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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (37)
- Protein Expression and Purification
- The American Journal of Dermatopathology
- The New England Journal of Medicine
- Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
- The American Journal of Pathology
- The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
- Physiological Genomics
- Dermatology Online Journal
- The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
- Cancer Research
- The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
- Pediatric Research
- Nature Medicine
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
- Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
- Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- The American Journal of Surgical Pathology
- In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Stem Cells and Development
- PloS One
- Journal of Clinical Pathology
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- Journal of Oncology
- Developmental Biology
- Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
- Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
- The American Journal of Dermatopathology
- Stem Cells and Development
- Stem Cells and Development
Articles by Stephen Lyle in JoVE
Isolation and Culture of Adult Epithelial Stem Cells from Human Skin
Zhiru Guo, Kyle Draheim, Stephen Lyle
Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School
A rapid, robust way of isolating viable adult epithelial stem cells from human skin is described. The method utilizes enzymatic digestion of skin collagen matrix , followed by plucking of hair follicles and isolation of single cell suspensions or tissue fragments for cell culture.
Other articles by Stephen Lyle on PubMed
Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase from Staphylococcus Aureus
Protein Expression and Purification. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11812233
Bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) activity ensures the rapid recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs that result from premature termination of translation. Pth has been shown to be essential for growth in Escherichia coli suggesting that its homologue in Staphylococcus aureus is a potential molecular therapeutic target for the development of antibacterial agents. In this report we describe the cloning of a DNA fragment (573 bp) containing the pth gene from a S. aureus (strain ISP3) genomic DNA library. Analysis of the predicted polypeptide sequence from the pth gene showed that the protein shared complete conservation of the three residues thought to be involved in the active site of E. coli Pth. The gene was cloned into a pQE-60 expression vector and expressed in E. coli, and the resulting His-tagged Pth protein was purified to greater than 95% purity from the soluble portion of the E. coli lysate in a single chromatographic step. His-tagged Pth was shown to be biologically active by its ability to hydrolyze diacetyl-[(3)H]Lys-tRNA(Lys) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Optimum hydrolyzing activity of Pth occurred at a pH value of 7.0 and a MgCl(2) concentration of 5 mM. The K(m) of the diacetyl-[(3)H]-Lys-tRNA(Lys) substrate for S. aureus Pth was determined to be 2.8 microM. A far UV circular dichroism spectrum revealed that His-tagged S. aureus Pth appears to have a structured core predominated by beta-sheet.
The American Journal of Dermatopathology. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12140439
Extramammary fibroadenomas have been previously reported to mainly occur in the anogenital region, arising from mammary-like glands. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman who presented with a fibroadenoma of her eyelid that was associated with a cystadenoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a fibroadenoma of the eyelid. The differential diagnosis and histogenesis of this lesion are discussed, and the literature pertaining to cutaneous fibroadenomas arising outside the breast is reviewed.
Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly Clinicopathological Exercises. Case 24-2002. A 48-year-old Man with Persistent Erosive Oral Lesions
The New England Journal of Medicine. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12167686
Genetics Analysis of Mouse Mutations Abnormal Feet and Tail and Rough Coat, Which Cause Developmental Abnormalities and Alopecia
Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12514744
Mutations in the mouse Brachyury (T) gene are characterized by a dominant reduction of tail length and recessive lethality. Two quantitative trait loci, Brachyury-modifier 1 and 2 (Brm1 and Brm2) are defined by alleles that enhance the short-tail Brachyury phenotype. Here we report on a genetic analysis of a visible dominant mutation Abnormal feet and tail (Aft) located in the vicinity of Brm1. Affected animals display kinky tails and syndactyly in the hindlimbs, both likely resulting from a defect in apoptosis. We observed an unusual genetic incompatibility between Aft and certain genetic backgrounds. We show that Aft and T are likely to interact genetically, since some double heterozygotes are tailless. In addition to the tail and hindlimb phenotypes, Aft-bearing mutants display characteristic late-onset skin lesions. We therefore tested for allelism between Aft and a closely linked recessive mutation rough coat (rc) and found that these two mutations are likely nonallelic. Our results provide a valuable resource for the study of mammalian skin development and contribute to the genetic analysis of Brachyury function.
The American Journal of Pathology. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12937137
The proliferation of keratinocytes in the hair follicle varies from slowly cycling, intermittently proliferating stem cells in the bulge to rapidly proliferating, transient cells in the bulb. To better understand the biological differences between these two compartments, we sought to identify differentially expressed genes using cDNA macroarray analysis. Cyclin D1 was one of 13 genes increased in the bulge compared to the bulb, and its differential expression was corroborated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the original samples. Using immunohistochemical staining, laser-capture microdissection (LCM) and quantitative real-time PCR, we localized cyclin D1 to the suprabasal cells of the telogen bulge and anagen outer root sheath (ORS). Surprisingly, cyclin D1, D2, and D3 were not detectable by immunohistochemistry in the rapidly proliferating hair-producing cells of the anagen bulb (matrix cells), while these cells were strongly positive for Ki-67 and retinoblastoma protein. In contrast, pilomatricoma, a tumor thought to be derived from matrix cells, was positive for cyclin D1, D2, and D3. Our results suggest that cyclin D1 may mediate the proliferation of stem cells in the bulge to more differentiated transient amplifying cells in the suprabasal ORS. In contrast, non-cyclin D1-proteins appear to control cell division of the highly proliferative bulb matrix cells. This non-cyclin D1-mediated proliferation may provide a protective mechanism against tumorigenesis, which is overridden in pilomatricomas. Our data also demonstrate that the combination of DNA macroarray, LCM and quantitative real-time PCR is a powerful approach for the study of gene expression in defined cell populations with limited starting material.
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14708593
Putative epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge are thought to play pivotal roles in the homeostasis, aging, and carcinogenesis of the cutaneous epithelium. Elucidating the role of bulge cells in these processes has been hampered by the lack of gene promoters that target this area with specificity. Here we describe the isolation of the mouse keratin 15 (K15) promoter and demonstrate its utility for preferentially targeting hair follicle bulge cells in adult K15/lacZ transgenic mice. We found that patterns of K15 expression and promoter activity changed with age and correlated with levels of differentiation within the cutaneous epithelium; less differentiated keratinocytes in the epidermis of the neonatal mouse and in the bulge area of the adult mouse preferentially expressed K15. These findings demonstrate the utility of the K15 promoter for targeting epithelial stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and set the stage for elucidating the role of bulge cells in skin biology.
Physiological Genomics. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15292489
The epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between keratinocyte stem cells and dermal papilla (DP) cells are crucial for normal development of the hair follicle as well as during hair cycling. During the cyclical regrowth of a new lower follicle, the multipotent hair follicle stem cells are stimulated to proliferate and differentiate through interactions with the underlying mesenchymal DP cells. To characterize the events occurring during the process of epithelial stem cell fate determination, we utilized a coculture system by incubating human hair follicle keratinocyte stem cells with DP cells. Using GeneChip microarrays, we analyzed changes in gene expression within the stem cells upon coculture with the DP over a 5-day time course. A number of important signaling pathways and growth factors were regulated. The hair-specific keratin 6hf (K6hf) gene proved a particularly good marker of hair differentiation, with a 7.9-fold increase in mRNA and resulting increased protein levels. The high expression of K6hf was unique to DP-induced keratinocyte differentiation, since expression of K6hf was not induced by high calcium. Since the beta-catenin signaling pathway has been implicated in hair follicle development, we examined the role of beta-catenin in our system and demonstrated that beta-catenin/lef-1 signaling is required for DP-induced hair differentiation.
Genital Leiomyoma: Surgical Excision for Both Diagnosis and Treatment of a Unilateral Leiomyoma of the Male Nipple
Dermatology Online Journal. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15748561
We describe a rare case of unilateral leiomyoma of the nipple in a man presenting with pruritus of the nipple for 3 months. A conservative surgical excision is performed for diagnosis. Histologic examination and immunostaining confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyoma. The leiomyoma is completely excised, and the patient denies pruritus after surgery. Conservative surgical excision of a persistently hard and pruritic nipple can be effectively used as both diagnostic measure and treatment modality.
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15816847
Cancer Research. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16322245
The alpha6beta4 integrin has been widely implicated in carcinoma function in vitro; however, in vivo data are scarce. To determine the importance of alpha6beta4 in tumor progression, a SUM-159 breast carcinoma cell line that is essentially devoid of alpha6beta4 expression was generated using an RNA interference strategy. Loss of alpha6beta4 expression inhibits colony formation in soft agar assays, suggesting a vital role for alpha6beta4 in survival signaling and anchorage-independent growth. Orthotopic injection of the beta4-deficient cell line into the mammary fat pad of immunocompromised mice yielded significantly fewer and smaller tumors than the control cell line, revealing a role for the alpha6beta4 integrin in tumor formation. Under conditions that mimicked the in vivo environment, decreased expression of the alpha6beta4 integrin led to enhanced apoptosis as determined by the percentage of Annexin V-FITC+, PI- cells and the presence of caspase-3 cleavage products. Recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) significantly inhibited the cell death observed in the beta4-deficient cell line, demonstrating the importance of VEGF expression in this survival pathway. Furthermore, loss of alpha6beta4 expression leads to enhanced apoptosis and reduced expression of VEGF in breast carcinoma cells in vivo. Importantly, the specificity of alpha6beta4 in both the in vitro and in vivo assays showed that reexpression of the beta4 subunit into the beta4-deficient cell line could rescue the functional phenotype. Taken together, these data implicate the alpha6beta4 integrin in tumor formation by regulating tumor cell survival in a VEGF-dependent manner.
In Vitro Differences Between Keratinocyte Stem Cells and Transit-amplifying Cells of the Human Hair Follicle
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16354178
Epithelial stem cells within the human hair follicle are critical for hair development, hair cycling, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. We and others have previously shown that the hair follicle bulge area contains keratinocyte stem cells, whereas the hair matrix represents the proliferating and differentiating transit-amplifying (TA) cell compartment. In order to better characterize the phenotypic differences between human keratinocyte stem cells and their daughter TA cells, we compared the in vitro properties of cell adhesion, cell migration, clonogenicity, and in vitro life span. Epithelial outgrowths from the hair matrix appeared within 2 d of explant, whereas stem cell outgrowths appeared between 7 and 10 d after explant. Both populations form colonies; however, stem cells from telogen follicles formed more total colonies, and more colonies greater than 3 mm. Upon subculture, stem cells formed colonies until passage 6 and terminally differentiated at passage 7, whereas TA cells only formed colonies until passage 2. Stem cells express more beta1 integrin and adhere more rapidly to collagen IV. Most strikingly, TA cells showed a 7-fold greater mobility on migration assays than stem cells (0.704 vs 0.102 microm per min). These results help define the human hair follicle stem cell and TA cell phenotypes and correlate with the in vivo properties of these compartments.
Pediatric Research. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16549556
In the last two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of stem cell biology, including the field of cutaneous stem cells. Extensive stem cell research and potential clinical applications have provided new perspectives in the use of stem cells in the treatment of human skin disorders such as severe burns and wounds, as well as skin cancer and alopecia. Adult, tissue-specific stem cells are required for tissue homeostasis as well as for the ability to respond to insults such as during wound healing. Fetal wounds can heal rapidly without scars, while in adults wound healing decreases with aging, and this likely represents changes in the functional status of stem cells. In this review, we summarize the main characteristics of cutaneous stem cells in general and present the most recent knowledge in our understanding of these stem cells. We also address the difference in tissue regeneration between fetal and adult tissues in the aspect of stem cell biology.
Nature Medicine. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16565724
We found that one-third of human sebaceous tumors examined had double-nucleotide substitutions in the same LEF1 allele, irrespective of DNA mismatch repair status. The mutations impaired both LEF1 binding to beta-catenin and transcriptional activation, and are the first tumor-associated mutations that inactivate Wnt signaling. Mutant LEF1 not only inhibited expression of beta-catenin target genes but also stimulated expression of sebocyte markers, suggesting that it may determine the differentiated characteristics of sebaceous tumors.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17095700
The molecular mechanisms controlling human hair growth and scalp hair loss are poorly understood. By screening about 350,000 individuals in two populations from the Volga-Ural region of Russia, we identified a gene mutation in families who show an inherited form of hair loss and a hair growth defect. Affected individuals were homozygous for a deletion in the LIPH gene on chromosome 3q27, caused by short interspersed nuclear element-retrotransposon-mediated recombination. The LIPH gene is expressed in hair follicles and encodes a phospholipase called lipase H (alternatively known as membrane-associated phosphatidic acid-selective phospholipase A1alpha), an enzyme that regulates the production of bioactive lipids. These results suggest that lipase H participates in hair growth and development.
Use of P63 Expression in Distinguishing Primary and Metastatic Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasms from Metastatic Adenocarcinoma to Skin
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17518775
p63, a recently identified homologue of the p53 gene, is mainly expressed by basal and myoepithelial cells in skin. Others and we have shown the value of p63 in distinguishing primary adnexal tumors from visceral adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin. We now investigate the pattern of p63 expression in metastases from skin adnexal carcinomas and their cognate primaries and evaluate p63 expression in a larger case series of malignant cutaneous adnexal neoplasms. Immunohistochemical analysis for p63 was performed on 13 metastases of adnexal carcinomas and their corresponding primary tumors. Twenty visceral metastatic adenocarcinomas to the skin and 7 primary mucinous carcinomas with cutaneous or visceral origin were compared. The majority (90.9%) of primary adnexal tumors strongly expressed p63 and their metastases labeled similar to their cognate primary tumors. With one exception, primary or metastatic mucinous carcinomas did not express p63. Metastases from two apocrine carcinomas lacked p63 expression. All other cutaneous metastases from internal adenocarcinomas were negative for p63. Analysis of p63 expression may assist in the differential diagnosis of primary adnexal carcinomas versus metastatic visceral adenocarcinomas to the skin. Metastases from adnexal carcinomas generally retain p63 expression similar to their associated primary tumors.
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17518781
Sweat gland carcinomas are rare. Given this, they can pose a diagnostic challenge especially in shave biopsy specimens. We present a case of ductal eccrine carcinoma with extensive squamoid differentiation that was repeatedly misdiagnosed by multiple dermatopathologists as squamous cell carcinoma in the initial few biopsies. As the distinction between these two neoplasms is crucial to patient management, we highlight the histologic features of this uncommon entity to highlight the potential diagnostic pitfalls.
P66 Shc Tumor Levels Show a Strong Prognostic Correlation with Disease Outcome in Stage IIA Colon Cancer
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17908971
Most stage IIA colon cancer patients receive no adjuvant therapy despite an estimated 15% risk of disease-related death within 5 years of resection. Prognostication of disease outcome would benefit the clinician by categorizing patients with stage IIA disease by risk. The abundance of the signal transduction proteins p66 Shc and tyrosine-phosphorylated (PY)-Shc in tumor cells is a prognostic indicator of disease outcome in breast cancer, suggesting that Shc analysis may provide prognostic information in stage IIA colon cancer.
Characterization of Bipotential Epidermal Progenitors Derived from Human Sebaceous Gland: Contrasting Roles of C-Myc and Beta-catenin
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18308950
The current belief is that the epidermal sebaceous gland (SG) is maintained by unipotent stem cells that are replenished by multipotent stem cells in the hair follicle (HF) bulge. However, sebocytes can be induced by c-Myc (Myc) activation in interfollicular epidermis (IFE), suggesting the existence of bipotential stem cells. We found that every SZ95 immortalized human sebocyte that underwent clonal growth in culture generated progeny that differentiated into both sebocytes and cells expressing involucrin and cornifin, markers of IFE and HF inner root sheath differentiation. The ability to generate involucrin positive cells was also observed in a new human sebocyte line, Seb-E6E7. SZ95 xenografts differentiated into SG and IFE but not HF. SZ95 cells that expressed involucrin had reduced Myc levels; however, this did not correlate with increased expression of the Myc repressor Blimp1, and Blimp1 expression did not distinguish cells undergoing SG, IFE, or HF differentiation in vivo. Overexpression of Myc stimulated sebocyte differentiation, whereas overexpression of beta-catenin stimulated involucrin and cornifin expression. In transgenic mice simultaneous activation of Myc and beta-catenin revealed mutual antagonism: Myc blocked ectopic HF formation and beta-catenin reduced SG differentiation. Overexpression of the Myc target gene Indian hedgehog did not promote sebocyte differentiation in culture and cyclopamine treatment, while reducing proliferation, did not block Myc induced sebocyte differentiation in vivo. Our studies provide evidence for a bipotential epidermal stem cell population in an in vitro model of human epidermal lineage selection and highlight the importance of Myc as a regulator of sebocyte differentiation.
The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18551751
Cutaneous sebaceous neoplasia is known to exhibit a high degree of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency leading to microsatellite instability and these tumors can be markers of the Muir-Torre syndrome and internal malignancy. Other tumors, such as colonic carcinoma, show tendencies toward particular histologic features and sites of involvement correlating with MMR deficiency. There are few comprehensive studies of unselected cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined 94 sebaceous neoplasms from 92 patients and 17 sebaceous hyperplasia controls using immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6. Our results indicate that MMR deficiency is significantly associated with anatomic location (more frequently in the trunk and extremities as compared with head and neck), tumor type (more often in adenoma compared with carcinoma within the head and neck region), and architecture (keratoacanthomalike). No correlation between cystic change and MMR deficiency was noted. Cutaneous sebaceous neoplasia has tendencies toward certain tumor types and anatomic distribution based on MMR status analogous to that seen in colonic carcinomas and other tumors. These may be helpful indicators for further workup for the Muir-Torre syndrome.
Multi-potentiality of a New Immortalized Epithelial Stem Cell Line Derived from Human Hair Follicles
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal. Jul-Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18568376
We previously demonstrated that keratin 15 expressing cells present in the bulge region of hair follicles exhibit properties of adult stem cells. We have now established and characterized an immortalized adult epithelial stem cell line derived from cells isolated from the human hair follicle bulge region. Telogen hair follicles from human skin were microdissected to obtain an enriched population of keratin 15 positive skin stem cells. By expressing human papillomavirus 16 E6/E7 genes in these stem cells, we have been able to culture the cells for >30 passages and maintain a stable phenotype after 12 mo of continuous passage. The cell line was compared to primary stem cells for expression of stem cell specific proteins, for in vitro stem cell properties, and for their capacity to differentiate into different cell lineages. This new cell line, named Tel-E6E7 showed similar expression patterns to normal skin stem cells and maintained in vitro properties of stem cells. The cells can differentiate into epidermal, sebaceous gland, and hair follicle lineages. Intact beta-catenin dependent signaling, which is known to control in vivo hair differentiation in rodents, is maintained in this cell line. The Tel-E6E7 cell line may provide the basis for valid, reproducible in vitro models for studies on stem cell lineage determination and differentiation.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18591425
Dicer, an enzyme involved in microRNA (miRNA) maturation, is required for proper cell differentiation and embryogenesis in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that Dicer and miRNA may also regulate tumorigenesis. To better characterize the role of miRNA in primary cell growth, we generated Dicer-conditional mice. Ablation of Dicer and loss of mature miRNAs in embryonic fibroblasts up-regulated p19(Arf) and p53 levels, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced a premature senescence phenotype that was also observed in vivo after Dicer ablation in the developing limb and in adult skin. Furthermore, deletion of the Ink4a/Arf or p53 locus could rescue fibroblasts from premature senescence induced by Dicer ablation. Although levels of Ras and Myc oncoproteins appeared unaltered, loss of Dicer resulted in increased DNA damage and p53 activity in these cells. These results reveal that loss of miRNA biogenesis activates a DNA damage checkpoint, up-regulates p19(Arf)-p53 signaling, and induces senescence in primary cells.
Cancer. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19152437
Melanoma characteristically grows within the epidermis along the dermal-epidermal junction, sometimes extending outward up to several centimeters beyond the foci of invasive tumors. Although follicular involvement by malignant melanoma is widely recognized, to the authors' knowledge no previously published data address this phenomenon.
Human and Mouse Colon Cancer Utilizes CD95 Signaling for Local Growth and Metastatic Spread to Liver
Gastroenterology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19524576
Analysis of clinical colon cancer specimens show alterations in the CD95 (Fas Ag/Fas L) pathway as tumors progress from local to metastatic disease, suggesting that this pathway may play a role in invasive behavior of colon cancer. However, direct causality between these alterations and clinical disease progression has not been shown.
Histopathology. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20055911
Sebaceous neoplasia comprises a spectrum ranging from benign to malignant. Proper histological identification is important for treatment, prognosis and potential association with the Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). Our increased understanding of the significance and pathogenesis of these tumours has led to improved risk stratification, screening recommendations, and treatment of patients with an initial presentation of a sebaceous tumour. This review focuses on the diagnostic and histological features of sebaceous lesions, the MTS, and recent insights into the molecular pathogenesis of sebaceous tumours.
Stem Cells and Development. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20199238
Neoplastic epithelia may remain dormant and clinically unapparent in human patients for decades. Multiple risk factors including mutations in tumor cells or the stromal cells may affect the switch from dormancy to malignancy. Gene mutations, including p53 mutations, within the stroma of tumors are associated with a worse clinical prognosis; however, it is not known if these stromal mutations can promote tumors in genetically at-risk tissue. To address this question, Apc(Min/+) and Apc(Min/+) Rag2(-/-) mice, which have a predilection to mammary carcinoma (as well as wild-type (wt) mice), received mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with mutant p53 (p53MSC) transferred via tail vein injection. In the wt mouse, p53MSC circulated in the periphery and homed to the marrow cavity where they could be recovered up to a year later without apparent effect on the health of the mouse. No mammary tumors were found. However, in mice carrying the Apc(Min/+) mutation, p53MSC homed to mammary tissue and significantly increased the incidence of mammary carcinoma. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-dependent factors elaborated from mesenchymal cells converted quiescent epithelia into clinically apparent disease. The increased cancer phenotype was completely preventable with neutralization of TNF-alpha or by transfer of CD4(+) regulatory T cells from immune competent donors, demonstrating that immune competency to regulate inflammation was sufficient to maintain neoplastic dormancy even in the presence of oncogenic epithelial and stromal mutations. The significant synergy between host immunity and mesenchymal cells identified here may restructure treatments to restore an anticancer microenvironment.
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20386609
Many materials are unsuitable for medical use because of poor biocompatibility. Recently, advances in the high throughput synthesis of biomaterials has significantly increased the number of potential biomaterials, however current biocompatibility analysis methods are slow and require histological analysis.
Comparison of Histopathology and RT-qPCR Amplification of Guanylyl Cyclase C for Detection of Colon Cancer Metastases in Lymph Nodes
Journal of Clinical Pathology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20498026
In colorectal cancer (CRC), the presence of lymph node (LN) metastases is an important prognostic factor. Approximately 20% of patients diagnosed as having node-negative (pN0) CRC will relapse. Pathological nodal stage misclassification due to sampling error resulting from the small volume of tissue tested has been proposed to explain this recurrence rate in pN0 patients. The authors compared the assessment of node positivity by histopathology (HP) with a molecular method which can accommodate larger tissue volumes.
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20930544
The CtBP transcriptional corepressors promote cancer cell survival and migration/invasion. CtBP senses cellular metabolism via a regulatory dehydrogenase domain, and is antagonized by p14/p19(ARF) tumor suppressors. The CtBP dehydrogenase substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) can act as a CtBP inhibitor at high concentrations, and is cytotoxic to cancer cells. MTOB induced apoptosis was p53-independent, correlated with the derepression of the proapoptotic CtBP repression target Bik, and was rescued by CtBP overexpression or Bik silencing. MTOB did not induce apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but was increasingly cytotoxic to immortalized and transformed MEFs, suggesting that CtBP inhibition may provide a suitable therapeutic index for cancer therapy. In human colon cancer cell peritoneal xenografts, MTOB treatment decreased tumor burden and induced tumor cell apoptosis. To verify the potential utility of CtBP as a therapeutic target in human cancer, the expression of CtBP and its negative regulator ARF was studied in a series of resected human colon adenocarcinomas. CtBP and ARF levels were inversely-correlated, with elevated CtBP levels (compared with adjacent normal tissue) observed in greater than 60% of specimens, with ARF absent in nearly all specimens exhibiting elevated CtBP levels. Targeting CtBP may represent a useful therapeutic strategy in human malignancies.
Quiescent, Slow-cycling Stem Cell Populations in Cancer: a Review of the Evidence and Discussion of Significance
Journal of Oncology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20936110
Long-lived cancer stem cells (CSCs) with indefinite proliferative potential have been identified in multiple epithelial cancer types. These cells are likely derived from transformed adult stem cells and are thought to share many characteristics with their parental population, including a quiescent slow-cycling phenotype. Various label-retaining techniques have been used to identify normal slow cycling adult stem cell populations and offer a unique methodology to functionally identify and isolate cancer stem cells. The quiescent nature of CSCs represents an inherent mechanism that at least partially explains chemotherapy resistance and recurrence in posttherapy cancer patients. Isolating and understanding the cell cycle regulatory mechanisms of quiescent cancer cells will be a key component to creation of future therapies that better target CSCs and totally eradicate tumors. Here we review the evidence for quiescent CSC populations and explore potential cell cycle regulators that may serve as future targets for elimination of these cells.
Mdm2-p53 Signaling Regulates Epidermal Stem Cell Senescence and Premature Aging Phenotypes in Mouse Skin
Developmental Biology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21334322
The p53 transcription factor is activated by various types of cell stress or DNA damage and induces the expression of genes that control cell growth and inhibit tumor formation. Analysis of mice that express mutant forms of p53 suggest that inappropriate p53 activation can alter tissue homeostasis and life span, connecting p53 tumor suppressor functions with accelerated aging. However, other mouse models that display increased levels of wildtype p53 in various tissues fail to corroborate a link between p53 and aging phenotypes, possibly due to the retention of signaling pathways that negatively regulate p53 activity in these models. In this present study, we have generated mice lacking Mdm2 in the epidermis. Deletion of Mdm2, the chief negative regulator of p53, induced an aging phenotype in the skin of mice, including thinning of the epidermis, reduced wound healing, and a progressive loss of fur. These phenotypes arise due to an induction of p53-mediated senescence in epidermal stem cells and a gradual loss of epidermal stem cell function. These results reveal that activation of endogenous p53 by ablation of Mdm2 can induce accelerated aging phenotypes in mice.
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21366464
Sharing cases and seeking second opinion consultations is an important part of everyday pathology practice. Internet-based communications and upcoming digital slide technologies have the potential to decrease barriers and open access to the best expertise. We recently developed a dedicated Web-based process for communication with outside practices seeking second opinion consultations. The software allowed us to collect data about the current needs and use of a second opinion consultation practice, a topic that has not been addressed in research studies thus far.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21618097
It is likely that adult epithelial stem cells will be useful in the treatment of diseases, such as ectodermal dysplasias, monilethrix, Netherton syndrome, Menkes disease, hereditary epidermolysis bullosa, and alopecias. Additionally, other skin problems such as burn wounds, chronic wounds, and ulcers will benefit from stem cell-related therapies. However, there are many questions that need to be answered before this goal can be realized. The most important of these questions is what regulates the adhesion of stem cells to the niche versus migration to the site of injury. We have started to identify the mechanisms involved in this decision-making process.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21669475
Primary scarring alopecia (SA) comprises a group of disorders with poorly defined origins. Improving diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities requires a better understanding of their pathogenesis.
Role of β4 Integrin Phosphorylation in Human Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Regulation of Hemidesmosome Stability Modulates Cell Migration
Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21769085
Hemidesmosomes (HDs) are multiprotein structures that anchor epithelia to the basement membrane. During squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) invasion, there is a reduction in the number of HDs, which may facilitate dissemination. Mechanisms of HD disassembly are incompletely understood. Previous work has shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced phosphorylation of the β4 integrin on three of its serines, S(1356)S(1360)S(1364), can induce HD disassembly in normal cells. Here, we examine the role of β4 integrin serine phosphorylation in SCC. We have found that around 60% of invasive cutaneous SCC show increased β4 phosphorylation on S(1356) when compared with carcinoma in situ or normal tissue. To assess the mechanisms by which SCC increases β4 phosphorylation, we performed in vitro analyses. Compared with keratinocytes, SCC cells showed increased levels of S(1356) phosphorylation in the absence of EGF, correlating with reduced HD-like structures. In addition, phospho-S(1356) signal was largely segregated from other HD components. Epidermal growth factor receptor and PKC inhibitors inhibited basal levels of S(1356) phosphorylation in SCC, suggesting that cells use intrinsic mechanisms to activate the EGF signaling pathway to induce β4 phosphorylation. Moreover, these inhibitors stabilized HD-like structures in SCC cells and reduced their migratory ability. Mutation of S(1356)S(1360)S(1364) in SCC cells to non-phosphorylatable alanines stabilized HD-like structures and substantially reduced migration, while mutation into phosphorylation mimicking aspartate reduced HD-like structures but had no effect on migration, suggesting that serine phosphorylation function is releasing anchorage rather than promoting migration. Altogether these results suggest that β4 serine phosphorylation may have an important role during SCC invasion by destabilizing HDs and facilitating migration.
Subcutaneous Thrombotic Vasculopathy Syndrome: an Ominous Condition Reminiscent of Calciphylaxis: Calciphylaxis Sine Calcifications?
The American Journal of Dermatopathology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21785327
Ischemic skin necrosis can be a cause of severe morbidity and mortality. It can be due to a number of systemic conditions such as (1) thrombotic vasculopathy syndromes, (2) calciphylaxis, (3) septic or cholesterol emboli, and (4) cutaneous vasculitis. We present 3 patients with a clinicopathological syndrome consisting of ischemic skin necrosis associated with histological pattern of subcutaneous thrombotic vasculopathy-extensive microvascular thrombosis confined to small vessels and capillaries of the subcutaneous tissue. All 3 patients were obese and had severe pre-existing medical conditions. Skin biopsies showed intravascular thrombosis involving small arterioles and capillaries of the subcutaneous tissue. Distribution of vascular involvement by thrombotic process was similar to that observed in calciphylaxis, but calcifications were not observed. Two patients died within 3 months of diagnosis. One patient died 2 years after the presentation. Review of 15 biopsies of calciphylaxis revealed areas of subcutaneous thrombotic vasculopathy in 11 cases (73%). Our study shows that subcutaneous thrombotic vasculopathy syndrome is a potentially lethal condition showing overlapping features between thrombotic vasculopathy syndromes and calciphylaxis. Clinicopathological analysis suggests that it may be a rare variant of calciphylaxis sine calcifications or an early prodromal stage of calciphylaxis. This conclusion is in keeping with increasing appreciation of importance of thrombosis and vascular injury in calciphylaxis.
Stem Cells and Development. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21973238
Tumor recurrence after chemotherapy is a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Recurrences are thought to be secondary to small subsets of cancer cells that are better able to survive traditional forms of chemotherapy and thus drive tumor regrowth. The ability to isolate and better characterize these therapy-resistant cells is critical for the future development of targeted therapies aimed at achieving more robust and long-lasting responses. Using a novel application for the proliferation marker carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester (CFSE), we have identified a population of slow-cycling, label-retaining tumor cells in both in vitro sphere cultures and in vivo xenograft models. Strikingly, label-retaining cells exhibit a multifold increase in ability to survive traditional forms of chemotherapy and reenter the cell cycle. Further, we demonstrate the innovative application of CFSE to live sort slow-cycling tumor cells and validate their chemoresistance and tumorigenic potential.
Human Barrett's Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus, Associated Myofibroblasts, and Endothelium Can Arise from Bone Marrow-derived Cells After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant
Stem Cells and Development. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20677919
This study characterizes the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to Barrett's adenocarcinoma of the esophagus using a mouse surgical model of disease and human specimens. Transplantation of bone marrow expressing beta galactosidase into a wild-type mouse, followed by surgical esophagojejunostomy, allowed tracking of BMDCs into the surgical anastomosis and resulting Barrett's metaplasia. Human tissue from a male patient who had been transplanted with female bone marrow and later developed esophageal adenocarcinoma allowed us to tract donor-derived cells into the tumor. Using a combination of antibodies directed against beta-galactosidase (animal studies) and X/Y fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) (human studies), combined with specific lineage staining directed against epithelial, fibroblast, endothelial, and leukocyte markers, we show that bone marrow cells contribute to both the epithelial and stromal component of esophageal adenocarcinoma. These findings demonstrate that BMDCs can generate cancer-associated fibroblasts as well as contribute directly to epithelial cells in cancer of the esophagus.