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In JoVE (1)
- Vibrodissociation של נוירונים בין פרוסות המוח מכרסמים לחקר הילוכים Synaptic ותמונה מסופי Presynaptic
Other Publications (29)
- Physiological Genomics
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Molecular Pharmacology
- Neuroscience Letters
- Molecular Pharmacology
- Physiological Genomics
- Molecular Pharmacology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Methods in Enzymology
- Neuroscience Letters
- Molecular Pharmacology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Molecular Pharmacology
- Nature Methods
- Biophysical Journal
- The Journal of Physiology
- Nature Neuroscience
- Journal of Biomedical Optics
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- PloS One
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Frontiers in Neuroscience
- Journal of Neurophysiology
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Articles by Stephen Ikeda in JoVE
Vibrodissociation של נוירונים בין פרוסות המוח מכרסמים לחקר הילוכים Synaptic ותמונה מסופי Presynaptic
Sang Beom Jun1,2, Verginia Cuzon Carlson1, Stephen Ikeda3, David Lovinger1
1Section on Synaptic Pharmacology/Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2Department of Electronics Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 3Section on Transmitter Signaling/Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
דו"ח זה מדגים טכניקה בידוד מכני של נוירונים בודדים קיימא שמירה boutons presynaptic המצורפת. נוירונים Vibrodissociated יש את היתרונות של ייצור מהיר, שליטה מעולה תרופתי ושיפור חלל מהדק ללא השפעה של תאים שכנים. שיטה זו יכולה לשמש עבור הדמיה של אלמנטים הסינפטי ו-clamp תיקון ההקלטה.
Other articles by Stephen Ikeda on PubMed
Physiological Genomics. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11842130
Heterotrimeric G proteins (Galphabetagamma) play an essential role in coupling membrane receptors to effector proteins such as ion channels and enzymes. Among the five mammalian Gbeta-subunits cloned, the human G protein beta4 has not been described. The purpose of the present study was to functionally characterize the newly identified human Gbeta4 subunit. The Gbeta4 open reading frame (ORF) was amplified utilizing PCR from brain cDNA. Amplification primers were generated following 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE) from an expressed sequence tag (EST) containing the predicted 3' end of the protein. Multiple tissue cDNA panel analysis showed that Gbeta4 mRNA was strongly expressed in lung and placenta, whereas it is weakly expressed in brain and heart. Heterologous overexpression of Gbeta4gamma2 or Gbeta4gamma4 in rat sympathetic neurons resulted in tonic modulation of N-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) and G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) currents. Furthermore, coexpression of Gbeta4gamma2 and Galpha(oA) resulted in heterotrimer formation. These results show that the newly cloned Gbeta subunit shares several properties with other human Gbeta family members.
Journal of Neurophysiology. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11929888
Desensitization of heterologously expressed metabotropic glutamate receptor 5a (mGluR5a) was examined in rat sympathetic neurons. Calcium currents in cells expressing mGluR5a exhibited substantial inhibition in response to glutamate exposure. In the continued presence of glutamate, inhibition attenuated rapidly over the course of about a minute. Desensitization was eliminated when a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue was substituted for ATP in the pipette solution, suggesting that desensitization was mediated by a phosphorylation event. Next, pharmacological agents were used to investigate the nature of the kinase involved in desensitization. Desensitization was sensitive to the nonspecific kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, but not H-7, another nonspecific kinase inhibitor. Inhibitors of myosin light chain kinase and calmodulin-dependent kinase were without effect on desensitization. However, desensitization was sensitive to the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolymaleimide. In contrast, Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of conventional protein kinase C isoforms, was without effect. In addition, desensitization persisted in the presence of 10 mM intracellular bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, a fast Ca(2+) chelator. Finally, overexpression of wild-type calmodulin, which can bind mGluR5 and inhibit phosphorylation, did not alter mGluR desensitization. Two Ca(2+)-binding-deficient calmodulin mutants were also without effect. These data indicate a role for nonconventional protein kinase C isoforms as a mediator of mGluR5 desensitization and that the phosphorylation of mGluR5a that competes with calmodulin binding does not mediate desensitization.
Molecular Pharmacology. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11961124
Functional gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) receptors assemble from two subunits, GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2).) This heteromerization, which involves a C-terminal coiled-coil interaction, ensures efficient surface trafficking and agonist-dependent G-protein activation. In the present study, we took a closer look at the implications of the intracellular C termini of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) for G-protein coupling. We generated a series of C-terminal mutants of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) and tested them for physical interaction, surface trafficking, coupling to adenylyl cyclase, and G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells as well as on endogenous calcium channels in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). We found that the C-terminal interaction contributes only partly to the heterodimeric assembly of the subunits, indicating the presence of an additional interaction site. The described endoplasmic reticulum retention signal within the C terminus of GABA(B(1)) functioned only in the context of specific amino acids, which constitute part of the GABA(B(1)) coiled-coil sequence. This finding may provide a link between the retention signal and its shielding by the coiled coil of GABA(B(2).) In HEK293 cells, we observed that the two well-known GABA(B) receptor antagonists [S-(R*,R*)]-[3-[[1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino]-2-hydroxypropyl](cyclohexylmethyl) phosphinic acid (CGP54626) and (+)-(2S)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH50911) CGP54626 and SCH50911 function as inverse agonists. The C termini of GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) strongly influenced agonist-independent G-protein coupling, although they were not necessary for agonist-dependent G-protein coupling. The C-terminal GABA(B) receptor mutants described here demonstrate that the active receptor conformation is stabilized by the coiled-coil interaction. Thus, the C-terminal conformation of the GABA(B) receptor may determine its constitutive activity, which could be a therapeutic target for inverse agonists.
Neuron. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12165463
The identity of signaling elements that couple muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation to M current (KCNQ K(+) channels) modulation has remained unknown despite decades of study. Suh and Hille (in this issue of Neuron) demonstrate that activation of phospholipase C (PLC) initiates M current modulation and that recovery requires ATP and phosphoinositide 4-kinase (PI 4-K). These data suggest that breakdown of phosphotidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is a crucial determinant of M channel modulation.
Neuroscience Letters. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12270642
To begin to determine what role metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play in the peripheral nervous system, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to probe RNA isolated from sympathetic neurons of the rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG). RT-PCR primers were designed to detect each of the eight rat mGluR transcripts. Only one, mGluR7, was detected in RNA from rat SCG, though each appeared to be present in RNA from whole rat brain. Although mGluR7 messenger RNA is apparently present in rat SCG, functional mGluR7 was not observed, as application of neither glutamate nor the group III mGluR agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) produced calcium current modulation in isolated SCG neurons, as would be expected. However, following mGluR7 heterologous expression, application of L-AP4 did produce moderate calcium current modulation in isolated neurons, indicating that mGluR7 can express on the surface of SCG soma, and that its activation can modulate calcium currents.
Molecular Pharmacology. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12488551
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) is a class 3 G protein-coupled receptor and an important mediator of synaptic activity in the central nervous system. Previous work demonstrated that mGluR2 couples to pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G proteins. However, the specificity of mGluR2 coupling to individual members of the G(i/o) family is not known. Using heterologously expressed mGluR2 in rat sympathetic neurons from the superior cervical ganglion (SCG), the mGluR2/G protein coupling profile was characterized by reconstituting coupling in PTX-treated cells expressing PTX-insensitive mutant Galpha proteins and Gbetagamma. By employing this method, it was demonstrated that mGluR2 coupled strongly with Galphaob, Galphai1, Galphai2, and Galphai3, although coupling to Galphaoa was less efficient. In addition, mGluR2 did not seem to couple to the most divergent member of the G(i/o) family, Galphaz, although Galphaz coupled strongly to the endogenous alpha2 adrenergic receptor. To determine which Galpha proteins may be natively expressed in SCG neurons, the presence of mRNA for various Galpha proteins was tested using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Strong bands were detected for all members of the G(i/o) family (Galphao, Galphai1, Galphai2, Galphai3, Galphaz) as well as for Galpha11 and Galphas. A weak signal was detected for Galphaq and no Galpha15 mRNA was detected.
A Splice Variant of the G Protein Beta 3-subunit Implicated in Disease States Does Not Modulate Ion Channels
Physiological Genomics. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12595577
A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C825T) in the GNB3 gene produces an alternative splice variant of the heterotrimeric G protein beta3 subunit (Gbeta3). Translation of the alternatively spliced mRNA results in a protein product, Gbeta3-s, in which 41 amino acids are deleted from Gbeta3. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that the C825T allele occurs with a high frequency in patients with certain vascular disorders. However, little information is available regarding the functional role Gbeta3-s might play in ion channel modulation. To examine this aspect, Gbeta3 or Gbeta3-s, along with either Ggamma2 or Ggamma5, were expressed in rat sympathetic neurons by nuclear microinjection of vector encoding the desired protein. In contrast to Gbeta3, expression of Gbeta3-s did not modulate N-type Ca(2+) or G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. In addition, Gbeta3-s did not appear to complex with a pertussis toxin-insensitive mutant of Galpha(i2) or couple to natively expressed alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors. Finally, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements indicated that enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)-labeled Gbeta3-s does not form a Gbetagamma heterodimer when coexpressed with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP)-labeled Ggamma2. Therefore, when expressed in sympathetic neurons, Gbeta3-s appears to lack biological activity--hence pathological conditions in patients carrying the homozygous C825T allele may result from a functional knockout of Gbeta3.
Endocannabinoids Modulate N-type Calcium Channels and G-protein-coupled Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels Via CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Heterologously Expressed in Mammalian Neurons
Molecular Pharmacology. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14978245
Endocannabinoids may serve as retrograde messengers to inhibit neurotransmitter release during depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) or excitation (DSE). We therefore tested whether endocannabinoids inhibit N-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels by activating G(i/o)-protein-coupled CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R)--a possible mechanism underlying DSI/DSE. Three putative endocannabinoids [2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), 2-arachidonyl glycerol ether (2-AGE), and anandamide (AEA)] and the cannabimimetic aminoalkylindole WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) inhibited whole-cell Ca2+ currents in rat sympathetic neurons previously injected with cDNA encoding a human CB1R. Agonist-mediated Ca2+ current inhibition was blocked by a selective CB1R antagonist [SR141716A, N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboximide hydrochloride] and pertussis toxin (PTX) pretreatment. The rank order of potency was WIN (IC50=2 nM)>2-AGE (350 nM) approximately 2-AG (480 nM)>AEA (approximately 3 microM), with each agonist displaying similar efficacy (approximately 50% maximal inhibition). Increasing CB1R expression level significantly enhanced AEA potency. AEA (10 microM) also inhibited Ca2+ channels in a voltage-independent, CB1R-independent, and PTX-insensitive manner, whereas 2-AG and 2-AGE were devoid of this activity. All three endocannabinoids activated G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, GIRK1/4, heterologously expressed in sympathetic neurons. These results suggest a mechanism by which endocannibinoids might influence presynaptic function.
Modulation of Ion Channels and Synaptic Transmission by a Human Sensory Neuron-specific G-protein-coupled Receptor, SNSR4/mrgX1, Heterologously Expressed in Cultured Rat Neurons
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15163697
Human sensory neuron-specific G-protein-coupled receptors (SNSRs) are expressed solely in small diameter primary sensory neurons. This restricted expression pattern is of considerable therapeutic interest because small nociceptors transmit chronic pain messages. The neuronal function of human SNSRs is difficult to assess because rodent orthologs have yet to be clearly defined, and individual isoforms are found only in a small subset of primary sensory neurons. To circumvent this problem, we expressed human SNSR4 (hSNSR4; also known as Hs.mrgX1) in rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG), dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and hippocampal neurons using nuclear injection or recombinant adenoviruses and examined modulation of ion channels and neurotransmission using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. BAM8-22 (a 15 amino acid C-terminal fragment of bovine adrenal medulla peptide 22), a peptide agonist derived from proenkephalin, inhibited high (but not low) voltage-activated Ca2+ current in both DRG and SCG neurons expressing hSNSR4, whereas no response was detected in control neurons. The Ca2+ current inhibition was concentration dependent and partially sensitive to Pertussis toxin (PTX) treatment. Additionally, the peptide was highly effective in modulating current arising from M-type K+ channels in SCG neurons expressing hSNSR4. In hippocampal neurons expressing hSNSR4, BAM8-22 induced presynaptic inhibition of transmission that was abolished after PTX treatment. Our data indicate that hSNSR4, when heterologously expressed in rat neurons, can be activated by an opioid-related peptide, couples to G(q/11)-proteins as well as PTX-sensitive G(i/o)-proteins, and modulates neuronal Ca2+ channels, K+ channels, and synaptic transmission.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15250492
Although methods for expressing foreign proteins in clonal cell lines are well established, mature neurons remain a difficult preparation for the introduction of foreign genes. Microinjection is a reliable method for producing robust targeted expression in neurons that has advantages over conventional transfection/infection methodologies. Here, I describe procedures for expressing signaling proteins in adult rat sympathetic neurons by direct microinjection of cRNA and cDNA into the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively. The methods are applicable to a wide variety of peripheral and central neuron preparations, as well as clonal cell lines.
Use of RGS-insensitive Galpha Subunits to Study Endogenous RGS Protein Action on G-protein Modulation of N-type Calcium Channels in Sympathetic Neurons
Methods in Enzymology. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15313566
Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are a large family of signaling proteins that control both the magnitude and temporal characteristics of heterotrimeric G-protein-mediated signaling. A current challenge is to define how endogenous RGS protein function impacts G-protein modulation of ionic channels in mammalian neurons. The experimental strategy described here utilizes distinct mutations in Galpha subunits that confer Bordetella pertussis toxin (PTX) and RGS protein insensitivity. The native signaling pathway in rat sympathetic neurons that mediates voltage-dependent modulation of N-type Ca2+ channels is ablated by PTX treatment and the signaling is reconstituted by expressing a PTX/RGS-insensitive Galpha mutant along with Gbeta and Ggamma subunits. As neurons are resistant to conventional transfection modalities, heterologous expression is accomplished by the direct microinjection of plasmids into the nucleus of the neuron. An advantage of this approach is that knowledge of the specific RGS subtypes participating in the pathway is not required. From the resulting alterations in the kinetics and pharmacology of G-protein-coupled receptor modulation of N-type Ca2+ channels, we can infer the role endogenous RGS proteins play in the signaling pathway.
Alternative Modalities of Adenovirus-mediated Gene Expression in Hippocampal Neurons Cultured on Microisland Substrate
Neuroscience Letters. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15351453
Previously, we have used CsCl gradient-purified recombinant adenovirus (AdV) to successfully transfer genes into hippocampal neurons cultured on microisland substrate. Here, we report that purification of AdV particles is not required and efficient gene expression can be achieved using either crude AdV lysates or HEK 293 cells infected with AdV. The advantages of the simplified procedure are greatly reduced preparation time and reduced requirements for equipment and expertise.
Molecular Pharmacology. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15755905
Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs; mGluR4, 6, 7, and 8) couple to the Galpha(i/o)-containing G protein heterotrimers and act as autoreceptors to regulate glutamate release, probably by inhibiting voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Although most mGluRs have been functionally expressed in a variety of systems, few studies have demonstrated robust coupling of mGluR8 to downstream effectors. We therefore tested whether activation of mGluR8 inhibited Ca(2+) channels. Both L-glutamate (L-Glu) and l-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4), a selective agonist for group III mGluRs, inhibited N-type Ca(2+) current in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons previously injected with a cDNA encoding mGluR8a/b. L-AP4 was approximately 100-fold more potent (IC(50) = 0.1 microM) than L-Glu ( approximately 10 microM), but it had efficacy similar to that of L-Glu ( approximately 50% maximal inhibition). The potency and efficacy of L-AP4 and L-Glu were similar for both splice variants. Agonist-induced inhibition was abolished by pretreatment with (R,S)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine, a selective group III mGluR antagonist, and pertussis toxin. Deletion of either a calmodulin (CaM) binding motif in the C terminus or the entire C terminus of mGluR8 did not affect mGluR8-mediated response. Our studies indicate that both mGluR8a and 8b are capable of inhibiting N-type Ca(2+) channel, suggesting a role as presynaptic autoreceptors to regulate neuronal excitability. The studies also imply that the potential CaM binding domain is not required for the mGluR8-mediated Ca(2+) channel inhibition and the C terminus of mGluR8a is dispensable for receptor coupling to N-type Ca(2+) channels.
Expression of Rem2, an RGK Family Small GTPase, Reduces N-type Calcium Current Without Affecting Channel Surface Density
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16237180
Rad, Gem/Kir, Rem, and Rem2 are members of the Ras-related RGK (Rad, Gem, and Kir) family of small GTP-binding proteins. Heterologous expression of RGK proteins interferes with de novo calcium channel assembly/trafficking and dramatically decreases the amplitude of currents arising from preexisting high-voltage-activated calcium channels. These effects probably result from the direct interaction of RGK proteins with calcium channel beta subunits. Among the RGK family, Rem2 is the only member abundantly expressed in neuronal tissues. Here, we examined the ability of Rem2 to modulate endogenous voltage-activated calcium channels in rat sympathetic and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Heterologous expression of Rem2 nearly abolished calcium currents arising from preexisting high-voltage-activated calcium channels without affecting low-voltage-activated calcium channels. Rem2 inhibition of N-type calcium channels required both the Ras homology (core) domain and the polybasic C terminus. Mutation of a putative GTP/Mg2+ binding motif in Rem2 did not affect suppression of calcium currents. Loading neurons with GDP-beta-S via the patch pipette did not reverse Rem2-mediated calcium channel inhibition. Finally, [(125)I]Tyr22-omega-conotoxin GVIA cell surface binding in tsA201 cells stably expressing N-type calcium channels was not altered by Rem2 expression at a time when calcium current was totally abolished. Together, our results support a model in which Rem2 localizes to the plasma membrane via a C-terminal polybasic motif and interacts with calcium channel beta subunits in the preassembled N-type channel, thereby forming a nonconducting species.
Phosducin and Phosducin-like Protein Attenuate G-protein-coupled Receptor-mediated Inhibition of Voltage-gated Calcium Channels in Rat Sympathetic Neurons
Molecular Pharmacology. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16608918
Phosducin (PDC) has been shown in structural and biochemical experiments to bind the Gbetagamma subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins. A proposed function of PDC and phosducin-like protein (PDCL) is the sequestration of "free" Gbetagamma from the plasma membrane, thereby terminating signaling by Gbetagamma. The functional impact of heterologously expressed PDC and PDCL on N-type calcium channel (CaV2.2) modulation was examined in sympathetic neurons, isolated from rat superior cervical ganglia, using whole-cell voltage clamp. Expression of PDC and PDCL attenuated voltage-dependent inhibition of N-type calcium channels, a Gbetagamma-dependent process, in a time-dependent fashion. Calcium current inhibition after short-term exposure to norepinephrine was minimally altered by PDC or PDCL expression. However, in the continued presence of norepinephrine, PDC or PDCL relieved calcium channel inhibition compared with control neurons. We observed similar results after activation of heterologously expressed metabotropic glutamate receptors with 100 microM L-glutamate. Neurons expressing PDC or PDCL maintained suppression of inhibition after re-exposure to agonist. Unlike other Gbetagamma sequestering proteins that abolish the short-term inhibition of Ca2+ channels, PDC and PDCL require prolonged agonist exposure before effects on modulation are realized.
Nature Methods. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16791204
Biophysical Journal. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16815904
Measurement of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency and the relative concentration of donor and acceptor fluorophores in living cells using the three-filter cube approach requires the determination of two constants: 1), the ratio of sensitized acceptor emission to donor fluorescence quenching (G factor) and 2), the ratio of donor/acceptor fluorescence intensity for equimolar concentrations in the absence of FRET (k factor). We have developed a method to determine G and k that utilizes two donor-acceptor fusion proteins with differing FRET efficiencies-the value of which need not be known. We validated the method by measuring the FRET efficiency and concentration ratio of the fluorescent proteins Cerulean and Venus in mammalian cells expressing a series of fusion proteins with varying stoichiometries. The method greatly simplifies quantitative FRET measurement in living cells as it does not require cell fixation, acceptor photobleaching, protein purification, or specialized equipment for determining fluorescence spectra or lifetime.
Fluorophore-assisted Light Inactivation Produces Both Targeted and Collateral Effects on N-type Calcium Channel Modulation in Rat Sympathetic Neurons
The Journal of Physiology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16873413
Fluorophore-assisted light inactivation (FALI) is a method to inactivate specific proteins on a time scale of seconds to minutes using either diffuse or coherent light. Here we examine a novel FALI modality that utilizes a fluorescein-conjugated polypeptide, alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) and a 13 amino acid BTX-binding site engineered into the N-terminus of metabotropic glutamate receptor 8a (mGluR8a), a class C G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The tagged mGluR8a was expressed in rat sympathetic neurons and labelled with fluorescein-conjugated BTX (FL-BTX). The efficacy of FALI was evaluated by monitoring mGluR8a-mediated inhibition of calcium currents (I(Ca)) using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. Following either wide-field or laser illumination of FL-BTX-labelled neurons, mGluR8a-mediated I(Ca) inhibition was greatly attenuated whereas holding current and basal I(Ca), measures of non-specific effects, were minimally affected. Sodium azide, a collision quencher of singlet oxygen, reduced the magnitude of FALI-mediated effects supporting a role for reactive oxygen species in the process. Although these results were consistent with an acute inactivation of mGluR8a, the intended target, two findings confounded this interpretation. First, effects on a natively expressed signalling pathway, alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor-mediated I(Ca) modulation, were observed following illumination of neurons expressing FL-BTX-labelled sodium channel beta2 subunits or ionotropic 5-HT(3) receptors, proteins with no overt relationship to GPCR signalling pathways. Second, GPCR-independent I(Ca) modulation induced with intracellular guanylyl imidophosphate was also attenuated by FALI. These data challenge the assumption that the fluorophore-tagged protein is the sole target of FALI and provide evidence that collateral damage to proximal proteins occurs following fluorophore illumination.
Nature Neuroscience. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17318216
Estimating Protein-protein Interaction Affinity in Living Cells Using Quantitative Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Measurements
Journal of Biomedical Optics. Sep-Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17994899
We have previously demonstrated that Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency and the relative concentration of donor and acceptor fluorophores can be determined in living cells using three-cube wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Here, we extend the methodology to estimate the effective equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and the intrinsic FRET efficiency (Emax) of an interacting donor-acceptor pair. Assuming bimolecular interaction, the predicted FRET efficiency is a function of donor concentration, acceptor concentration, Kd, and Emax. We estimate Kd and Emax by minimizing the sum of the squared error (SSE) between the predicted and measured FRET efficiency. This is accomplished by examining the topology of SSE values for a matrix of hypothetical Kd and Emax values. Applying an F-test, the 95% confidence contour of Kd and Emax is calculated. We test the method by expressing an inducible FRET fusion pair consisting of FKBP12-Cerulean and Frb-Venus in HeLa cells. As the Kd for FKBP12-rapamycin and Frb has been analytically determined, the relative Kd (in fluorescence units) could be calibrated with a value based on protein concentration. The described methodology should be useful for comparing protein-protein interaction affinities in living cells.
N-arachidonoyl L-serine, a Putative Endocannabinoid, Alters the Activation of N-type Ca2+ Channels in Sympathetic Neurons
Journal of Neurophysiology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18234973
The effect of N-arachidonoyl l-serine (ARA-S), a recently discovered lipoamino acid found in the CNS, on N-type Ca2+ channels of rat sympathetic ganglion neurons was determined using whole cell patch clamp. Application of ARA-S produced a rapid and reversible augmentation of Ca2+ current that was voltage dependent and resulted from a hyperpolarizing shift in the activation curve. ARA-S did not influence G protein modulation of Ca2+ channels and appeared to act independently of G-protein-coupled receptors. These findings provide a foundation for investigating possible roles for ARA-S in nervous system function.
Properties of Wild-type and Fluorescent Protein-tagged Mouse Tetrodotoxin-resistant Sodium Channel (Na V 1.8) Heterologously Expressed in Rat Sympathetic Neurons
Journal of Neurophysiology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18272876
The tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant Na(+) current arising from Na(V)1.8-containing channels participates in nociceptive pathways but is difficult to functionally express in traditional heterologous systems. Here, we show that injection of cDNA encoding mouse Na(V)1.8 into the nuclei of rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons results in TTX-resistant Na(+) currents with amplitudes equal to or exceeding the currents arising from natively expressing channels of mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The activation and inactivation properties of the heterologously expressed Na(V)1.8 Na(+) channels were similar but not identical to native TTX-resistant channels. Most notably, the half-activation potential of the heterologously expressed Na(V)1.8 channels was shifted about 10 mV toward more depolarized potentials. Fusion of fluorescent proteins to the N- or C-termini of Na(V)1.8 did not substantially affect functional expression in SCG neurons. Unexpectedly, fluorescence was not concentrated at the plasma membrane but found throughout the interior of the neuron in a granular pattern. A similar expression pattern was observed in nodose ganglion neurons expressing the tagged channels. In contrast, expression of tagged Na(V)1.8 in HeLa cells revealed a fluorescence pattern consistent with sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum, thus providing a basis for poor functional expression in clonal cell lines. Our results establish SCG neurons as a favorable surrogate for the expression and study of molecularly defined Na(V)1.8-containing channels. The data also indicate that unidentified factors may be required for the efficient functional expression of Na(V)1.8 with a biophysical phenotype identical to that found in sensory neurons.
Identification of the Sensory Neuron Specific Regulatory Region for the Mouse Gene Encoding the Voltage-gated Sodium Channel NaV1.8
Journal of Neurochemistry. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18466327
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are critical membrane components that participate in the electrical activity of excitable cells. The type one VGSC family includes the tetrodotoxin insensitive sodium channel, Na(V)1.8, encoded by the Scn10a gene. Na(V)1.8 expression is restricted to small and medium diameter nociceptive sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and cranial sensory ganglia. To understand the stringent transcriptional regulation of the Scn10a gene, the sensory neuron specific promoter was functionally identified. While identifying the mRNA 5'-end, alternative splicing within the 5'-UTR was observed to create heterogeneity in the RNA transcript. Four kilobases of upstream genomic DNA was cloned and the presence of tissue specific promoter activity was tested by microinjection and adenoviral infection of fluorescent protein reporter constructs into primary mouse and rat neurons, and cell lines. The region contained many putative transcription factor-binding sites and strong homology with the predicted rat ortholog. Homology to the predicted human ortholog was limited to the proximal end and several conserved cis elements were noted. Two regulatory modules were identified by microinjection of reporter constructs into dorsal root ganglia and superior cervical ganglia neurons: a neuron specific proximal promoter region between -1.6 and -0.2 kb of the transcription start site cluster, and a distal sensory neuron switch region beyond -1.6 kb that restricted fluorescent protein expression to a subset of primary sensory neurons.
A Point Mutation to Galphai Selectively Blocks GoLoco Motif Binding: Direct Evidence for Galpha.GoLoco Complexes in Mitotic Spindle Dynamics
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18984596
Heterotrimeric G-protein Galpha subunits and GoLoco motif proteins are key members of a conserved set of regulatory proteins that influence invertebrate asymmetric cell division and vertebrate neuroepithelium and epithelial progenitor differentiation. GoLoco motif proteins bind selectively to the inhibitory subclass (Galphai) of Galpha subunits, and thus it is assumed that a Galphai.GoLoco motif protein complex plays a direct functional role in microtubule dynamics underlying spindle orientation and metaphase chromosomal segregation during cell division. To address this hypothesis directly, we rationally identified a point mutation to Galphai subunits that renders a selective loss-of-function for GoLoco motif binding, namely an asparagine-to-isoleucine substitution in the alphaD-alphaE loop of the Galpha helical domain. This GoLoco-insensitivity ("GLi") mutation prevented Galphai1 association with all human GoLoco motif proteins and abrogated interaction between the Caenorhabditis elegans Galpha subunit GOA-1 and the GPR-1 GoLoco motif. In contrast, the GLi mutation did not perturb any other biochemical or signaling properties of Galphai subunits, including nucleotide binding, intrinsic and RGS protein-accelerated GTP hydrolysis, and interactions with Gbetagamma dimers, adenylyl cyclase, and seven transmembrane-domain receptors. GoLoco insensitivity rendered Galphai subunits unable to recruit GoLoco motif proteins such as GPSM2/LGN and GPSM3 to the plasma membrane, and abrogated the exaggerated mitotic spindle rocking normally seen upon ectopic expression of wild type Galphai subunits in kidney epithelial cells. This GLi mutation should prove valuable in establishing the physiological roles of Galphai.GoLoco motif protein complexes in microtubule dynamics and spindle function during cell division as well as to delineate potential roles for GoLoco motifs in receptor-mediated signal transduction.
Inhibition of N-type Calcium Channels by Activation of GPR35, an Orphan Receptor, Heterologously Expressed in Rat Sympathetic Neurons
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17940199
GPR35 is a G protein-coupled receptor recently "de-orphanized" using high-throughput intracellular calcium measurements in clonal cell lines expressing a chimeric G-protein alpha-subunit. From these screens, kynurenic acid, an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan, and zaprinast, a synthetic inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase, emerged as potential agonists for GPR35. To investigate the coupling of GPR35 to natively expressed neuronal signaling pathways and effectors, we heterologously expressed GPR35 in rat sympathetic neurons and examined the modulation of N-type (Ca(V)2.2) calcium channels. In neurons expressing GPR35, calcium channels were inhibited in the absence of overt agonists, indicating a tonic receptor activity. Application of kynurenic acid or zaprinast resulted in robust voltage-dependent calcium current inhibition characteristic of Gbetagamma-mediated modulation. Both agonist-independent and -dependent effects of GPR35 were blocked by Bordetella pertussis toxin pretreatment indicating the involvement of G(i/o) proteins. In neurons expressing GPR35a, a short splice variant of GPR35, zaprinast was more potent (EC(50) = 1 microM) than kynurenic acid (58 microM) but had a similar efficacy (approximately 60% maximal calcium current inhibition). Expression of GPR35b, which has an additional 31 residues at the N terminus, produced similar results but with much greater variability. Both GPR35a and GPR35b appeared to have similar expression patterns when fused to fluorescent proteins. These results suggest a potential role for GPR35 in regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic release.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19830250
The ability to disrupt the function of a specific protein on a rapid time scale provides a powerful tool for biomedical research. Specific proteases provide a potential method to selectively cleave a chosen protein, but rapid control of protease activity is difficult.
Molecular Reconstruction of MGluR5a-mediated Endocannabinoid Signaling Cascade in Single Rat Sympathetic Neurons
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19864572
Endocannabinoids (eCB) such as 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) are lipid metabolites that are synthesized in a postsynaptic neurons and act upon CB(1) cannabinoid receptors (CB(1)R) in presynaptic nerve terminals. This retrograde transmission underlies several forms of short and long term synaptic plasticity within the CNS. Here, we constructed a model system based on isolated rat sympathetic neurons, in which an eCB signaling cascade could be studied in a reduced, spatially compact, and genetically malleable system. We constructed a complete eCB production/mobilization pathway by sequential addition of molecular components. Heterologous expression of four components was required for eCB production and detection: metabotropic glutamate receptor 5a (mGluR5a), Homer 2b, diacylglycerol lipase alpha, and CB(1)R. In these neurons, application of l-glutamate produced voltage-dependent modulation of N-type Ca(2+) channels mediated by activation of CB(1)R. Using both molecular dissection and pharmacological agents, we provide evidence that activation of mGluR5a results in rapid enzymatic production of 2-AG followed by activation of CB(1)R. These experiments define the critical elements required to recapitulate retrograde eCB production and signaling in a single peripheral neuron. Moreover, production/mobilization of eCB can be detected on a physiologically relevant time scale using electrophysiological techniques. The system provides a platform for testing candidate molecules underlying facilitation of eCB transport across the plasma membrane.
A Simple, Highly Efficient Method for Heterologous Expression in Mammalian Primary Neurons Using Cationic Lipid-mediated MRNA Transfection
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21267423
Expression of heterologous proteins in adult mammalian neurons is a valuable technique for the study of neuronal function. The post-mitotic nature of mature neurons prevents effective DNA transfection using simple, cationic lipid-based methods. Adequate heterologous protein expression is often only achievable using complex techniques that, in many cases, are associated with substantial toxicity. Here, a simple method for high efficiency transfection of mammalian primary neurons using in vitro transcribed mRNA and the cationic lipid transfection reagent Lipofectamine™ 2000 is described. Optimal transfection conditions were established in adult mouse dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using a 96-well based luciferase activity assay. Using these conditions, a transfection efficiency of 25% was achieved in DRG neurons transfected with EGFP mRNA. High transfection efficiencies were also obtained in dissociated rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons and mouse cortical and hippocampal cultures. Endogenous Ca(2+) currents in EGFP mRNA-transfected SCG neurons were not significantly different from untransfected neurons, which suggested that this technique is well suited for heterologous expression in patch clamp recording experiments. Functional expression of a cannabinoid receptor (CB1R), a G protein inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (GIRK4) and a dominant-negative G protein α-subunit mutant (G(oA) G203T) indicate that the levels of heterologous protein expression attainable using mRNA transfection are suitable for most functional protein studies. This study demonstrates that mRNA transfection is a straightforward and effective method for heterologous expression in neurons and is likely to have many applications in neuroscience research.
Journal of Neurophysiology. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20962070
Electrically excitable cells have voltage-dependent ion channels on the plasma membrane that regulate membrane permeability to specific ions. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are especially important as Ca(2+) serves as both a charge carrier and second messenger. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an important model vertebrate for studies of neuronal excitability, circuits, and behavior. However, electrophysiological properties of zebrafish VGCCs remain largely unexplored because a suitable preparation for whole cell voltage-clamp studies is lacking. Rohon-Beard (R-B) sensory neurons represent an attractive candidate for this purpose because of their relatively large somata and functional homology to mammalian dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Transgenic zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein in R-B neurons, (Isl2b:EGFP)(ZC7), were used to identify dissociated neurons suitable for whole cell patch-clamp experiments. Based on biophysical and pharmacological properties, zebrafish R-B neurons express both high- and low-voltage-gated Ca(2+) current (HVA- and LVA-I(Ca), respectively). Ni(+)-sensitive LVA-I(Ca) occur in the minority of R-B neurons (30%) and ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ca(V)2.2 (N-type) Ca(2+) channels underlie the vast majority (90%) of HVA-I(Ca). To identify G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate HVA-I(Ca), a panel of neurotransmitters was screened. Application of GABA/baclofen or serotonin produced a voltage-dependent inhibition while application of the mu-opioid agonist DAMGO resulted in a voltage-independent inhibition. Unlike in mammalian neurons, GPCR-mediated voltage-dependent modulation of I(Ca) appears to be transduced primarily via a cholera toxin-sensitive Gα subunit. These results provide the basis for using the zebrafish model system to understanding Ca(2+) channel function, and in turn, how Ca(2+) channels contribute to mechanosensory function.