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In JoVE (2)
- वायरस - प्रेरित जीन (VIGS) मुंह बंद Nicotiana benthamiana टमाटर और
- पैथोजन - एसोसिएटेड आण्विक (PAMP) पैटर्न ट्रिगर संयंत्रों में प्रतिरक्षण (पीटीआई) के लिए परख
Other Publications (10)
- The Plant Cell
- Plant Physiology
- The Plant Cell
- Plant Biotechnology Journal
- Journal of Biosciences
- The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cellular Microbiology
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Articles by Suma Chakravarthy in JoVE
वायरस - प्रेरित जीन (VIGS) मुंह बंद Nicotiana benthamiana टमाटर और
Andrá C. Velásquez1,2, Suma Chakravarthy2, Gregory B. Martin1,2
1Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, 2Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research
एक वायरस प्रेरित जीन अभिव्यक्ति की दस्तक नीचे में जीन मुंह बंद विधि (VIGS) का विवरण
पैथोजन - एसोसिएटेड आण्विक (PAMP) पैटर्न ट्रिगर संयंत्रों में प्रतिरक्षण (पीटीआई) के लिए परख
Suma Chakravarthy1, André C. Velásquez1,2, Gregory B. Martin1,2
1Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, 2Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University
Nicotiana benthamiana पौधों में कोशिका मृत्यु आधारित पीटीआई के लिए परख वर्णित है.
Other articles by Suma Chakravarthy on PubMed
Tomato Transcription Factors Pti4, Pti5, and Pti6 Activate Defense Responses when Expressed in Arabidopsis
The Plant Cell. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11971137
The Pti4, Pti5, and Pti6 proteins from tomato were identified based on their interaction with the product of the Pto disease resistance gene, a Ser-Thr protein kinase. They belong to the ethylene-response factor (ERF) family of plant-unique transcription factors and bind specifically to the GCC-box cis element present in the promoters of many pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Here, we show that these tomato ERFs are localized to the nucleus and function in vivo as transcription activators that regulate the expression of GCC box-containing PR genes. Expression of Pti4, Pti5, or Pti6 in Arabidopsis activated the expression of the salicylic acid-regulated genes PR1 and PR2. Expression of jasmonic acid- and ethylene-regulated genes, such as PR3, PR4, PDF1.2, and Thi2.1, was affected differently by each of the three tomato ERFs, with Arabidopsis-Pti4 plants having very high levels of PDF1.2 transcripts. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to Arabidopsis-Pti4 plants suppressed the increased expression of PDF1.2 but further stimulated PR1 expression. Arabidopsis plants expressing Pti4 displayed increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Erysiphe orontii and increased tolerance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. These results indicate that Pti4, Pti5, and Pti6 activate the expression of a wide array of PR genes and play important and distinct roles in plant defense.
Strategies for Development of Functionally Equivalent Promoters with Minimum Sequence Homology for Transgene Expression in Plants: Cis-elements in a Novel DNA Context Versus Domain Swapping
Plant Physiology. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12805627
The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (35S) promoter has been extensively used for the constitutive expression of transgenes in dicotyledonous plants. The repetitive use of the same promoter is known to induce transgene inactivation due to promoter homology. As a way to circumvent this problem, we tested two different strategies for the development of synthetic promoters that are functionally equivalent but have a minimum sequence homology. Such promoters can be generated by (a) introducing known cis-elements in a novel or synthetic stretch of DNA or (b) "domain swapping," wherein domains of one promoter can be replaced with functionally equivalent domains from other heterologous promoters. We evaluated the two strategies for promoter modifications using domain A (consisting of minimal promoter and subdomain A1) of the 35S promoter as a model. A set of modified 35S promoters were developed whose strength was compared with the 35S promoter per se using beta-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Analysis of the expression of the reporter gene in transient assay system showed that domain swapping led to a significant fall in promoter activity. In contrast, promoters developed by placing cis-elements in a novel DNA context showed levels of expression comparable with that of the 35S. Two promoter constructs Mod2A1T and Mod3A1T were then designed by placing the core sequences of minimal promoter and subdomain A1 in divergent DNA sequences. Transgenics developed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with the two constructs and with 35S as control were used to assess the promoter activity in different tissues of primary transformants. Mod2A1T and Mod3A1T were found to be active in all of the tissues tested, at levels comparable with that of 35S. Further, the expression of the Mod2A1T promoter in the seedlings of the T1 generation was also similar to that of the 35S promoter. The present strategy opens up the possibility of creating a set of synthetic promoters with minimum sequence homology and with expression levels comparable with the wild-type prototype by modifying sequences present between cis-elements for transgene expression in plants.
The Tomato Transcription Factor Pti4 Regulates Defense-related Gene Expression Via GCC Box and Non-GCC Box Cis Elements
The Plant Cell. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14630974
The tomato transcription factor Pti4, an ethylene-responsive factor (ERF), interacts physically with the disease resistance protein Pto and binds the GCC box cis element that is present in the promoters of many pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. We reported previously that Arabidopsis plants expressing Pti4 constitutively express several GCC box-containing PR genes and show reduced disease symptoms compared with wild-type plants after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato or Erysiphe orontii. To gain insight into how genome-wide gene expression is affected by Pti4, we used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to compare transcripts in wild-type and Pti4-expressing Arabidopsis plants. SAGE provided quantitative measurements of >20,000 transcripts and identified the 50 most highly expressed genes in Arabidopsis vegetative tissues. Comparison of the profiles from wild-type and Pti4-expressing Arabidopsis plants revealed 78 differentially abundant transcripts encoding defense-related proteins, protein kinases, ribosomal proteins, transporters, and two transcription factors (TFs). Many of the genes identified were expressed differentially in wild-type Arabidopsis during infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, supporting a role for them in defense-related processes. Unexpectedly, the promoters of most Pti4-regulated genes did not have a GCC box. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that Pti4 binds in vivo to promoters lacking this cis element. Potential binding sites for ERF, MYB, and GBF TFs were present in statistically significantly increased numbers in promoters regulated by Pti4. Thus, Pti4 appears to regulate gene expression directly by binding the GCC box and possibly a non-GCC box element and indirectly by either activating the expression of TF genes or interacting physically with other TFs.
Functional Analysis of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter: Re-evaluation of the Role of Subdomains B5, B4 and B2 in Promoter Activity
Plant Biotechnology Journal. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17608668
The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (35S) promoter is used extensively for transgene expression in plants. The promoter has been delineated into different subdomains based on deletion analysis and gain-of-function studies. However, cis-elements important for promoter activity have been identified only in the domains B1 (as-2 element), A1 (as-1 element) and minimal promoter (TATA box). No cis-elements have been described in subdomains B2-B5, although these are reported to be important for the overall activity of the 35S promoter. We have re-evaluated the contribution of three of these subdomains, namely B5, B4 and B2, to 35S promoter activity by developing several modified promoters. The analysis of beta-glucuronidase gene expression driven by the modified promoters in different tissues of primary transgenic tobacco lines, as well as in seedlings of the T(1) generation, revealed new facets about the functional organization of the 35S promoter. This study suggests that: (i) the 35S promoter truncated up to -301 functions in a similar manner to the -343 (full-length) 35S promoter; (ii) the Dof core and I-box core observed in the subdomain B4 are important for 35S promoter activity; and (iii) the subdomain B2 is essential for maintaining an appropriate distance between the proximal and distal regions of the 35S promoter. These observations will aid in the development of functional synthetic 35S promoters with decreased sequence homology. Such promoters can be used to drive multiple transgenes without evoking promoter homology-based gene silencing when attempting gene stacking.
Analysis of Promoter Activity in Transgenic Plants by Normalizing Expression with a Reference Gene: Anomalies Due to the Influence of the Test Promoter on the Reference Promoter
Journal of Biosciences. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20093748
Variations in transgene expression due to position effect and copy number are normalized when analysing and comparing the strengths of different promoters. In such experiments, the promoter to be tested is placed upstream to a reporter gene and a second expression cassette is introduced in a linked fashion in the same transfer DNA (T-DNA). Normalization in the activity of the test promoter is carried out by calculating the ratio of activities of the test and reference promoters. When an appropriate number of independent transgenic events are analysed, normalization facilitates assessment of the relative strengths of the test promoters being compared. In this study, using different modified versions of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter expressing the reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (gus) (test cassette) linked to a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene under the wild-type 35S promoter (reference cassette) in transgenic tobacco lines, we observed that cat gene expression varied depending upon the strength of the modified 35S promoter expressing the gus gene. The 35S promoter in the reference cassette was found to have been upregulated in cases where the modified 35S promoter was weaker than the wild-type 35S promoter. Many studies have been carried out in different organisms to study the phenomenon of transcriptional interference, which refers to the reduced expression of the downstream promoter by a closely linked upstream promoter. However, we observed a positive interaction wherein the weakened activity of a promoter led to upregulation of a contiguous promoter. These observations suggest that, in situations where the promoters of the test and reference gene share the same transcription factors, the activity of the test promoter can influence the activity of the reference promoter in a way that the test promoter's strength is underestimated when normalized by the reference promoter.
A Secreted Effector Protein (SNE1) from Phytophthora Infestans is a Broadly Acting Suppressor of Programmed Cell Death
The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20128886
Evasion or active suppression of host defenses are critical strategies employed by biotrophic phytopathogens and hemibiotrophs whose infection mechanism includes sequential biotrophic and necrotrophic stages. Although defense suppression by secreted effector proteins has been well studied in bacteria, equivalent systems in fungi and oomycetes are poorly understood. We report the characterization of SNE1 (suppressor of necrosis 1), a gene encoding a secreted protein from the hemibiotrophic oomycete Phytophthora infestans that is specifically expressed at the transcriptional level during biotrophic growth within the host plant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Using transient expression assays, we show that SNE1 suppresses the action of secreted cell death-inducing effectors from Phytophthora that are expressed during the necrotrophic growth phase, as well as programmed cell death mediated by a range of Avr-R protein interactions. We also report that SNE1 contains predicted NLS motifs and translocates to the plant nucleus in transient expression studies. A conceptual model is presented in which the sequential coordinated secretion of antagonistic effectors by P. infestans first suppresses, but then induces, host cell death, thereby providing a highly regulated means to control the transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy.
Identification of Nicotiana Benthamiana Genes Involved in Pathogen-associated Molecular Pattern-triggered Immunity
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20459311
In order to identify components of pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) pathways in Nicotiana benthamiana, we conducted a large-scale forward-genetics screen using virus-induced gene silencing and a cell-death-based assay for assessing PTI. The assay relied on four combinations of PTI-inducing nonpathogens and cell-death-causing challenger pathogens and was first validated in plants silenced for FLS2 or BAK1. Over 3,200 genes were screened and 14 genes were identified that, when silenced, compromised PTI as judged by the cell-death-based assay. Further analysis indicated that the 14 genes were not involved in a general cell death response. A subset of the genes was found to act downstream of FLS2-mediated PTI induction, and silencing of three genes compromised production of reactive oxygen species in leaves exposed to flg22. The 14 genes encode proteins with potential functions in defense and hormone signaling, protein stability and degradation, energy and secondary metabolism, and cell wall biosynthesis and provide a new resource to explore the molecular basis for the involvement of these processes in PTI.
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20615110
Understanding the molecular basis of plant responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is an active area of research in the field of plant-microbe interactions. A growing number of plant genes involved in various steps of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) pathways and microbial factors involved in the elicitation or suppression of PTI have been identified. These studies have largely relied on Arabidopsis thaliana and, therefore, most of the PTI assays have been developed and optimized for that model plant system. Although PTI is a conserved feature among plants, the response spectra vary across different species. Thus, there is a need for robust PTI assays in other pathosystems, such as those involving Solanaceae plant-pathogen interactions, which include many economically important plants and their diseases. We have optimized molecular, cellular, and whole-plant methods to measure PTI responses in two widely studied solanaceous species, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring various PTI-associated phenotypes, including bacterial populations after pretreatment of leaves with PAMPs, induction of reporter genes, callose deposition, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, and a luciferase-based reporter system. These methods will facilitate limited genetic screens and detailed characterization of potential PTI-related genes in model and economically important Solanaceae spp.-pathogen interactions.
Genetic Disassembly and Combinatorial Reassembly Identify a Minimal Functional Repertoire of Type III Effectors in Pseudomonas Syringae
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21282655
The virulence of Pseudomonas syringae and many other proteobacterial pathogens is dependent on complex repertoires of effector proteins injected into host cells by type III secretion systems. The 28 well-expressed effector genes in the repertoire of the model pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 were deleted to produce polymutant DC3000D28E. Growth of DC3000D28E in Nicotiana benthamiana was symptomless and 4 logs lower than that of DC3000ΔhopQ1-1, which causes disease in this model plant. DC3000D28E seemed functionally effectorless but otherwise WT in diagnostic phenotypes relevant to plant interactions (for example, ability to inject the AvrPto-Cya reporter into N. benthamiana). Various effector genes were integrated by homologous recombination into native loci or by a programmable or random in vivo assembly shuttle (PRIVAS) system into the exchangeable effector locus in the Hrp pathogenicity island of DC3000D28E. The latter method exploited dual adapters and recombination in yeast for efficient assembly of PCR products into programmed or random combinations of multiple effector genes. Native and PRIVAS-mediated integrations were combined to identify a minimal functional repertoire of eight effector genes that restored much of the virulence of DC3000ΔhopQ1-1 in N. benthamiana, revealing a hierarchy in effector function: AvrPtoB acts with priority in suppressing immunity, enabling other effectors to promote further growth (HopM1 and HopE1), chlorosis (HopG1), lesion formation (HopAM1-1), and near full growth and symptom production (AvrE, HopAA1-1, and/or HopN1 functioning synergistically with the previous effectors). DC3000D28E, the PRIVAS method, and minimal functional repertoires provide new resources for probing the plant immune system.
A Bacterial Cysteine Protease Effector Protein Interferes with Photosynthesis to Suppress Plant Innate Immune Responses
Cellular Microbiology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22233353
The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 suppresses plant innate immunity with effector proteins injected by a type III secretion system (T3SS). The cysteine protease effector HopN1, which reduces the ability of DC3000 to elicit programmed cell death in non-host tobacco, was found to also suppress the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and callose when delivered by Pseudomonas fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS. Purified His(6) -tagged HopN1 was used to identify tomato PsbQ, a member of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII), as an interacting protein. HopN1 localized to chloroplasts and both degraded PsbQ and inhibited PSII activity in chloroplast preparations, whereas a HopN1(D299A) non-catalytic mutant lost these abilities. Gene silencing of NtPsbQ in tobacco compromised ROS production and programmed cell death by DC3000. Our data reveal PsbQ as a contributor to plant immunity responses and a target for pathogen suppression.