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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (5)
Articles by Sudhir Khetan in JoVE
Cellular Encapsulation in 3D Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering
Sudhir Khetan1, Jason Burdick2
1Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania-School of Medicine
We present protocols for the 3-dimensional (3D) encapsulation of cells within synthetic hydrogels. The encapsulation procedure is outlined for two commonly used methods of crosslinking (michael-type addition and light-initiated free radical mechanisms), as well as a number of techniques for assessing encapsulated cell behavior.
Other articles by Sudhir Khetan on PubMed
Synthesis, in Vitro Degradation, and Mechanical Properties of Two-component Poly(ester Urethane)urea Scaffolds: Effects of Water and Polyol Composition
Tissue Engineering. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17658992
The development of minimally invasive therapeutics for orthopedic clinical conditions has substantial benefits, especially for osteoporotic fragility fractures and vertebral compression fractures. Poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUUR) foams are potentially useful for addressing these conditions because they cure in situ upon injection to form porous scaffolds. In this study, the effects of water concentration and polyester triol composition on the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of PEUUR foams were investigated. A liquid resin (lysine diisocyanate) and hardener (poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-glycolide-co-DL-lactide) triol, tertiary amine catalyst, anionic stabilizer, and fatty acid-derived pore opener) were mixed, and the resulting reactive liquid mixture was injected into a mold to harden. By varying the water content over the range of 0.5 to 2.75 parts per hundred parts polyol, materials with porosities ranging from 89.1 to 95.8 vol-% were prepared. Cells permeated the PEUUR foams after 21 days post-seeding, implying that the pores are open and interconnected. In vitro, the materials yielded non-cytotoxic decomposition products, and differences in the half-life of the polyester triol component translated to differences in the PEUUR foam degradation rates. We anticipate that PEUUR foams will present compelling opportunities for the design of new tissue-engineered scaffolds and delivery systems because of their favorable biological and physical properties.
Biomacromolecules. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18324776
Polysaccharides are being processed into biomaterials for numerous biological applications due to their native source in numerous tissues and biological functions. For instance, hyaluronic acid (HA) is found abundantly in the body, interacts with cells through surface receptors, and can regulate cellular behavior (e.g., proliferation, migration). HA was previously modified with reactive groups to form hydrogels that are degraded by hyaluronidases, either added exogenously or produced by cells. However, these hydrogels may be inhibitory and their applications are limited if the appropriate enzymes are not present. Here, for the first time, we synthesized HA macromers and hydrogels that are both hydrolytically (via ester group hydrolysis) and enzymatically degradable. The hydrogel degradation and growth factor release was tailored through the hydrogel cross-linking density (i.e., macromer concentration) and copolymerization with purely enzymatically degradable macromers. When mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were encapsulated in the hydrogels, cellular organization and tissue distribution was influenced by the copolymer concentration. Importantly, the distribution of released extracellular matrix molecules (e.g., chondroitin sulfate) was improved with increasing amounts of the hydrolytically degradable component. Overall, this new macromer allows for enhanced control over the structural evolution of the HA hydrogels toward applications as biomaterials.
Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19963530
Biomaterial design is an important component towards tissue engineering applications. There are many parameters that may be adjusted including physical properties (i.e., degradation and mechanics) and chemical properties (e.g., adhesion and cellular interactions). These design components may dictate the success or failure of a tissue engineering approach. Our group is particularly interested in the use of swollen hydrogels as cell carriers. One material that is used to fabricate hydrogels is hyaluronic acid (HA), which is found in many tissues in the body. Here, we show the control over hydrogel degradation, both in the bulk and locally to cells to control both the distribution of extracellular matrix by cells and whether or not a cell spreads in the hydrogels. These signals are important in the final structure and mechanical properties of engineered tissues, and potentially the differentiation of encapsulated stem cells.
Patterning Network Structure to Spatially Control Cellular Remodeling and Stem Cell Fate Within 3-dimensional Hydrogels
Biomaterials. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20674004
The spatially directed 3-dimensional (3D) remodeling of synthetic materials may be useful to regionally control cell behavior. In this work, we developed a process to synthesize hyaluronic acid hydrogels using multiple modes of crosslinking applied sequentially; a primary addition reaction to introduce protease degradable peptide crosslinks, then a UV light-induced secondary radical reaction (enabling spatial control) to introduce non-degradable kinetic chains. These differential network structures either permitted (primary crosslinking only, "-UV") or inhibited (sequential crosslinking, "+UV") cellular remodeling. This behavior was validated by controlling the outgrowth from chick aortic arches or the spreading of encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), where only -UV regions permitted arch outgrowth and MSC spreading. Additionally, network structures dictated adipogenic/osteogenic MSC fate decisions, with spatial control, by controlling encapsulated MSC spreading. This manipulation of microenvironmental cues may be valuable for advanced tissue engineering applications requiring the spatial control of cells in 3D.
Controlled Activation of Morphogenesis to Generate a Functional Human Microvasculature in a Synthetic Matrix
Blood. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21527523
Understanding the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in vascular morphogenesis has been possible using natural ECMs as in vitro models to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. However, little is known about vascular morphogenesis in synthetic matrices where properties can be tuned toward both the basic understanding of tubulogenesis in modular environments and as a clinically relevant alternative to natural materials for regenerative medicine. We investigated synthetic, tunable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels and determined both the adhesion and degradation parameters that enable human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) to form efficient vascular networks. Entrapped ECFCs underwent tubulogenesis dependent on the cellular interactions with the HA hydrogel during each stage of vascular morphogenesis. Vacuole and lumen formed through integrins α(5)β(1) and α(V)β(3), while branching and sprouting were enabled by HA hydrogel degradation. Vascular networks formed within HA hydrogels containing ECFCs anastomosed with the host's circulation and supported blood flow in the hydrogel after transplantation. Collectively, we show that the signaling pathways of vascular morphogenesis of ECFCs can be precisely regulated in a synthetic matrix, resulting in a functional microvasculature useful for the study of 3-dimensional vascular biology and toward a range of vascular disorders and approaches in tissue regeneration.