Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
- Increasing cDNA Yields from Single-cell Quantities of mRNA in Standard Laboratory Reverse Transcriptase Reactions using Acoustic Microstreaming
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Tim D. Aumann in JoVE
Increasing cDNA Yields from Single-cell Quantities of mRNA in Standard Laboratory Reverse Transcriptase Reactions using Acoustic Microstreaming
Wah Chin Boon1, Karolina Petkovic-Duran2, Yonggang Zhu2, Richard Manasseh3, Malcolm K. Horne1, Tim D. Aumann1
1Florey Neuroscience Institutes and Centre for Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, 2Fluid Dynamics Group, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, 3Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences
We describe a novel method for increasing cDNA yield from single-cell quantities of mRNA in otherwise standard laboratory reverse transcription reactions. The novelty resides in the use of a micromixer, which utilizes the phenomenon of acoustic microstreaming, to mix fluids at microliter scales more effectively than shaking, vortexing or trituration.
Other articles by Tim D. Aumann on PubMed
Modulation of Bone Morphogenic Protein Signalling Alters Numbers of Astrocytes and Oligodendroglia in the Subventricular Zone During Cuprizone-induced Demyelination
Journal of Neurochemistry. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20193041
The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) is a potential source of precursor cells to replace neural cells lost during demyelination. To better understand the molecular events that regulate neural precursor cell responsiveness in this context we undertook a microarray and quantitative PCR based analysis of genes expressed within the SVZ during cuprizone-induced demyelination. We identified an up-regulation of the genes encoding bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and its receptors. Immunohistochemistry confirmed an increase in BMP4 protein levels and also showed an increase in phosphorylated SMAD 1/5/8, a key component of BMP4 signalling, during demyelination. In vitro analysis revealed that neural precursor cells isolated from demyelinated animals, as well as those treated with BMP4, produce more astrocytes. Similarly, there were increased numbers of astrocytes in vivo within the SVZ during demyelination. Intraventricular infusion of Noggin, an endogenous antagonist of BMP4, during cuprizone-induced demyelination reduced pSMAD1/5/8, decreased astrocyte numbers and increased oligodendrocyte numbers in the SVZ. Our results suggest that lineage commitment of SVZ neural precursor cells is altered during demyelination and that BMP signalling plays a role in this process.
Neuronal Activity Regulates Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase in Adult Mouse Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta Neurons
Journal of Neurochemistry. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21166807
Striatal delivery of dopamine (DA) by midbrain substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons is vital for motor control and its depletion causes the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. While membrane potential changes or neuronal activity regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis) expression in other catecholaminergic cells, it is not known whether the same occurs in adult SNc neurons. We administered drugs known to alter neuronal activity to mouse SNc DAergic neurons in various experimental preparations and measured changes in their TH expression. In cultured midbrain neurons, blockade of action potentials with 1 μM tetrodotoxin decreased TH expression beginning around 20 h later (as measured in real time by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven off TH promoter activity). By contrast, partial blockade of small-conductance, Ca(2+) -activated potassium channels with 300 nM apamin increased TH mRNA and protein between 12 and 24 h later in slices of adult midbrain. Two-week infusions of 300 nM apamin directly to the adult mouse midbrain in vivo also increased TH expression in SNc neurons, measured immunohistochemically. Paradoxically, the number of TH immunoreactive (TH+) SNc neurons decreased in these animals. Similar in vivo infusions of drugs affecting other ion-channels and receptors (L-type voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels, GABA(A) receptors, high K(+) , DA receptors) also increased or decreased cellular TH immunoreactivity but decreased or increased, respectively, the number of TH+ cells in SNc. We conclude that in adult SNc neurons: (i) TH expression is activity-dependent and begins to change ∼20 h following sustained changes in neuronal activity; (ii) ion-channels and receptors mediating cell-autonomous activity or synaptic input are equally potent in altering TH expression; and (iii) activity-dependent changes in TH expression are balanced by opposing changes in the number of TH+ SNc cells.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21430151
Remyelination of the CNS involves the regeneration of mature oligodendrocytes by endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have shown that bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) inhibit the production of oligodendrocytes in the healthy CNS. However, there is currently no information on the influence of BMP signaling in vivo within demyelinated lesions of the brain or on subsequent remyelination. Here, we determine a role for BMP signaling in modulating oligodendrogliogenesis and remyelination in the brain following cuprizone-induced demyelination. We identified that BMP signaling is active in oligodendroglia and astrocytes within the demyelinated corpus callosum. Intraventricular infusion of BMP4 into the brains of mice during demyelination increased the proliferation of OPCs and, to a lesser extent, microglia and astrocytes in the corpus callosum. In contrast, infusion of Noggin, an extracellular antagonist of BMP4, increased the density of mature oligodendrocytes in the remyelinating corpus callosum. Additional evidence from myelin staining and electron microscopy indicates there is an increase in remyelinated axons in the corpus callosum of Noggin-infused mice. Thus, inhibition of endogenous BMP signaling during demyelination promotes mature oligodendrocyte regeneration and remyelination.