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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (13)
- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
- Thrombosis and Haemostasis
- The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Journal of Leukocyte Biology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Articles by Steven R. Barthel in JoVE
Analysis of Physiologic E-Selectin-Mediated Leukocyte Rolling on Microvascular Endothelium
Georg Wiese1, Steven R. Barthel2, Charles J. Dimitroff2
1Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 2Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School
This report provides a visual depiction of parallel-plate flow chamber analysis for studying leukocyte endothelial interactions under physiologic shear stress. This method is particularly useful for investigating the role of endothelial (E)-selectin and leukocyte E-selectin ligands that trigger leukocyte rolling on endothelial cell surfaces.
Other articles by Steven R. Barthel on PubMed
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15220135
Vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 supports specific eosinophil adhesion via alpha4beta1 integrin. We tested the hypothesis that adhesive contacts formed by eosinophils on VCAM-1 are different from focal adhesions formed by adherent fibroblasts. Eosinophils adherent on VCAM-1 formed punctate adhesions that fit the criteria for podosomes, highly dynamic structures found in adherent transformed fibroblasts, osteoclasts, and macrophages. The structures contained beta1 integrin subunit, phosphotyrosine-containing proteins, punctate filamentous actin, and gelsolin, a podosome marker. In contrast, nontransformed fibroblasts on VCAM-1 formed peripheral focal adhesions that were positive for alpha4, beta1, phosphotyrosine, vinculin, talin, and paxillin; negative for gelsolin; and associated with microfilaments. Phorbol myristate acetate or tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-5 stimulated podosome formation in adherent eosinophils. Because podosomes in tumor cells are associated with extracellular matrix degradation, we analyzed the VCAM-1 layer. VCAM-1 was lost under adherent eosinophils but not under adherent fibroblasts. This loss was inhibited by the metalloproteinase inhibitor ortho-phenanthroline and correlated with expression and podosome localization of a membrane-tethered metalloproteinase, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 8. Podosome-mediated VCAM-1 clearance may be a mechanism to regulate eosinophil arrest and extravasation in allergic conditions such as asthma.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16601240
Asthma is characterized by appearance of eosinophils in the airway. Eosinophils purified from the airway 48 h after segmental antigen challenge are described as exhibiting greater adhesion to albumin-coated surfaces via an unidentified beta2 integrin and increased expression of alphaMbeta2 (CD11b/18) compared with purified blood eosinophils. We have investigated the determinants of this hyperadhesive phenotype. Airway eosinophils exhibited increased reactivity with the CBRM1/5 anti-alphaM activation-sensitive antibody as well as enhanced adhesion to VCAM-1 (CD106) and diverse ligands, including albumin, ICAM-1 (CD54), fibrinogen, and vitronectin. Purified blood eosinophils did not adhere to the latter diverse ligands. Enhanced adhesion of airway eosinophils was blocked by anti-alphaMbeta2. Podosomes, structures implicated in cell movement and proteolysis of matrix proteins, were larger and more common on airway eosinophils adherent to VCAM-1 when compared with blood eosinophils. Incubation of blood eosinophils with IL-5 replicated the phenotype of airway eosinophils. That is, IL-5 enhanced recognition of alphaM by CBRM1/5; stimulated alphaMbeta2-mediated adhesion to VCAM-1, albumin, ICAM-1, fibrinogen, and vitronectin; and increased podosome formation on VCAM-1. Thus, the hyperadhesion of airway eosinophils after antigen challenge is mediated by upregulated and activated alphaMbeta2.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16676080
Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, CD106) is expressed as a type I transmembrane integrin counter-receptor on activated endothelium and mediates white blood cell attachment. The alternatively spliced 7-domain (7d) form of VCAM-1 contains a potential thrombin cleavage site. Thrombin proteolysis of 7d-VCAM-1 may help regulate adhesive activity ofVCAM-1. We determined whether 7d-VCAM-1 is proteolyzed and rendered inactive by thrombin. Recombinant extracellular domain of 7d-VCAM-1 was cleaved by thrombin to generate 33- and 44-kDa products. Cleavage was in the sequence PGPR/IAAQIG near the N-terminal border of the alternatively spliced fourth immunoglobulin (Ig)-like module. There was no cleavage of 6d-VCAM-1 lacking the fourth module. Expression of full-length 7d-VCAM-1 presented on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) monolayers, as detected by flow cytometry with an antibody directed to Ig-like modules 1-3, was reduced by thrombin treatment whereas there was no reduction in the expression of full-length 6d-VCAM-1. Adhesion of blood eosinophils to full-length 7d-VCAM-1 was reduced after treatment of CHO cells with thrombin, whereas adhesion to full-length 6d-VCAM-1 was not affected. We conclude that cleavage of 7d-VCAM-1 by thrombin is a potential mechanism for differential regulation of VCAM-1 splice forms in white blood cell adhesion and trafficking.
Eosinophil Beta 1 Integrin Activation State Correlates with Asthma Activity in a Blind Study of Inhaled Corticosteroid Withdrawal
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16751021
Differential Engagement of Modules 1 and 4 of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CD106) by Integrins Alpha4beta1 (CD49d/29) and AlphaMbeta2 (CD11b/18) of Eosinophils
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16943205
We have studied adhesion of eosinophils to various forms of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, CD106), an integrin counter-receptor implicated in eosinophil recruitment to the airway in asthma. Full-length 7d-VCAM-1, with seven immunoglobulin-like modules, contains integrin-binding sites in modules 1 and 4. The alternatively spliced six-module protein, 6d-VCAM-1, lacks module 4. In static assays, unactivated purified human blood eosinophils adhered similarly to recombinant soluble human 6d-VCAM-1 and 7d-VCAM-1 coated onto polystyrene microtiter wells. Further experiments, however, revealed differences in recognition of modules 1 and 4. Antibody blocking indicated that eosinophil adhesion to 6d-VCAM-1 or a VCAM-1 construct containing only modules 1-3, 1-3VCAM-1, is mediated by alpha4beta1 (CD49d/29), whereas adhesion to a construct containing modules 4-7, 4-7VCAM-1, is mediated by bothalpha4beta1 andalphaMbeta2 (CD11b/18). Inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, which block adhesion of eosinophils mediated by alphaMbeta2, blocked adhesion to 4-7VCAM-1 but had no effect on adhesion to 6d-VCAM-1. Consistent with the antibody and pharmacological blocking experiments, eosinophilic leukemic cell lines lacking alphaMbeta2 did not adhere to 4-7VCAM-1 but did adhere to 6d-VCAM-1 or 1-3VCAM-1. Activation of eosinophils by interleukin (IL)-5 enhanced static adhesion to 6d-VCAM-1, 7d-VCAM-1, or 4-7VCAM-1; IL-5-enhanced adhesion to all 3 constructs was blocked by anti-alphaMbeta2. Adhesion of unstimulated eosinophils to 7d-VCAM-1 under flow conditions was inhibited by anti-alpha4 or anti-alphaM. IL-5 treatment decreased eosinophil adhesion to 7d-VCAM-1 under flow, and anti-alphaM had the paradoxical effect of increasing adhesion. These results demonstrate that alphaMbeta2 modulatesalpha4beta1-mediated eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 under both static and flow conditions.
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18028011
Inflammation and cancer metastasis are associated with extravasation of leukocytes or tumor cells from blood into tissue. Such movement is believed to follow a coordinated and sequential molecular cascade initiated, in part, by the three members of the selectin family of carbohydrate-binding proteins: E-selectin (CD62E), L-selectin (CD62L) and P-selectin (CD62P). E-selectin is particularly noteworthy in disease by virtue of its expression on activated endothelium and on bone-skin microvascular linings and for its role in cell rolling, cell signaling and chemotaxis. E-selectin, along with L- or P-selectin, mediates cell tethering and rolling interactions through the recognition of sialo-fucosylated Lewis carbohydrates expressed on structurally diverse protein-lipid ligands on circulating leukocytes or tumor cells. Major advances in understanding the role of E-selectin in inflammation and cancer have been advanced by experiments assaying E-selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes and tumor cells under hydrodynamic shear flow, by clinical models of E-selectin-dependent inflammation, by mice deficient in E-selectin and by mice deficient in glycosyltransferases that regulate the binding activity of E-selectin ligands. Here, the authors elaborate on how E-selectin and its ligands may facilitate leukocyte or tumor cell recruitment in inflammatory and metastatic settings. Antagonists that target cellular interactions with E-selectin and other members of the selectin family, including neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, competitive ligand inhibitors or metabolic carbohydrate mimetics, exemplify a growing arsenal of potentially effective therapeutics in controlling inflammation and the metastatic behavior of cancer.
Skin-homing Receptors on Effector Leukocytes Are Differentially Sensitive to Glyco-metabolic Antagonism in Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18056398
T cell recruitment into inflamed skin is dependent on skin-homing receptor binding to endothelial (E)- and platelet (P)-selectin. These T cell receptors, or E- and P-selectin ligands, can be targeted by the metabolic fluorosugar inhibitor, 4-F-GlcNAc, to blunt cutaneous inflammation. Compelling new data indicate that, in addition to T cells, NK cells are also recruited to inflamed skin in allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) contingent on E- and P-selectin-binding. Using a model of allergic CHS, we evaluated the identity and impact of NK cell E-selectin ligand(s) on inflammatory responses and examined the oral efficacy of 4-F-GlcNAc. We demonstrated that the predominant E-selectin ligands on NK cells are P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 and protease-resistant glycolipids. We showed that, unlike the induced E-selectin ligand expression on activated T cells upon exposure to Ag, ligand expression on NK cells was constitutive. CHS responses were significantly lowered by orally administered 4-F-GlcNAc treatment. Although E-selectin ligand on activated T cells was suppressed, ligand expression on NK cells was insensitive to 4-F-GlcNAc treatment. These findings indicate that downregulating effector T cell E- and P-selectin ligand expression directly correlates with anti-inflammatory efficacy and provides new insight on metabolic discrepancies of E-selectin ligand biosynthesis in effector leukocytes in vivo.
Analysis of Glycosyltransferase Expression in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells Capable of Rolling Activity on Microvascular Endothelial (E)-selectin
Glycobiology. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18647941
Prostate cancer (PCa) cell tethering and rolling on microvascular endothelium has been proposed to promote the extravasation of PCa cells. We have shown that these adhesive events are mediated through binding interactions between endothelial (E)-selectin and Lewis carbohydrates on PCa cells. Prior data indicate that E-selectin-mediated rolling of bone-metastatic PCa MDA PCa 2b (MDA) cells is dependent on sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X))-bearing glycoproteins. To explore the molecular basis of sLe(X) synthesis and E-selectin ligand (ESL) activity on PCa cells, we compared and contrasted the expression level of glycosyltransferases, characteristically involved in sLe(X) and ESL synthesis, in ESL(+) MDA cells among other ESL(-) metastatic PCa cell lines. We also created and examined ESL(hi) and ESL(lo) variants of MDA cells to provide a direct comparison of the glycosyltransferase expression level. We found that normal prostate tissue and all metastatic PCa cell lines expressed glycosyltransferases required for sialo-lactosamine synthesis, including N-acetylglucosaminyl-, galactosyl-, and sialyltransferases. However, compared with expression in normal prostate tissue, ESL(+) MDA cells expressed a 31- and 10-fold higher level of alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases (FT) 3 and 6, respectively. Moreover, FT3 and FT6 were expressed at 2- to 354-fold lower levels in ESL(-) PCa cell lines. Consistent with these findings, ESL(hi) MDA cells expressed a 131- and 51-fold higher level of FT3 and FT6, respectively, compared with expression in ESL(lo) MDA cells. We also noted that alpha1,3 FT7 was expressed at a 5-fold greater level in ESL(hi) MDA cells. Furthermore, ESL(lo) MDA cells did not display sLe(X) on glycoproteins capable of bearing sLe(X), notably P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. These results implicate the importance of alpha1,3 FT3, FT6, and/or FT7 in sLe(X) and ESL synthesis on metastatic PCa cells.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17906117
Eosinophilic inflammation is a characteristic feature of asthma. Integrins are highly versatile cellular receptors that regulate extravasation of eosinophils from the postcapillary segment of the bronchial circulation to the airway wall and airspace. Such movement into the asthmatic lung is described as a sequential, multistep paradigm, whereby integrins on circulating eosinophils become activated, eosinophils tether in flow and roll on bronchial endothelial cells, integrins on rolling eosinophils become further activated as a result of exposure to cytokines, eosinophils arrest firmly to adhesive ligands on activated endothelium, and eosinophils transmigrate to the airway in response to chemoattractants. Eosinophils express seven integrin heterodimeric adhesion molecules: alpha 4 beta 1 (CD49d/29), alpha 6 beta 1 (CD49f/29), alpha M beta 2 (CD11b/18), alpha L beta 2 (CD11a/18), alpha X beta 2 (CD11c/18), alpha D beta2 (CD11d/18), and alpha 4 beta 7 (CD49d/beta 7). The role of these integrins in eosinophil recruitment has been elucidated by major advances in the understanding of integrin structure, integrin function, and modulators of integrins. Such findings have been facilitated by cellular experiments of eosinophils in vitro, studies of allergic asthma in humans and animal models in vivo, and crystal structures of integrins. Here, we elaborate on how integrins cooperate to mediate eosinophil movement to the asthmatic airway. Antagonists that target integrins represent potentially promising therapies in the treatment of asthma.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19889975
How cancer cells bind to vascular surfaces and extravasate into target organs is an underappreciated, yet essential step in metastasis. We postulate that the metastatic process involves discrete adhesive interactions between circulating cancer cells and microvascular endothelial cells. Sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)) on prostate cancer (PCa) cells is thought to promote metastasis by mediating PCa cell binding to microvascular endothelial (E)-selectin. Yet, regulation of sLe(X) and related E-selectin ligand expression in PCa cells is a poorly understood factor in PCa metastasis. Here, we describe a glycobiological mechanism regulating E-selectin-mediated adhesion and metastatic potential of PCa cells. We demonstrate that alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases (FT) 3, 6, and 7 are markedly elevated in bone- and liver-metastatic PCa and dictate synthesis of sLe(X) and E-selectin ligands on metastatic PCa cells. Upregulated FT3, FT6, or FT7 expression induced robust PCa PC-3 cell adhesion to bone marrow (BM) endothelium and to inflamed postcapillary venules in an E-selectin-dependent manner. Membrane proteins, CD44, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), podocalyxin-like protein (PCLP), and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) were major scaffolds presenting E-selectin-binding determinants on FT-upregulated PC-3 cells. Furthermore, elevated FT7 expression promoted PC-3 cell trafficking to and retention in BM through an E-selectin dependent event. These results indicate that alpha1,3 FTs could enhance metastatic efficiency of PCa by triggering an E-selectin-dependent trafficking mechanism.
Development of a Nascent Galectin-1 Chimeric Molecule for Studying the Role of Leukocyte Galectin-1 Ligands and Immune Disease Modulation
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20844192
Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a β-galactoside-binding lectin, plays a profound role in modulating adaptive immune responses by altering the phenotype and fate of T cells. Experimental data showing recombinant Gal-1 (rGal-1) efficacy on T cell viability and cytokine production, nevertheless, is controversial due to the necessity of using stabilizing chemicals to help retain Gal-1 structure and function. To address this drawback, we developed a mouse Gal-1 human Ig chimera (Gal-1hFc) that did not need chemical stabilization for Gal-1 ligand recognition, apoptosis induction, and cytokine modulation in a variety of leukocyte models. At high concentrations, Gal-1hFc induced apoptosis in Gal-1 ligand(+) Th1 and Th17 cells, leukemic cells, and granulocytes from synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Importantly, at low, more physiologic concentrations, Gal-1hFc retained its homodimeric form without losing functionality. Not only did Gal-1hFc-binding trigger IL-10 and Th2 cytokine expression in activated T cells, but members of the CD28 family and several other immunomodulatory molecules were upregulated. In a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity, we found that a non-Fc receptor-binding isoform of Gal-1hFc, Gal-1hFc2, alleviated T cell-dependent inflammation by increasing IL-4(+), IL-10(+), TGF-β(+), and CD25(high)/FoxP3(+) T cells, and by decreasing IFN-γ(+) and IL-17(+) T cells. Moreover, in human skin-resident T cell cultures, Gal-1hFc diminished IL-17(+) T cells and increased IL-4(+) and IL-10(+) T cells. Gal-1hFc will not only be a useful new tool for investigating the role of Gal-1 ligands in leukocyte death and cytokine stimulation, but for studying how Gal-1-Gal-1 ligand binding shapes the intensity of immune responses.
Peracetylated 4-fluoro-glucosamine Reduces the Content and Repertoire of N- and O-glycans Without Direct Incorporation
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21493714
Prior studies have shown that treatment with the peracetylated 4-fluorinated analog of glucosamine (4-F-GlcNAc) elicits anti-skin inflammatory activity by ablating N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc), sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)), and related lectin ligands on effector leukocytes. Based on anti-sLe(X) antibody and lectin probing experiments on 4-F-GlcNAc-treated leukocytes, it was hypothesized that 4-F-GlcNAc inhibited sLe(X) formation by incorporating into LacNAc and blocking the addition of galactose or fucose at the carbon 4-position of 4-F-GlcNAc. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether 4-F-GlcNAc is directly incorporated into N- and O-glycans released from 4-F-GlcNAc-treated human sLe(X) (+) T cells and leukemic KG1a cells. At concentrations that abrogated galectin-1 (Gal-1) ligand and E-selectin ligand expression and related LacNAc and sLe(X) structures, MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses showed that 4-F-GlcNAc 1) reduced content and structural diversity of tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycans and of O-glycans, 2) increased biantennary N-glycans, and 3) reduced LacNAc and sLe(X) on N-glycans and on core 2 O-glycans. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS did not reveal any m/z ratios relating to the presence of fluorine atoms, indicating that 4-F-GlcNAc did not incorporate into glycans. Further analysis showed that 4-F-GlcNAc treatment had minimal effect on expression of 1200 glycome-related genes and did not alter the activity of LacNAc-synthesizing enzymes. However, 4-F-GlcNAc dramatically reduced intracellular levels of uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a key precursor of LacNAc synthesis. These data show that Gal-1 and E-selectin ligand reduction by 4-F-GlcNAc is not caused by direct 4-F-GlcNAc glycan incorporation and consequent chain termination but rather by interference with UDP-GlcNAc synthesis.
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22158550
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has been shown to play a major role in tumor immune escape by inducing apoptosis of effector leukocytes and correlating with tumor aggressiveness and disease progression. Thus, targeting the Gal-1/Gal-1 ligand axis represents a promising cancer therapeutic approach. Here, to test the Gal-1-mediated tumor immune evasion hypothesis and demonstrate the importance of Gal-1-binding N-acetyllactosamines in controlling the fate and function of antitumor immune cells, we treated melanoma- or lymphoma-bearing mice with peracetylated 4-fluoro-glucosamine (4-F-GlcNAc), a metabolic inhibitor of N-acetyllactosamine biosynthesis, and analyzed tumor growth and immune profiles. We found that 4-F-GlcNAc spared Gal-1-mediated apoptosis of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells by decreasing their expression of Gal-1-binding determinants. 4-F-GlcNAc enhanced tumor lymphocytic infiltration and promoted elevations in tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells and IFN-γ levels, while lowering IL-10 production. Collectively, our data suggest that metabolic lowering of Gal-1-binding N-acetyllactosamines may attenuate tumor growth by boosting antitumor immune cell levels, representing a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy.