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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Steve C. C. Shih in JoVE
Digitale Microfluidics voor Geautomatiseerde Proteoom verwerking
Mais J. Jebrail1, Vivienne N. Luk1,2, Steve C. C. Shih2,3, Ryan Fobel2,3, Alphonsus H. C. Ng2,3, Hao Yang1, Sergio L. S. Freire1, Aaron R. Wheeler1,2,3
1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 2Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 3Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto
Digitale Microfluidics is een techniek die gekenmerkt wordt door de manipulatie van discrete druppels (~ nL - ml) op een reeks van elektroden door de toepassing van elektrische velden. Het is goed geschikt voor het uitvoeren van een snelle, sequentiële, geminiaturiseerde geautomatiseerde biochemische assays. Hier melden wij een platform in staat is het automatiseren van een aantal proteoomanalyse processtappen.
Other articles by Steve C. C. Shih on PubMed
Probing the Structure of the Ff Bacteriophage Major Coat Protein Transmembrane Helix Dimer by Solution NMR
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17915191
The transmembrane (TM) segment of the major coat protein from Ff bacteriophage has been extensively studied as an example of dimerization in detergent and lipid bilayer systems. However, almost all the information regarding this interaction has been gained through mutagenesis studies, with little direct structural information being available. To this end solution NMR has the potential to provide new insights into structure of the dimer. In order to evaluate the utility of this approach we have studied a selectively 15N-labeled peptide containing the TM segment of MCP (MCPTM) by solution NMR. This peptide was found to give rise to detergent concentration-dependent spectra that were assigned to monomeric and dimeric forms. The standard free energy of this interaction in SDS was estimated from these spectra and found to be consistent with weak but specific dimerization. In addition, similar spectra could be obtained in beta-octyl glucoside with intermolecular paramagnetic relaxation experiments demonstrating a parallel arrangement of TM helices in the dimer. In both detergents backbone chemical shift differences between monomeric and dimeric forms of MCPTM showed that the largest changes occur around its GXXXG motif. The resulting structural model is consistent with observations made for MCP mutants previously characterized in biological membranes, opening the door to detailed structural characterization of this form of MCP. These results also have general implications for the study of weakly interacting TM segments by solution NMR since the use of similar sample conditions should allow structural data to be accessed for oligomeric states from a wide range systems that undergo biologically relevant but weak associations in the membrane.
Investigation of the Utility of Selective Methyl Protonation for Determination of Membrane Protein Structures
Journal of Biomolecular NMR. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18762867
Polytopic alpha-helical membrane proteins present one of the final frontiers for protein structural biology, with significant challenges causing severe under-representation in the protein structure databank. However, with the advent of hardware and methodology geared to the study of large molecular weight complexes, solution NMR is being increasingly considered as a tool for structural studies of these types of membrane proteins. One method that has the potential to facilitate these studies utilizes uniformly deuterated samples with protons reintroduced at one or two methyl groups of leucine, valine and isoleucine. In this work we demonstrate that in spite of the increased proportion of these amino acids in membrane proteins, the quality of structures that can be obtained from this strategy is similar to that obtained for all alpha-helical water soluble proteins. This is partly attributed to the observation that NOEs between residues within the transmembrane helix did not have an impact on structure quality. Instead the most important factors controlling structure accuracy were the strength of dihedral angle restraints imposed and the number of unique inter-helical pairs of residues constrained by NOEs. Overall these results suggest that the most accurate structures will arise from accurate identification of helical segments and utilization of inter-helical distance restraints from various sources to maximize the distribution of long-range restraints.
Biomedical Microdevices. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20838902
We introduce a micro-scale bioreactor for automated culture and density analysis of microorganisms. The microbioreactor is powered by digital microfluidics (DMF) and because it is used with bacteria, algae and yeast, we call it the BAY microbioreactor. Previous miniaturized bioreactors have relied on microchannels which often require valves, mixers and complex optical systems. In contrast, the BAY microbioreactor is capable of culturing microorganisms in distinct droplets on a format compatible with conventional bench-top analyzers without the use of valves, mixers or pumps. Bacteria, algae and yeast were grown for up to 5 days with automated semi-continuous mixing and temperature control. Cell densities were determined by measuring absorbances through transparent regions of the devices, and growth profiles were shown to be comparable to those generated in conventional, macro-scale systems. Cell growth and density measurements were integrated in the microbioreactor with a fluorescent viability assay and transformation of bacteria with a fluorescent reporter gene. These results suggest that DMF may be a useful new tool in automated culture and analysis of microorganisms for a wide range of applications.
Lab on a Chip. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21038034
Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a technique in which discrete droplets are manipulated by applying electrical fields to an array of electrodes. In an ideal DMF system, each application of driving potential would cause a targeted droplet to move onto an energized electrode (i.e., perfect fidelity between driving voltage and actuation); however, in real systems, droplets are sometimes observed to resist movement onto particular electrodes. Here, we implement a sensing and feedback control system in which all droplet movements are monitored, such that when a movement failure is observed, additional driving voltages can be applied until the droplet completes the desired operation. The new system was evaluated for a series of liquids including water, methanol, and cell culture medium containing fetal bovine serum, and feedback control was observed to result in dramatic improvements in droplet actuation fidelity and velocity. The utility of the new system was validated by implementing an enzyme kinetics assay with continuous mixing. The new platform for digital microfluidics is simple and inexpensive and thus should be useful for scientists and engineers who are developing automated analysis platforms.