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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (19)
- Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
- Optometry and Vision Science : Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
- Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics : the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
- Human Brain Mapping
- Clinical & Experimental Optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
- Journal of Clinical Densitometry : the Official Journal of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry
- Journal of Neural Engineering
- IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering : a Publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
- Journal of Athletic Training
- Brain Research
- Neuroscience Letters
- Brain Research
- Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
- The Spine Journal : Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
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Articles by Suk-Tak Chan in JoVE
Hem oksijenaz-1 ekspresyonunun Gua Sha Usul Biyoparlaklık Görüntüleme
Kenneth K. Kwong1,2, Lenuta Kloetzer1,2,3,4, Kelvin K. Wong5,6, Jia-Qian Ren1,2, Braden Kuo1,2,3,4, Yan Jiang7, Y. Iris Chen1,2, Suk-Tak Chan1,2,8, Geoffrey S. Young9, Stephen T.C. Wong5,6
1Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 5Center for biotechnology and Informatics, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, 6Department of Radiology, The Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, 7Bejing University of Chinese Medicine, 8Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 9Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Gua Sha, geleneksel Çin tedavi cilt kazıma, subkutan mikrovasküler kan ekstravazasyon neden olur. Biz, biyoparlaklık görüntüleme protokolü rapor HO-1
Other articles by Suk-Tak Chan on PubMed
Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. Sep-Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12235345
Ultrasonography (US) of the head and neck is a convenient but operator-dependent screening tool for detection and diagnosis of neurovascular occlusive disease. In US examination of the extracranial carotid arteries, stenosis is most commonly graded according to the peak systolic Doppler velocity in the region of maximal luminal narrowing rather than according to the percentage of atheromatous plaque occupying the lumen. However, the peak systolic velocity is not always reliable in estimation of the degree of stenosis. General diagnostic pitfalls include technical difficulties with scanning, failure to review the spectral waveform patterns, the presence of additional stenotic lesions, and anatomic variants. Specific examples of pitfalls include tandem lesions, differentiation of pseudo-occlusion from true total occlusion, pseudonormalization of velocities in cases of very severe stenosis, lesions of the carotid artery origin or aortic valve, progression of subclavian steal, underestimation of severe stenosis due to heavily calcified plaque, a persistent trigeminal artery, and contralateral carotid artery stenosis. Although conventional angiography remains the standard of reference for assessment of carotid artery disease, recognition of these common sources of error in US can improve the accuracy of this noninvasive test in diagnosis of carotid artery occlusion.
The Effect of Age on Ocular Blood Supply Determined by Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow and Color Doppler Ultrasonography
Optometry and Vision Science : Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12692487
Pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) assessment measures the choroidal circulation and provides diagnostic value to certain ocular diseases such as glaucoma. This technique assumes a constant ocular rigidity and is influenced by axial length, diurnal variation, and age. This study investigated the effect of age on POBF, with consideration of the above factors. Ocular blood supply in the ophthalmic artery was also determined using color Doppler ultrasonography.
Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics : the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists). Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12828621
Pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) assessment measures the choroidal circulation and therefore provides data with diagnostic value in certain ocular diseases, such as glaucoma. The technique assumes a constant pressure-volume relationship. The current study investigated the effect of axial length on POBF from subjects with axial anisometropia. Ocular blood supply in the ophthalmic artery was also determined using colour Doppler ultrasonography.
Neuroanatomy of Adult Strabismus: a Voxel-based Morphometric Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Structural Scans
NeuroImage. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15193630
Cerebral deficit has been implicated in the genesis of strabismus and in the mechanisms adopted to compensate for the visual disorder. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to magnetic resonance images of strabismic adults to detect any abnormal brain anatomy, which could not be easily identified by simple inspection. The gray matter volume in strabismic adults was smaller than that in normal subjects at the areas consistent with the occipital eye field (OEF) and parietal eye field (PEF). However, greater gray matter volume was found in strabismic adults relative to normal controls at the areas consistent with the frontal eye field (FEF), the supplementary eye field (SEF), the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and subcortical regions such as the thalamus and the basal ganglia. These opposite gray matter changes in the visual and the oculomotor processing areas are compatible with a hypothesis of plasticity in the oculomotor regions to compensate for the cortical deficits in the visual processing areas.
Human Brain Mapping. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15846772
Amblyopia, sometimes called "lazy eye," is a relatively common developmental visual disorder well characterized behaviorally; however, the neural substrates associated with amblyopia in humans remain unclear. We hypothesized that abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of subjects with amblyopia exist, possibly as a result of experience-dependent neuronal plasticity. Anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and psychophysical vision testing was carried out on 74 subjects divided into two age ranges, 7-12 years and 18-35 years, and three diagnoses, strabismic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia, and normal vision. We report a behavioral impairment in contrast sensitivity for subjects with amblyopia, consistent with previous reports. When the high-resolution MRI brain images were analyzed quantitatively with optimized voxel-based morphometry, results indicated that adults and children with amblyopia have decreased gray matter volume in visual cortical regions, including the calcarine sulcus, known to contain primary visual cortex. This finding was confirmed with a separate region-of-interest analysis. For the children with amblyopia, additional gray matter reductions in parietal-occipital areas and ventral temporal cortex were detected, consistent with recent reports that amblyopia can result in spatial location and object processing deficits. These data are the first to provide possible neuroanatomic bases for the loss of binocularity and visual sensitivity in children and adults with amblyopia.
Clinical & Experimental Optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16329746
The pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) of patients with asymmetric internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis was measured bilaterally. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of POBF assessments in screening for ICA stenosis.
Trabecular Bone Status in Ultradistal Tibia Under Habitual Gait Loading: a PQCT Study in Postmenopausal Women
Journal of Clinical Densitometry : the Official Journal of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Apr-Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16785078
This study investigated regional volumetric trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD) and bone area at the ultradistal tibia in Chinese women using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Fifty-six postmenopausal women aged 47-62 yr participated in BMD measurements at baseline and 22 of them were followed at both 1-yr and 3-yr follow-up scans. Regional baseline tBMD, rate of annual bone loss, and trabecular bone area were determined. Baseline measurements showed that the tBMD of both the posterior (252.9+/-63.4 mg/cm(3)) and medial (226.6+/-68.9 mg/cm(3)) regions was significantly higher than that of the anterior (126.3+/-61.9 mg/cm(3)) and lateral regions (149.8+/-50.6 mg/cm(3)), respectively (p<0.001). Both the 1-yr and 3-yr follow-up measurements showed that there was significant physiological annual tBMD loss on an average of 1.61%, at the four regions. Inter-slice regional tBMD and trabecular bone area measurements demonstrated a significant linear decrease from the distal to proximal aspects (p<0.001). Findings suggest that dynamic compressive loading during the heel strike and the body weight vector shifting toward the medial aspect during the stance phase in a normal gait might account for the regional tBMD differences. Increased tBMD and bone area toward the distal tibial endplate may adapt to withstand the axial impact loading. However, the low-impact weight-bearing nature of a normal gait may not be osteogenic to prevent regional bone loss. An exercise program specific to the women at risk should be contemplated.
Spine. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16946664
A prospective study of multifidus images. OBJECTIVE.: To compare the change of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of multifidus in subjects with and without chronic low back pain (LBP) at different postures.
Journal of Neural Engineering. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18756033
Whether afferent feedback contributes to the generation of cortico-muscular coherence (CMCoh) remains an open question. In the present study, a multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) model and partial directed coherence (PDC) were applied to investigate the causal influences between the central rhythm and electromyographic (EMG) signals in the process of CMCoh. The system modeling included activities from the contralateral and ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (M1/S1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and the time series from extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles. The results showed that afferent sensory feedback could also play an important role for the generation of CMCoh. Meanwhile, significant coherence between the EMG signals and the activities in the SMA was found in two subjects out of five. Connectivity analysis revealed a significant descending information flow which possibly reflected direct recruitment on the motoneurons from the SMA to facilitate motor control.
IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering : a Publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19273041
The latency estimation of cortico-muscular coherence (CMCoh) could provide valuable information, especially for the pathological study. However, the conduction time from the central cortical rhythm to peripheral oscillations has not been explored for stroke patients. In this study one recently proposed method, maximizing coherence, was applied into the coherence analysis to estimate the latency by which the extensor carpi radialis electromyographic signals lagged behind the electroencephalographic time series with seven subcortical stroke subjects. Significantly prolonged conduction time was found in affected sides compared with the unaffected sides. The interhemispheric spatial displacement was also calculated using electrodes projection optimization and spherical surface laplacian. The results showed that the CMCoh could help investigate the cerebral reorganization after stroke.
Journal of Athletic Training. May-Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19478844
Underconditioned patellar stabilizing muscles could be a predisposing factor for patellar instability.
Brain Research. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19559684
Previous work has shown that acupuncture stimulation evokes deactivation of a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN) as well as activation of somatosensory brain regions. This study explores the activity and functional connectivity of these regions during acupuncture vs. tactile stimulation and vs. acupuncture associated with inadvertent sharp pain. Acupuncture during 201 scans and tactile stimulation during 74 scans for comparison at acupoints LI4, ST36 and LV3 was monitored with fMRI and psychophysical response in 48 healthy subjects. Clusters of deactivated regions in the medial prefrontal, medial parietal and medial temporal lobes as well as activated regions in the sensorimotor and a few paralimbic structures can be identified during acupuncture by general linear model analysis and seed-based cross correlation analysis. Importantly, these clusters showed virtual identity with the default mode network and the anti-correlated task-positive network in response to stimulation. In addition, the amygdala and hypothalamus, structures not routinely reported in the default mode literature, were frequently involved in acupuncture. When acupuncture induced sharp pain, the deactivation was attenuated or became activated instead. Tactile stimulation induced greater activation of the somatosensory regions but less extensive deactivation of the LPNN. These results indicate that the deactivation of the LPNN during acupuncture cannot be completely explained by the demand of attention that is commonly proposed in the default mode literature. Our results suggest that acupuncture mobilizes the anti-correlated functional networks of the brain to mediate its actions, and that the effect is dependent on the psychophysical response.
Hierarchical Coding of Characters in the Ventral and Dorsal Visual Streams of Chinese Language Processing
NeuroImage. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19591947
Functional and spatial hierarchical organization of increasingly language-like word forms has been proposed for alphabetic languages at the occipitotemporal cortex for visual word recognition. In the logographic Chinese language system, similar functional and spatial hierarchical presentations of brain responses to sublexical orthographic structure are beginning to be explored. In this study, we used whole-brain fMRI to show that a hierarchical coding of increasingly language-like character type is present in multiple Chinese language processing areas. Fluent Chinese readers were presented with Chinese synonyms/non-synonym pairs, identical/non-identical non-pronounceable pseudo-character pairs constructed with Chinese radicals, and identical/non-identical Korean character pairs. We observed the presence of a spatial gradient for increasing language-like character types in the ventral and dorsal visual streams of the cortex. At the left occipitotemporal cortex of the ventral visual stream, we observed a posterior-to-anterior gradient of character type selectivity with the anterior fusiform region being more selective for real Chinese characters and the posterior fusiform region being more selective for Korean characters. At the left and right intraparietal sulci of the dorsal visual stream, a medial-to-lateral gradient of character type selectivity was observed, with the lateral edge being more selective for real Chinese characters, the medial edge being more selective for pseudo-characters, and with less activation attributable to Korean characters. Spatial gradients of selecting character type were also identified in prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum and lateral temporal cortex. The results suggest that the left occipitotemporal cortex and both left and right intraparietal sulci are tuned with a functional and spatial hierarchical sensitivity to the presence of semantic elements as well as different orthographic structures.
Neuroscience Letters. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19631717
English vowels had been proposed in previous studies to be used as a simple tool for the brain mapping of language. A proper fMRI study of Cantonese rhymes, each of which being a required and fundamental unit of a Cantonese syllable, remains to be carried out. Using an auditory task with Cantonese rhymes which carry no semantic meaning, we observed a minimal amount of positive BOLD signal at the caudate nucleus when Cantonese rhymes were contrasted with their corresponding filtered sounds. Typical language activating regions of the prefrontal cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex and the lateral temporal cortex on both left and right sides were not activated by Cantonese rhymes. Based on the absence of brain activation at the typical language areas in the contrast of Cantonese rhymes relative to filtered sounds, the auditory task with Cantonese rhymes may not be a robust tool for the individual clinical assessment of hemispheric dominance for language.
Transcranial Doppler Study of Cerebrovascular Reactivity: Are Migraineurs More Sensitive to Breath-hold Challenge?
Brain Research. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19635466
Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) of cerebrovascular reactivity has been used to study migraine interictally. However, the previous TCD findings had been quite varied at the post breath-hold period. Autonomic responses were usually studied with cardiac information. The aim of this study was to use TCD as a tool to examine difference in cerebrovascular reactivity between migraineurs and non-headache controls by measuring interictally the whole time course of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during and after a breath-hold challenge. The percentage change of CBFV was derived in the left and right middle cerebral arteries in 10 migraineurs and 10 controls during and after a 20 s breath-hold. Three phases of CBFV change were identified with an initial positive phase above baseline, a middle negative phase during breath-hold, and a late positive phase which started before the cessation of breath-hold and continued for a period after. In addition to CBFV, we also extracted and utilized the information of the cardiac cycle duration (CC) derived from the time course of CBFV. The percentage change of CC was derived from time intervals between every two points of inflexion in CBFV. Two undershoots of CC change were shown at the transitions of breathing motions. We found evidence that migraineurs had significant difference of CBFV change at the middle negative phase during breath-hold and the pronounced undershoots of CC change compared to non-headache controls.
NeuroImage. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20851196
The aim was to investigate the feasibility of making relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) maps from MR images acquired with short TR by measuring the initial arrival amount of Gd-DTPA evaluated within a time window before any contrast agent has a chance to leave the tissue. We named this rCBF measurement technique utilizing the early data points of the Gd-DTPA bolus the "early time points" method (ET), based on the hypothesis that early time point signals were proportional to rCBF. Simulation data were used successfully to examine the ideal behavior of ET while monkey's MRI results offered encouraging support to the utility of ET for rCBF calculation. A better brain coverage for ET could be obtained by applying the Simultaneous Echo Refocusing (SER) EPI technique. A recipe to run ET was presented, with attention paid to the noise problem around the time of arrival (TOA) of the contrast agent.
Early Time Points Perfusion Imaging: Relative Time of Arrival, Maximum Derivatives and Fractional Derivatives
NeuroImage. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21600995
Time of arrival (TOA) of a bolus of contrast agent to the tissue voxel is a reference time point critical for the Early Time Points Perfusion Imaging Method (ET) to make relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) maps. Due to the low contrast to noise (CNR) condition at TOA, other useful reference time points known as relative time of arrival data points (rTOA) are investigated. Candidate rTOA's include the time to reach the maximum derivative, the maximum second derivative, and the maximum fractional derivative. Each rTOA retains the same relative time distance from TOA for all tissue flow levels provided that ET's basic assumption is met, namely, no contrast agent has a chance to leave the tissue before the time of rTOA. The ET's framework insures that rCBF estimates by different orders of the derivative are theoretically equivalent to each other and monkey perfusion imaging results supported the theory. In rCBF estimation, maximum values of higher order fractional derivatives may be used to replace the maximum derivative which runs a higher risk of violating ET's assumption. Using the maximum values of the derivative of orders ranging from 1 to 1.5 to 2, estimated rCBF results were found to demonstrate a gray-white matter ratio of approximately 3, a number consistent with flow ratio reported in the literature.
Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21616064
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has demonstrated hepatoprotective effect in animal hepatitis models. HO-1 was also reported to be upregulated with Guasha, an ancient therapeutic technique which applies instrument assisted press-stroking to treat many disorders.
Dynamic Changes of Elasticity, Cross-sectional Area, and Fat Infiltration of Multifidus at Different Postures in Men with Chronic Low Back Pain
The Spine Journal : Official Journal of the North American Spine Society. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22197782
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Multifidus cross-sectional area was often measured in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients to estimate the muscle activity for spinal stability. However, such estimation may be inadequate as the contribution of muscle elasticity in muscle activity is ignored. In vivo quantitative data on multifidus elasticity is therefore important for the study of muscle contractile function in response to motor control for spinal stability in chronic LBP patients. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the elasticity, cross-sectional area, and fat area of the multifidus for the contractile function and the distribution of deformable muscle tissue and nondeformable fat tissue at different postures in patients with and without chronic LBP. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: This is a prospective study. Force-deformation data of the multifidus were acquired using ultrasound elastography. The anatomical changes of the multifidus were measured on the cross-sectional images of the multifidus acquired using B-mode ultrasound imaging. PATIENT SAMPLE: The sample comprised 12 adult male patients with chronic LBP and 12 asymptomatic male controls. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measure was the elasticity of the multifidus at the L4 level for the assessment of muscle contractile function when patients were in the prone, upright, and 25° and 45° forward stooping positions. The cross-sectional area and fat area were also measured on the B-mode ultrasound images of the multifidus acquired at the same vertebral level and the postures. METHODS: With the patients in each of the prone, upright, and 25° and 45° forward stooping positions, ultrasound elastography and B-mode ultrasound imaging were performed on the left and right multifidus at the L4 level. The elasticity of multifidus indicated by the effective Young's modulus was derived from the force-deformation data acquired using ultrasound elastography. The cross-sectional area and fat area were assessed on the B-mode ultrasound images. The effective Young's modulus, cross-sectional area, and fat area were analyzed with multivariate general linear model analysis to investigate the possible effects of LBP and posture. RESULTS: There was an increasing stiffness of multifidus demonstrated by increasing effective Young's modulus from the prone to upright position and 25° and 45° forward stooping positions. Differences in multifidus stiffness between chronic LBP patients and asymptomatic controls were shown in the upright and 25° and 45° forward stooping positions but not in the prone position. The cross-sectional area of the multifidus increased from the prone position to the greatest value in the upright position and decreased in 25° and 45° forward stooping positions. Smaller multifidus cross-sectional area was demonstrated in chronic LBP patients than that in controls at all postures. No effect of posture on fat area within the multifidus was shown although the fat area within the multifidus was larger in chronic LBP patients. CONCLUSIONS: Different, changing patterns of elasticity and cross-sectional area were identified in the multifidus in relation to posture. Increased stiffness of multifidus in response to the physiologic range of static loads and smaller cross-sectional area was characterized in the chronic LBP condition for spinal stability. Ultrasound elastography offers in vivo assessment of muscle contractile function of deep trunk muscles, which benefits the future investigation of the neuromuscular regulating mechanism in LBP. It can also be applied to refine the palpatory skill for the physical assessment in sports training and physical therapy.