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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (17)
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- Behavioural Brain Research
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Physics in Medicine and Biology
- Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- BMC Neuroscience
- Cell and Tissue Research
- Environment International
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Neuroscience Research
- PLoS Biology
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Articles by Susanne Schmid in JoVE
والتعود Prepulse تثبيط باغت الصوتية في القوارض
Bridget Valsamis, Susanne Schmid
Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario
والتعود prepulse تثبيط باغت هي التدابير التنفيذية التي تبوب الحسية. تعطل الحسية النابضة في الفصام ، وبعض الاضطرابات النفسية وغيرها من الأمراض العصبية. نحن هنا وصف بروتوكول قياسي لتقييم التعود على المدى القصير والطويل الأجل وكذلك prepulse وتثبيط ردود باغت الصوتية في الجرذان والفئران.
Other articles by Susanne Schmid on PubMed
The European Journal of Neuroscience. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12028364
The amygdala plays an important role in emotional learning. Synaptic plasticity underlying the acquisition of conditioned fear occurs in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala: long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapses in the pathway of the conditioned stimulus (CS) has shown to be a neural correlate of this kind of emotional learning. The present study is based on previous results of our laboratory showing an important role of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in fear conditioning. Here, we explored whether mGlu5 receptors within the lateral nucleus of the amygdala are involved in the plasticity underlying fear conditioning. We used an in vivo approach investigating the acquisition, consolidation and expression of conditioned fear by the fear-potentiated startle paradigm and by the inhibition of motor activity during CS presentation. Additionally, we used an in vitro approach inducing LTP in the lateral amygdala by patch-clamp recordings in rat brain slices. Acquisition of conditioned fear, but not consolidation and expression, was blocked by intra-amygdaloid injections of the specific mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP) in vivo. Furthermore, induction of amygdaloid LTP but not synaptic transmission was disrupted by MPEP application in vitro. These experiments show for the first time in vivo and in vitro that mGluR5 receptors are necessary for plasticity in the amygdala.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12405993
The aim of the present study was to analyse the cellular mechanism underlying short-term habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR). We explored distinct synapses of the neuronal startle pathway in rat brain slices by patch-clamp recordings of giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular formation. Presynaptic stimulation of auditory afferents by repeated bursts at 0.1 and 1 Hz led to an exponential decay of EPSC magnitudes. This homosynaptic depression (HSD) was reversible and repeatedly inducible after recovery. Many parameters of HSD in vitro match those of ASR habituation in vivo. The mechanisms underlying HSD are distinct from classical short-term plasticity: paired-pulse as well as paired-burst stimulation revealed a facilitation of the second EPSC, occurring in a much smaller time window up to interstimulus intervals of 200 ms. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that HSD could be completely blocked by the group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist MPPG. Similar results were obtained by CPPG, another group II and III antagonist. In contrast, HSD was not affected by the group I and II antagonist MCPG. We conclude that we found a form of synaptic depression in synapses within the primary startle pathway which correlates in many respects with short-term habituation of the ASR and which is presumably mediated by group III metabotropic glutamate receptors.
Neurons of the Superior Olivary Complex Do Not Excite Startle-mediating Neurons in the Caudal Pontine Reticular Formation
Neuroreport. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12488801
The acoustic startle response is an important mammalian model for studying the cellular mechanisms of emotions and learning. Lesions in the superior olivary complex have been shown to attenuate the amplitude of the acoustic startle response, thus a substantial contribution of these neurons to the startle response was proposed. We here explored the putative connection of olivary neurons to the startle-mediating giant neurons in the reticular formation in rat brain slices in vitro. Tracing studies and electrical stimulation in the superior olivary complex revealed a strong connection; however it was not possible to distinguish between olivary neurons and traversing auditory fibres. Glutamate uncaging in the olivary complex excited a subpopulation of olivary neurons but never PnC giant neurons, as shown by patch-clamp recordings. This clearly contradicts an excitatory connection from olivary neurons to PnC giant neurons and thus an involvement of the superior olivary complex in eliciting a startle response.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12713646
The startle response is an important mammalian model for studying the cellular mechanisms of emotions and of learning. It consists of contractions of facial and skeletal muscles in response to sudden acoustic, tactile or vestibular stimuli. Whereas the acoustic startle pathway is well described, only a few recent studies have investigated the tactile startle pathway. It was proposed that there is a direct projection from the principal sensory nucleus to the central sensorimotor interface of the startle response, which is formed by the giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular formation. We explored this projection in greater detail in vitro. Anterograde tracing in rat brain slices confirmed projections with large axon terminals from the ventral part of the principal sensory nucleus to the lateral caudal pontine reticular formation. Electrophysiological studies revealed a monosynaptic glutamatergic connection between principal sensory nucleus neurons and caudal pontine reticular formation giant neurons. The synapses displayed paired-pulse facilitation at high-frequency stimulation, and homosynaptic depression at 1 Hz stimulation. The latter form of plasticity is thought to underlie habituation of the startle response. Furthermore, postsynaptic currents in caudal pontine reticular formation giant neurons evoked by principal sensory nucleus neuron stimulation summed in a linear way with signals evoked by stimulation of auditory afferents. Synaptic plasticity and summation of synaptic currents correspond well with in vivo data previously published by other groups. We thus presume that these synapses mediate trigeminal input to the startle pathway.
Lack of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 7 Selectively Impairs Short-term Working Memory but Not Long-term Memory
Behavioural Brain Research. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15313036
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and in particular the mGluR group III receptors (subtypes 4, 6, 7, 8) are known to play a role in synaptic plasticity and learning. Here, we report the effect of mGluR7 gene ablation in different learning paradigms. In the acoustic startle response (ASR), no differences were seen between knockout (KO) mice and wildtype (WT) littermates in parameters including prepulse inhibition and habituation. In an open field test, no differences were seen between genotypes in motor activity, exploratory behaviour, and fearful behaviour. In a T-maze reinforced alternation working memory (WM) task, again no difference was seen between groups. However, when increasing the demands on working-memory in a 4-arm and 8-arm maze task, KO mice committed more WM errors than WT littermates thereby uncovering a highly significant difference between the two groups that persisted every day for the whole 9 days of the experiment. In a 4-arm maze with 2 arms baited, KO and wildtype mice committed the same number of LTM errors, whereas KOs committed more WM errors. Altogether, these findings suggest that a lack of mGluR7 mainly impairs short-term working but not long-term memory performance while having no effect on sensorimotor processing, non-associative learning, motor activity and spatial orientation. The effects on WM are task-dependent and become apparent in more complex but not simple learning tasks. We discuss how mGluR7 could influence WM.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15247153
Despite the early expression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in the retina, not much is known about their regulation and involvement in plasticity processes during retinal development and synapse formation. Here we report that NMDAR function in the inner retina is developmentally regulated and controlled by ambient light condition. A prominent down-regulation after eye opening of NMDAR function was observed in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which was prevented by dark rearing the animals for 1 month but was again induced by subsequent light exposure. As shown by molecular analysis of single RGCs, alterations in the subunit composition of NMDAR did not account for the light-dependent regulation of NMDAR function. Immunocytochemistry showed no differences in the NMDAR protein expression pattern between normal and dark-reared animals. In conclusion, our data clearly demonstrate that NMDAR function is modulated during periods of retinal plasticity independent of structural alterations in its subunit composition and thus different from mechanisms observed in higher visual centers.
Application of Commercial MOSFET Detectors for in Vivo Dosimetry in the Therapeutic X-ray Range from 80 KV to 250 KV
Physics in Medicine and Biology. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15742945
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric characteristics (energy dependence, linearity, fading, reproducibility, etc) of MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the kV x-ray range. The experience of MOSFET in vivo dosimetry in a pre-clinical study using the Alderson phantom and in clinical practice is also reported. All measurements were performed with a Gulmay D3300 kV unit and TN-502RDI MOSFET detectors. For the determination of correction factors different solid phantoms and a calibrated Farmer-type chamber were used. The MOSFET signal was linear with applied dose in the range from 0.2 to 2 Gy for all energies. Due to fading it is recommended to read the MOSFET signal during the first 15 min after irradiation. For long time intervals between irradiation and readout the fading can vary largely with the detector. The temperature dependence of the detector signal was small (0.3% degrees C(-1)) in the temperature range between 22 and 40 degrees C. The variation of the measuring signal with beam incidence amounts to +/-5% and should be considered in clinical applications. Finally, for entrance dose measurements energy-dependent calibration factors, correction factors for field size and irradiated cable length were applied. The overall accuracy, for all measurements, was dominated by reproducibility as a function of applied dose. During the pre-clinical in vivo study, the agreement between MOSFET and TLD measurements was well within 3%. The results of MOSFET measurements, to determine the dosimetric characteristics as well as clinical applications, showed that MOSFET detectors are suitable for in vivo dosimetry in the kV range. However, some energy-dependent dosimetry effects need to be considered and corrected for. Due to reproducibility effects at low dose levels accurate in vivo measurements are only possible if the applied dose is equal to or larger than 2 Gy.
Lack of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 7 Selectively Modulates Theta Rhythm and Working Memory
Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.). Sep-Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16204199
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are known to play a role in synaptic plasticity and learning. We have previously shown that mGluR7 deletion in mice produces a selective working memory (WM) impairment, while other types of memory such as reference memory remain unaffected. Since WM has been associated with Theta activity (6-12 Hz) in EEGs, and since EEG abnormalities have been observed in these mice before, we studied the effect of mGluR7 gene ablation on EEG activity in the hippocampus, in particular in the Theta range, during performance of a WM task. In an eight-arm maze with four arms baited, mGluR7 knock-out (KO) and wild-type mice committed the same number of reference memory errors, whereas KOs committed more WM errors. While performing the task, KO mice showed substantially higher Theta amplitudes, and the ratio of Theta to overall EEG power was much increased. No change was seen in the Delta (0-5 Hz), or Gamma (30-40 Hz) EEG bands compared with controls. When recording EEGs during periods of rest in the home cages, no difference was seen between groups. These findings suggest that mGluR7 is important for modulation and control of Theta activity. Since only WM was affected, and only the Theta range of EEG activity was altered, these results show a correlation between Theta rhythm and WM performance, and therefore support the concept that Theta activity in the hippocampus is involved in WM storage.
Activation of Muscarinic Cholinergic Receptors Inhibits Giant Neurones in the Caudal Pontine Reticular Nucleus
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17040474
Giant neurones in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) play a crucial role in mediating the mammalian startle response. They receive input from cochlear, trigeminal and vestibular nuclei and project directly to motoneurones. Furthermore, they integrate modulatory input from different brain regions either enhancing or inhibiting startle responses. One prominent startle modulation is prepulse inhibition where a non-startling stimulus presented prior to the startle stimulus inhibits a subsequent startle response. Several behavioural studies have indicated that this inhibition is mediated by muscarinic receptors at the level of the PnC. Here, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from PnC giant neurones in acute rat brain slices in order to examine muscarinic inhibition. We stimulated afferent trigeminal and auditory fibres and applied muscarinic agonists and antagonists in order to investigate their effect on excitatory postsynaptic current amplitudes, paired-pulse ratio and passive membrane properties of PnC giant neurones. The cholinergic agonist carbachol and the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine significantly reduced excitatory postsynaptic current amplitudes and increased the paired-pulse ratio. Carbachol additionally reduced the membrane resistance of postsynaptic PnC giant neurones. The subtype-specific antagonists AF-DX116 (M2 preferring) and tropicamide (M4 preferring) antagonized the oxotremorine effect indicating that M4 and possibly M2 receptor subtypes are involved in this inhibition. The G-protein-activated inward rectifying potassium channel blocker tertiapin-Q had no effect on oxotremorine-induced inhibition of giant neurones. Our results show a mainly presynaptically mediated strong inhibition of PnC giant neurones by activation of M4 and possibly M2 receptors that presumably contribute to prepulse inhibition.
Effects of the MGluR8 Agonist (S)-3,4-DCPG in the Lateral Amygdala on Acquisition/expression of Fear-potentiated Startle, Synaptic Transmission, and Plasticity
Neuropharmacology. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16188284
The lateral amygdala plays an important role in emotional learning. Previous studies found that amygdaloid plasticity processes involve the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In the present study we examined the effect of the highly specific mGluR8 agonist (S)-3,4-DCPG on conditioned fear in vivo measuring fear-potentiated startle. Both, acquisition and expression of conditioned fear were dose-dependently inhibited by (S)-3,4-DCPG injections into the amygdala. Since synaptic long-term potentiation in the lateral amygdala has been correlated with the acquisition of conditioned fear in rats, the effect of (S)-3,4-DCPG in vitro on synaptic transmission, short- and long-term plasticity in the lateral amygdala was evaluated in parallel. Patch clamp recordings in rat brain slices revealed that (S)-3,4-DCPG strongly attenuated synaptic transmission from sensory afferents. The lack of detectable effects on postsynaptic neurons and altered short-term plasticity indicate that (S)-3,4-DCPG acts at presynaptic sites. Long-term potentiation of thalamic afferent fiber synapses induced by a pairing protocol was slightly attenuated in the presence of (S)-3,4-DCPG, but long-term potentiation by tetanic afferent stimulation was inhibited. We conclude that mGluR8 activation is not specifically involved in long-term plasticity processes but that it rather provides a powerful inhibitory control of synaptic transmission within the lateral amygdala, with the ability to reduce activity in such a way that the expression and the acquisition of learned fear become strongly impaired in vivo.
Synaptic Depression and Short-term Habituation Are Located in the Sensory Part of the Mammalian Startle Pathway
BMC Neuroscience. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16684348
Short-term habituation of the startle response represents an elementary form of learning in mammals. The underlying mechanism is located within the primary startle pathway, presumably at sensory synapses on giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). Short trains of action potentials in sensory afferent fibers induce depression of synaptic responses in PnC giant neurons, a phenomenon that has been proposed to be the cellular correlate for short-term habituation. We address here the question whether both this synaptic depression and the short-term habituation of the startle response are localized at the presynaptic terminals of sensory afferents. If this is confirmed, it would imply that these processes take place prior to multimodal signal integration, rather than occurring at postsynaptic sites on PnC giant neurons that directly drive motor neurons.
Survival, Excitability, and Transfection of Retinal Neurons in an Organotypic Culture of Mature Zebrafish Retina
Cell and Tissue Research. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18335243
Over the last 20 years, the zebrafish has become an important model organism for research on retinal function and development. Many retinal diseases do not become apparent until the later stages of life. This means that it is important to be able to analyze (gene) function in the mature retina. To meet this need, we have established an organotypic culture system of mature wild-type zebrafish retinas in order to observe changes in retinal morphology. Furthermore, cell survival during culture has been monitored by determining apoptosis in the tissue. The viability and excitability of ganglion cells have been tested at various time points in vitro by patch-clamp recordings, and retinal functionality has been assessed by measuring light-triggered potentials at the ganglion cell site. Since neurogenesis is persistent in adult zebrafish retinas, we have also monitored proliferating cells during culture by tracking their bromodeoxyuridine uptake. Reverse genetic approaches for probing the function of adult zebrafish retinas are not yet available. We have therefore established a rapid and convenient protocol for delivering plasmid DNA or oligonucleotides by electroporation to the retinal tissue in vitro. The organotypic culture of adult zebrafish retinas presented here provides a reproducible and convenient method for investigating the function of drugs and genes in the retina under well-defined conditions in vitro.
Environment International. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18502510
Children from farming families have less allergies than their peers. Consumption of farm milk or unpasteurized milk has been shown to explain (part of) the farming effect or protect against allergies independent of farming status.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20497471
The acoustic startle reflex is strongly inhibited by a moderate-intensity acoustic stimulus that precedes the startling stimulus by roughly 10-1000 ms (prepulse inhibition, PPI). At long interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 100-1000 ms, PPI in rats is reduced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine. Here, we studied the role of GABA receptors in PPI at full ISI ranges in both mice and rats. In B6 mice, PPI begins and ends at shorter ISIs (4 and 1000 ms, respectively) than in Wistar rats (8 and 5000 ms). The GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg i.p.) reduced PPI at ISIs near the peak of PPI in both rats and mice. The GABA(B) antagonist phaclofen (10 or 30 mg/kg i.p. in rats or mice, respectively) reduced PPI only at long ISIs, similar to the effects of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.). The effects of phaclofen and scopolamine were additive in rats, suggesting independent effects of GABA(B) and muscarinic receptors. Patch-clamp recordings of startle-mediating PnC (nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis) giant neurons in rat slices show that EPSCs evoked by either trigeminal or auditory fiber stimulation were inhibited by the GABA(A/C) agonist muscimol or the GABA(B) agonist baclofen via postsynaptic mechanisms. Hyperpolarization of PnC neurons by muscimol was reversed with bicuculline, indicating that postsynaptic GABA(A) receptors strongly inhibit PnC giant neurons needed for startle. Therefore, GABA receptors on PnC giant neurons mediate a substantial part of PPI, with GABA(A) receptors contributing at the peak of PPI, and GABA(B) receptors adding to muscarinic effects on PPI at long ISIs.
Group III Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Inhibit Startle-mediating Giant Neurons in the Caudal Pontine Reticular Nucleus but Do Not Mediate Synaptic Depression/short-term Habituation of Startle
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20685984
Short-term habituation is a basic form of learning that is analyzed in different species and using different behavioral models. Previous studies on mechanisms of short-term habituation yielded evidence for a potential role of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRIIIs). Here we tested the hypothesis that mGluRIII mediate short-term habituation of startle in rats, combining electrophysiological experiments in vitro with behavioral studies in vivo. We applied different mGluRIII agonists and antagonists on rat brainstem slices while recording from startle-mediating neurons in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and monitoring synaptic depression presumably underlying habituation. Furthermore, we injected the mGluRIII antagonist (RS)-alpha-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) and the agonist L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) into the PnC of rats in vivo and measured its effect on startle habituation. Our results show that activation of mGluRIIIs in the PnC strongly inhibits startle-mediating giant neurons in vitro. Accordingly, L-AP4 reduced startle responses in vivo. However, synaptic depression in the slice was not disrupted by mGluRIII antagonists or agonists. Correspondingly, the in vivo application of the mGluRIII antagonist MPPG failed to show any effect on short-term habituation of startle responses. We therefore conclude that mGluRs are expressed within the primary startle pathway and that they inhibit startle responses upon activation; however, this inhibition does not play any role in synaptic depression and short-term habituation of startle. This is in contrast to the role of mGluRIIIs in other forms of habituation and supports the notion that there are different mechanisms involved in habituation of sensory-evoked behaviors.
Glycine Inhibits Startle-mediating Neurons in the Caudal Pontine Reticular Formation but is Not Involved in Synaptic Depression Underlying Short-term Habituation of Startle
Neuroscience Research. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21726589
The mammalian startle response is controlled by glycine inhibition in the spinal cord. Evidence for additional glycine inhibition on the level of the brainstem, namely in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC), is controversial. Startle mediating PnC neurons receive fast input from sensory pathways and project to cranial and spinal motoneurons. Synaptic depression in the sensory synapses in the PnC has been indicated as underlying mechanism of short-term habituation of startle. We here performed patch-clamp recordings of PnC giant neurons in rat brain slices to test the hypothesis that the activation of glycine receptors inhibits PnC neurons and that this inhibition is involved in synaptic depression in the PnC. Glycine strongly inhibited PnC neuron activity and synaptic signalling, indicating that functional glycine receptors mediate a powerful inhibition of PnC neurons over a wide range of glycine concentrations. Strychnine reversed all glycine effects, but had no effect on PnC neurons itself. Thus, we found no evidence for a tonic glycine inhibition or for glycine activation within the primary startle pathway indicating that baseline startle reactions are unlikely to be controlled by glycine in the PnC. Most importantly, synaptic depression underlying short-term habituation was not affected by glycine or strychnine.
Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-glutamatergic Co-transmission
PLoS Biology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22087075
Cholinergic neurons in the striatum are thought to play major regulatory functions in motor behaviour and reward. These neurons express two vesicular transporters that can load either acetylcholine or glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Consequently cholinergic neurons can release both neurotransmitters, making it difficult to discern their individual contributions for the regulation of striatal functions. Here we have dissected the specific roles of acetylcholine release for striatal-dependent behaviour in mice by selective elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) from striatal cholinergic neurons. Analysis of several behavioural parameters indicates that elimination of VAChT had only marginal consequences in striatum-related tasks and did not affect spontaneous locomotion, cocaine-induced hyperactivity, or its reward properties. However, dopaminergic sensitivity of medium spiny neurons (MSN) and the behavioural outputs in response to direct dopaminergic agonists were enhanced, likely due to increased expression/function of dopamine receptors in the striatum. These observations indicate that previous functions attributed to striatal cholinergic neurons in spontaneous locomotor activity and in the rewarding responses to cocaine are mediated by glutamate and not by acetylcholine release. Our experiments demonstrate how one population of neurons can use two distinct neurotransmitters to differentially regulate a given circuitry. The data also raise the possibility of using VAChT as a target to boost dopaminergic function and decrease high striatal cholinergic activity, common neurochemical alterations in individuals affected with Parkinson's disease.