermatozoa generate a biphasic rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and undergo the acrosome reaction upon progesterone stimulation, suggesting that the hormone acts as a secondary inducer or 'primer' of the acrosome reaction in association with the zona pellucida. However, the sensitivity of human spermatozoa to progesterone is such that many cells may undergo the acrosome reaction prematurely, compromising their ability to fertilize. We have shown that exposing human spermatozoa to a progesterone gradient, simulating the stimulus encountered as sperm approach the oocyte, results in a novel response. A slow rise in [Ca(2+)](i) occurs, upon which, in many cells, [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations are superimposed. Cells showing this pattern of response do not undergo the acrosome reaction, but instead show an alternating pattern of flagellar activity associated with peaks and troughs of [Ca(2+)](i). A Ca(2+) store in the rear of the sperm head apparently generates this complex signal, functioning as an '[Ca(2+)](i) oscillator'. We propose that: (i) the acrosome reaction and flagellar beat are regulated by separate Ca(2+) stores; (ii) these stores are mobilized through different mechanisms by different agonists; and (iii) progesterone in vivo acts as a switch for the oscillator which regulates the flagellar beat mode.
Human Fertility (Cambridge, England). Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16393824
Kinetics of the Progesterone-induced Acrosome Reaction and Its Relation to Intracellular Calcium Responses in Individual Human Spermatozoa
Biology of Reproduction. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16957023
Progesterone at 3 microM triggers a biphasic (transient and sustained) increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human sperm, which is believed to be a prerequisite for progesterone-induced acrosome reaction (AR). As very little is known about how AR occurrence, latency, and completion relate to the characteristics of the progesterone-induced [Ca(2+)](i) signal, we examined these events using fluorescence microscopy of individual living human sperm. Direct assessment of acrosomal status after calcium imaging showed no differences in kinetics or amplitude of the preceding progesterone-induced calcium responses in acrosome-reacted and acrosome-intact cells, which indicates that the amplitude of the [Ca(2+)](i) signal is not the critical determinant of AR. Chelation of extracellular calcium to arrest AR at varying times after progesterone stimulation revealed that maximal AR occurred immediately following progesterone stimulation, during the initial transient calcium influx rather than during the sustained calcium response. Attempts to follow acrosomal dispersal in real-time by staining with the acidic organelle probes LysoTracker DND-99 and dapoxyl (2-aminoethyl) sulphonamide (DAES) proved inconclusive due to heterogeneous labeling of the cell population. Surprisingly, the dye was often not confined to the acrosome but stained the whole sperm head, which suggests that only a subpopulation of human sperm cells contains a sufficiently acidic acrosome.
Characterisation of Serum-induced Intracellular Ca2+ Oscillations in Primary Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16245308
Intracellular Ca2+ signalling is pivotal to cell function and [Ca2+]i oscillations permit precise and prolonged modulation of an array of Ca2+-sensitive processes without the need for extended, global elevations in [Ca2+]i. We have studied [Ca2+]i signalling in primary rat marrow stromal cells exposed to foetal calf serum (FCS) constituents at concentrations up to those required to promote growth and differentiation in culture. Spontaneous [Ca2+]i signalling was not observed, but exposure to 1% FCS induced regular, sustained Ca2+ oscillations in 41 +/- 3% of cells. Incidence of FCS-induced oscillations was dose-dependent, saturating at 0.5%. These oscillations were arrested by disruption of Ca2+ stores with 100 nM-1 microM thapsigargin or discharge of mitochondrial membrane potential and were sensitive to blockade of IP3-receptors by 50 microM 2-amino-ethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and inhibition of phospholipase C with 5 microM U73122. The oscillations decreased in frequency and amplitude following inhibition of Ca2+ influx with EGTA or La3+ but were poorly sensitive to nifedipine (1-10 microM) and Bay K 8644 (300 nM). The factor(s) responsible for inducing [Ca2+]i oscillations are heat stable, insensitive to disulphide bond reduction with 20 mM dithioerythritol and retained by a 30 kDa molecular weight filter. Serum is routinely present in culture medium at 10%-15% [v/v] and marrow stromal cells maintained under culture conditions exhibited sustained oscillations. This is the first demonstration of agonist-induced complex Ca2+ signals in marrow stromal cells. We conclude that Ca2+ oscillations occur constantly in these cells in culture and are potentially important regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation.
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16250016
TREK-1 is a mechanosensitive member of the two-pore domain potassium channel family (2PK+) that is also sensitive to lipids, free fatty acids (including arachidonic acid), temperature, intracellular pH, and a range of clinically relevant compounds including volatile anaesthetics. TREK-1 is known to be expressed at high levels in excitable tissues, such as the nervous system, the heart and smooth muscle, where it is believed to play a prominent role in controlling resting cell membrane potential and electrical excitability. In this report, we use RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to confirm that human derived osteoblasts and MG63 cells express TREK-1 mRNA and protein. In addition, we show gene expression of TREK2c and TRAAK channels. Furthermore, whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology demonstrates that these cells express a spontaneously active, outwardly rectifying potassium "background leak" current that shares many similarities to TREK-1. The outward current is largely insensitive to TEA and Ba2+, and is sensitive to application of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In addition, blocking TREK-1 channel activity is shown to upregulate bone cell proliferation. It is concluded that human osteoblasts functionally express TREK-1 and that these channels contribute, at least in part, to the resting membrane potential of human osteoblast cells. We hypothesise a possible role for TREK-1 in mechanotransduction, leading to bone remodelling.
Reproduction (Cambridge, England). Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17504912
Although sperm dysfunction is the single most common cause of infertility, we have poor methods of diagnosis and surprisingly no effective treatment (excluding assisted reproductive technology). In this review, we challenge the usefulness of a basic semen analysis and argue that a new paradigm is required immediately. We discuss the use of at-home screening to potentially improve the diagnosis of the male and to streamline the management of the sub-fertile couple. Additionally, we outline the recent progress in the field, for example, in proteomics, which will allow the development of new biomarkers of sperm function. This new knowledge will transform our understanding of the spermatozoon as a machine and is likely to lead to non-ART treatments for men with sperm dysfunction.
Journal of Cell Science. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18522990
An essential step in mammalian fertilisation is the sperm acrosome reaction (AR) - exocytosis of a single large vesicle (the acrosome) that surrounds the nucleus at the apical sperm head. The acrosomal and plasma membranes fuse, resulting in both the release of factors that might facilitate penetration of the zona pellucida (which invests the egg) and the externalisation of membrane components required for gamete fusion. Exocytosis in somatic cells is a rapid process - typically complete within milliseconds - yet acrosomal enzymes are required throughout zona penetration - a period of minutes. Here, we present the first studies of this crucial and complex event occurring in real-time in individual live sperm using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Simultaneous imaging of separate probes for acrosomal content and inner acrosomal membrane show that rapid membrane fusion, initiated at the cell apex, is followed by exceptionally slow dispersal of acrosomal content (up to 12 minutes). Cells that lose their acrosome prematurely (spontaneous AR), compromising their ability to penetrate the egg vestments, are those that are already subject to a loss of motility and viability. Cells undergoing stimulus-induced AR (progesterone or A23187) remain viable, with a proportion remaining motile (progesterone). These findings suggest that the AR is a highly adapted form of exocytosis.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19997608
Sperm chemotaxis is a chemical guiding mechanism that may orient spermatozoa to the egg surface. A picomolar concentration gradient of Progesterone (P), the main steroidal component secreted by the cumulus cells that surround the egg, attracts human spermatozoa. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sperm chemotaxis mediated by P, we combine the application of different strategies: pharmacological inhibition of signaling molecules, measurements of the concentrations of second messengers and activation of the chemotactic signaling. Our data implicate a number of classic signal transduction pathways in the response and provide a model for the sequence of events, where the tmAC-cAMP-PKA pathway is activated first, followed by protein tyrosine phosphorylation (equatorial band and flagellum) and calcium mobilization (through IP(3)R and SOC channels), whereas the sGC-cGMP-PKG cascade, is activated later. These events lead to sperm orientation towards the source of the chemoattractant. The finding proposes a molecular mechanism which contributes to the understanding of the signal transduction pathway that takes place in a physiological process as chemotaxis.
Self-incompatibility in Papaver Rhoeas Activates Nonspecific Cation Conductance Permeable to Ca2+ and K+
Plant Physiology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21177472
Cellular responses rely on signaling. In plant cells, cytosolic free calcium is a major second messenger, and ion channels play a key role in mediating physiological responses. Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important genetically controlled mechanism to prevent self-fertilization. It uses interaction of matching S-determinants from the pistil and pollen to allow "self" recognition, which triggers rejection of incompatible pollen. In Papaver rhoeas, the S-determinants are PrsS and PrpS. PrsS is a small novel cysteine-rich protein; PrpS is a small novel transmembrane protein. Interaction of PrsS with incompatible pollen stimulates S-specific increases in cytosolic free calcium and alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in programmed cell death in incompatible but not compatible pollen. Here, we have used whole-cell patch clamping of pollen protoplasts to show that PrsS stimulates SI-specific activation of pollen grain plasma membrane conductance in incompatible but not compatible pollen grain protoplasts. The SI-activated conductance does not require voltage activation, but it is voltage sensitive. It is permeable to divalent cations (Ba(2+) ≥ Ca(2+) > Mg(2+)) and the monovalent ions K(+) and NH(4)(+) and is enhanced at voltages negative to -100 mV. The Ca(2+) conductance is blocked by La(3+) but not by verapamil; the K(+) currents are tetraethylammonium chloride insensitive and do not require Ca(2+). We propose that the SI-stimulated conductance may represent a nonspecific cation channel or possibly two conductances, permeable to monovalent and divalent cations. Our data provide insights into signal-response coupling involving a biologically important response. PrsS provides a rare example of a protein triggering alterations in ion channel activity.