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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
- The American Journal of Cardiology
- International Journal of Cardiology
- International Journal of Cardiology
- Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
- Circulation Journal : Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- PloS One
- Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Articles by Taruna Ikrar in JoVE
Mapping Inhibitory Neuronal Circuits by Laser Scanning Photostimulation
Taruna Ikrar1, Nicholas D. Olivas1, Yulin Shi1, Xiangmin Xu1,2
1Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California, Irvine
This paper introduces an approach of combining laser scanning photostimulation with whole cell recordings in transgenic mice expressing GFP in limited inhibitory neuron populations. The technique allows for extensive mapping and quantitative analysis of local synaptic circuits of specific inhibitory cortical neurons.
Other articles by Taruna Ikrar on PubMed
Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on the Levels of Interleukin-6 and C-reactive Protein in the Coronary Circulation of Subjects with Coronary Artery Disease
The American Journal of Cardiology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16996873
Many clinical studies have evaluated the inflammatory response (mainly interleukin [IL]-6 and C-reactive protein [CRP]) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to verify the source of possible elevation of IL-6 and CRP after PCI using coronary sinus sampling. We studied 87 subjects who underwent coronary angiography for diagnostic, therapeutic, or follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken by the PCI team during the catheterization study from the coronary sinus. We measured coronary IL-6 levels by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and high-sensitivity CRP levels were measured by latex immunonephelometry. The subjects were then classified according to their coronary angiographic findings into non-CAD (no evidence of significant organic CAD), mild CAD (1 vessel narrowed), and severe CAD (>or=2 vessels narrowed) groups. PCI (including stent deployment) was performed in 16 patients with CAD. The mean coronary IL-6 value was higher in the severe than in the mild CAD group (3.67 +/- 2.48 vs 2.3 +/- 1.15 pg/ml, p = 0.027). The mean coronary IL-6 value was higher in the subjects who underwent PCI than in those who did not (2.9 +/- 1.23 vs 1.87 +/- 0.9 pg/ml, p = 0.037), and the same was found regarding CRP (1.244 +/- 0.72 vs 0.498 +/- 0.51 mg/L, p = 0.032). The coronary IL-6 values correlated positively with the coronary CRP values (r = 0.374, p = 0.017). In conclusion, the increase in coronary IL-6 and CRP levels after PCI in patients with CAD might be attributed to their release from the coronary atheroma secondary to the direct mechanical effect applied on the atheroma itself by balloon inflation and stent deployment.
International Journal of Cardiology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16843546
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by adrenergic induced bidirectional or polymorphic ventricular tachycardias. Some of CPVT families were reported to be associated with cardiac ryanodine receptor gene (RyR2) mutations. However, association between RyR2 and other arrhythmogenic disorders is not clarified. In this study, we analyzed 83 Japanese patients including patients with long-QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and CPVT. Genetic screening of RyR2 revealed 3 distinct mutations among 4 families with CPVT (75% of incidence). However, no mutation was found in other groups. This is the first report to demonstrate prevalence of RyR2 mutations in various arrhythmogenic disorders in Japan. RyR2 mutations were detected frequently in CPVT but not in other diseases.
A Pilot-controlled Study of Myeloperoxidase-specific Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody (MPO-ANCA) in the Coronary Circulation
International Journal of Cardiology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17658636
Hereby we report our observations derived from a pilot-study of 39 subjects (30 patients with coronary artery disease [CAD] and 9 non-CAD controls). In this work, we aimed to evaluate MPO-ANCA titer in the human coronary circulation for the first time; and examine its possible association with CAD and some cytokines/inflammatory markers. We found higher mean coronary MPO-ANCA titer in CAD subjects than in non-CAD controls; beside significant positive correlations between MPO-ANCA titers and both C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels. Thus, we might suggest the possible involvement of MPO-ANCA in coronary atherogenesis indirectly through modulating some pro-inflammatory cytokines/markers; that a large-scale study of MPO-ANCA in CAD patients may be warranted in the future.
A Double-point Mutation in the Selectivity Filter Site of the KCNQ1 Potassium Channel Results in a Severe Phenotype, LQT1, of Long QT Syndrome
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18266681
Slowly activating delayed-rectifier potassium currents in the heart are produced by a complex protein with alpha and beta subunits composed of the potassium voltage-gated channel KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) and the potassium voltage-gated channel Isk-related family, member 1 (KCNE1), respectively. Mutations in KCNQ1 underlie the most common type of hereditary long QT syndrome (LQTS). Like other potassium channels, KCNQ1 has six transmembrane domains and a highly conserved potassium selectivity filter in the pore helix called "the signature sequence." We aimed to investigate the functional consequences of a newly identified mutation within the signature sequence.
Evaluation of Coronary Calcium Score by Multidetector Computed Tomography in Relation to Endothelial Function and Inflammatory Markers in Asymptomatic Individuals
Circulation Journal : Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18441459
Coronary calcification has been correlated with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD), so in the present study the associations between coronary artery calcification score (CACS) and endothelial dysfunction, as well as the important inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), were studied in asymptomatic individuals at intermediate risk for CAD.
Evaluation of Channel Function After Alteration of Amino Acid Residues at the Pore Center of KCNQ1 Channel
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19056345
The effect of the electrical charge or the size of the amino acid residue at the pore center of a slowly activation component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel: KCNQ1 was studied. K(+) currents were measured after transfection of one of four KCNQ1 mutants: substituting Isoleucine with Lysine, Glutamate, Valine or Glycine and then transfected in COS-7 cells. Both the negatively- and positive charged residue I313K and I313E showed a loss of function when expressed alone and a dominant negative suppression when co-expressed with wild type KCNQ1. When the site was substituted with the smallest neutral amino acid residue: I313G, there was a small reduction of current when transfected alone and a gain of function when co-transfected with the wild type. I313V showed no difference from the wild type. Changes of amino acid residue at the pore center of KCNQ1 may alter the channel function but this depends on the electrical charge or the size of amino acid residue.
High Precision and Fast Functional Mapping of Cortical Circuitry Through a Novel Combination of Voltage Sensitive Dye Imaging and Laser Scanning Photostimulation
Journal of Neurophysiology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20130040
The development of modern neuroscience tools is critical for deciphering brain circuit organization and function. An important aspect for technical development is to enhance each technique's advantages and compensate for limitations. We developed a high-precision and fast functional mapping technique in brain slices that incorporates the spatial precision of activation that can be achieved by laser-scanning photostimulation with rapid and high-temporal resolution assessment of evoked network activity that can be achieved by voltage-sensitive dye imaging. Unlike combination of whole cell recordings with photostimulation for mapping local circuit inputs to individually recorded neurons, this innovation is a new photostimulation-based technique to map cortical circuit output and functional connections at the level of neuronal populations. Here we report on this novel technique in detail and show its effective applications in mapping functional connections and circuit dynamics in mouse primary visual cortex and hippocampus. Given that this innovation enables rapid mapping and precise evaluation of cortical organization and function, it can have broad impacts in the field of cortical circuitry.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21589880
Oligodendrocytes are the glial cells responsible for myelin formation. Myelination occurs during the first postnatal weeks and, in rodents, is completed during the third week after birth. Myelin ensures the fast conduction of the nerve impulse; in the adult, myelin proteins have an inhibitory role on axon growth and regeneration after injury. During brain development, oligodendrocytes precursors originating in multiple locations along the antero-posterior axis actively proliferate and migrate to colonize the whole brain. Whether the initial interactions between oligodendrocytes and neurons might play a functional role before the onset of myelination is still not completely elucidated. In this article, we addressed this question by transgenically targeted ablation of proliferating oligodendrocytes during cerebellum development. Interestingly, we show that depletion of oligodendrocytes at postnatal day 1 (P1) profoundly affects the establishment of cerebellar circuitries. We observed an impressive deregulation in the expression of molecules involved in axon growth, guidance and synaptic plasticity. These effects were accompanied by an outstanding increase of neurofilament staining observed 4 hours after the beginning of the ablation protocol, likely dependent from sprouting of cerebellar fibers. Oligodendrocyte ablation modifies localization and function of ionotropic glutamate receptors in Purkinje neurons. These results show a novel oligodendrocyte function expressed during early postnatal brain development, where these cells participate in the formation of cerebellar circuitries, and influence its development.
Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22319474
Recent technical advances enable the regulation of neuronal circuit activity with high spatial and temporal resolution through genetic delivery of molecular activation or inactivation systems.Among them, the allatostatin receptor (AlstR)/ligand system has been developed for selective and quickly reversible silencing of mammalian neurons. However, targeted AlstR-mediated inactivation of specific neuronal types, particularly diverse types of inhibitory interneurons, remains to be established. In the present study, we achieved Cre-directed expression of AlstRs to excitatory and inhibitory cell-types in the cortex, and found that the AlstR-mediated inactivation was specific and robust at single-cell and neuronal population levels. Bath application of the allatostatin peptide markedly reduced spiking activity of AlstR-expressing excitatory and inhibitory neurons in response to intrasomatic current injections and laser photostimulation via glutamate uncaging, but control neurons without AlstR expression were not affected. As for the cortical network activity, the peptide application constrained photostimulation-evoked excitatory activity propagation detected by fast voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging of the slices expressing AlstRs selectively in excitatory neurons, while it augmented excitatory activity in those slices with inhibitory neurons expressing AlstRs. In addition, AlstR-mediated inactivation effectively suppressed pharmacologically induced seizure activity in the slices targeting AlstRs to excitatory neurons. Taken together, our work demonstrated that the genetic delivery of AlstRs can be used for regulation of cortical excitability in a cell-type specific manner, and suggested that the AlstR system can be potentially used for fast seizure control.