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In JoVE (2)
- Tryckstyrd ventilation för att framkalla akut lungskada hos möss
- Användning av en hängande viktsystem för koronar artärocklusion hos möss
Other Publications (33)
- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
- The New England Journal of Medicine
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Circulation Research
- Purinergic Signalling
- Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
- American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
- Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
- The New England Journal of Medicine
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
- PLoS Medicine
- American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- The New England Journal of Medicine
- PloS One
- Physiology (Bethesda, Md.)
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Advances in Pharmacology (San Diego, Calif.)
- Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
- Nature Medicine
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Articles by Tobias Eckle in JoVE
Tryckstyrd ventilation för att framkalla akut lungskada hos möss
Michael Koeppen, Tobias Eckle, Holger K. Eltzschig
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado
En mus-modell för respirator inducerad lungskada är ett viktigt verktyg för att studera en akut lungskada
Användning av en hängande viktsystem för koronar artärocklusion hos möss
Tobias Eckle, Michael Koeppen, Holger Eltzschig
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver
En mus-modell för myokardischemi och ischemisk prekonditionering är ett viktigt verktyg studie cardioprotective mekanismer
Other articles by Tobias Eckle on PubMed
High Impact of an Expanded Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay on Detection of Ganciclovir-resistant UL97 Mutants of Human Cytomegalovirus
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12499235
Ganciclovir-resistant Cytomegalovirus Disease After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Pitfalls of Phenotypic Diagnosis by in Vitro Selection of an UL97 Mutant Strain
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12508158
A 9-month posttransplantation course of an allogeneic stem-cell transplant recipient (human cytomegalovirus [HCMV] serostatus, donor positive/recipient negative), in whom ganciclovir (GCV) resistance developed (UL97 mutations M460V, L595S, and C603W) on day 164 after transplantation and who developed HCMV retinitis and fatal HCMV encephalitis is presented. Virus strains isolated from secondary cultures were analyzed by UL97 restriction assays and sequencing and were compared with primary DNA extracts of the same specimens, which resulted in molecular proof of an initial HCMV strain-specific in vitro selection of the in vivo nondominant UL97 L595S-C603 mutant strain from 3 viral variants present in vivo. In addition, compartmentalization of virus present in blood and cerebrospinal fluid was found. The influence of rapidly increasing plasma virus load (to >10(6) copies/mL) and oral administration of GCV on the emergence of GCV resistance is shown. These findings have strong implications for the diagnosis of HCMV drug resistance.
The Influence of Mixed HCMV UL97 Wildtype and Mutant Strains on Ganciclovir Susceptibility in a Cell Associated Plaque Reduction Assay
Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15072754
Ganciclovir (GCV) resistance is an emerging problem following organ transplantation. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay is a convenient and rapid method to discover known resistance mutations within the UL97 (phosphotransferase) gene for the determination of GCV resistance. Phenotypic resistance testing remains important for the identification of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains possibly harboring novel mutations and also for the determination of foscarnet and cidofovir resistance.
The New England Journal of Medicine. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15459312
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16766632
Cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning (IP) remains an area of intense investigation. To further elucidate its molecular basis, the use of transgenic mice seems critical. Due to technical difficulty associated with performing cardiac IP in mice, we developed an in situ model for cardiac IP using a hanging-weight system for coronary artery occlusion. This technique has the major advantage of eliminating the necessity of intermittently occluding the coronary artery with a knotted suture. To systematically evaluate this model, we first demonstrated correlation of ischemia times (10-60 min) with infarct sizes [3.5 +/- 1.3 to 42 +/- 5.2% area at risk (AAR), Evan's blue/triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining]. IP (4 x 5 min) and cold ischemia (27 degrees C) reduced infarct size by 69 +/- 6.7% and 84 +/- 4.2%, respectively (n = 6, P < 0.01). In contrast, lower numbers of IP cycles did not alter infarct size. However, infarct sizes were distinctively different in mice from different genetic backgrounds. In addition to infarct staining, we tested cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as marker of myocardial infarction in this model. In fact, plasma levels of cTnI were significantly lower in IP-treated mice and closely correlated with infarct sizes (R(2) = 0.8). To demonstrate transcriptional consequences of cardiac IP, we isolated total RNA from the AAR and showed repression of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1-4 by IP in this model. Taken together, this study demonstrates highly reproducible infarct sizes and cardiac protection by IP, thus minimizing the variability associated with knot-based coronary occlusion models. Further studies on cardiac IP using transgenic mice may consider this technique.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16799190
Interactions between the vascular endothelium and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are central to PMN emigration into inflamed tissues, and to neutrophil-endothelial crosstalk pathways that modulate inflammatory responses and vascular barrier function. For example, during episodes of inflammation, the transendothelial migration (TEM) of PMNs potentially disturbs vascular barrier and gives rise to intravascular fluid extravasation and edema. However, because of the close special relationship between PMNs and the vascular endothelium, TEM creates an ideal situation for neutrophil-endothelial crosstalk. While investigating innate mechanisms to dampen intravascular fluid loss and edema occurring during TEM, we observed that PMNs release adenine nucleotides after activation (adenosine triphosphate [ATP] and adenosine monophosphate [AMP]). ATP and AMP are metabolized by endothelial cell-surface enzymes, the ecto-apyrase (CD39, metabolizes ATP to AMP) and the 5'-ecto-nucleotidase (CD73, metabolizes AMP to adenosine). Adenosine generated in this fashion can activate endothelial adenosine receptors, leading to increases in intracellular cyclic AMP and resealing of the endothelial junctions, thereby promoting vascular barrier function. This crosstalk pathway provides an endogenous mechanism to dampen vascular leak syndrome during neutrophil-endothelial interaction. In other words, during TEM, neutrophils close the door behind them.
ATP Release from Activated Neutrophils Occurs Via Connexin 43 and Modulates Adenosine-dependent Endothelial Cell Function
Circulation Research. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17038639
Extracellular ATP liberated during hypoxia and inflammation can either signal directly on purinergic receptors or can activate adenosine receptors following phosphohydrolysis to adenosine. Given the association of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with adenine-nucleotide/nucleoside signaling in the inflammatory milieu, we hypothesized that PMNs are a source of extracellular ATP. Initial studies using high-performance liquid chromatography and luminometric ATP detection assays revealed that PMNs release ATP through activation-dependent pathways. In vitro models of endothelial barrier function and neutrophil/endothelial adhesion indicated that PMN-derived ATP signals through endothelial adenosine receptors, thereby promoting endothelial barrier function and attenuating PMN/endothelial adhesion. Metabolism of extracellular ATP to adenosine required PMNs, and studies addressing these metabolic steps revealed that PMN express surface ecto-apyrase (CD39). In fact, studies with PMNs derived from cd39(-/-) mice showed significantly increased levels of extracellular ATP and lack of ATP dissipation from their supernatants. After excluding lytic ATP release, we used pharmacological strategies to reveal a potential mechanism involved in PMN-dependent ATP release (eg, verapamil, dipyridamole, brefeldin A, 18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, connexin-mimetic peptides). These studies showed that PMN ATP release occurs through connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels in a protein/phosphatase-A-dependent manner. Findings in human PMNs were confirmed in PMNs derived from induced Cx43(-/-) mice, whereby activated PMNs release less than 15% of ATP relative to littermate controls, whereas Cx43 heterozygote PMNs were intermediate in their capacity for ATP release (P<0.01). Taken together, our results identify a previously unappreciated role for Cx43 in activated PMN ATP release, therein contributing to the innate metabolic control of the inflammatory milieu.
Purinergic Signalling. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 18404475
Nucleotides and nucleosides influence nearly every aspect of physiology and pathophysiology. Extracellular nucleotides are metabolized through regulated phosphohydrolysis by a series of ecto-nucleotidases. The formation of extracellular adenosine from adenosine 5'-monophosphate is accomplished primarily through ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked membrane protein found on the surface of a variety of cell types. Recent in vivo studies implicating CD73 in a number of tissue protective mechanisms have provided new insight into its regulation and function and have generated considerable interest. Here, we review contributions of CD73 to cell and tissue stress responses, with a particular emphasis on physiologic responses to regulated CD73 expression and function, as well as new findings utilizing Cd73-deficient animals.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17267736
Acute renal failure from ischemia significantly contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Extracellular adenosine has been implicated as an anti-inflammatory metabolite particularly during conditions of limited oxygen availability (e.g., ischemia). Because ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is rate limiting for extracellular adenosine generation, this study examined the contribution of CD73-dependent adenosine production to ischemic preconditioning (IP) of the kidneys. After the initial observation that murine CD73 transcript, protein, and function are induced by renal IP, its role in IP-mediated kidney protection was studied. In fact, increases in renal adenosine concentration with IP are attenuated in cd73(-/-) mice. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of CD73 or its targeted gene deletion abolished renal protection by IP as measured by clearance studies, plasma electrolytes, and renal tubular destruction, and reconstitution of cd73(-/-) mice with soluble 5'-nucleotidase resulted in complete restoration of renal protection by IP. Finally, renal injury after ischemia was attenuated by intraperitoneal treatment of wild-type mice with soluble 5'-nucleotidase to a similar degree as by IP. Taken together, these data reveal what is believed to be a previously unrecognized role of CD73 in renal protection from ischemia and suggest treatment with soluble 5'-nucleotidase as a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of renal diseases that are precipitated by limited oxygen availability.
Upregulation of the Water Channel Aquaporin-4 As a Potential Cause of Postischemic Cell Swelling in a Murine Model of Myocardial Infarction
Cardiology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17284903
Ischemia of the myocardium is generally accepted to be characterized by swelling of myocytes resulting in cardiac dysfunction. However, data are limited concerning the molecular mechanisms of fast water fluxes across cell membranes in ischemic hearts. Since aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel with an enormous water flux capacity, we investigated in this study whether this water channel protein might play a role in myocyte swelling following myocardial infarction. For this purpose, we studied the expression of AQP4 mRNA at different time points of ischemia in a murine model of myocardial infarction. We observed a significant correlation between the upregulation of AQP4 mRNA and the size of the infarction. In situ hybridization experiments showed comparably higher expression levels of AQP4 mRNA in ischemic myocytes, and anti-AQP4 immunoreactivity was found to be stronger in the sarcolemma of ischemic myocytes. Our findings imply a role of AQP4 in the formation of myocardial edema and this might be important for future prevention and treatment strategies of this distressing situation in order to minimize cardiac dysfunction and mortality in a variety of cardiac diseases in which cell swelling is prevalent.
Circulation. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17353435
Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73)-dependent adenosine generation has been implicated in tissue protection during acute injury. Once generated, adenosine can activate cell-surface adenosine receptors (A1 AR, A2A AR, A2B AR, A3 AR). In the present study, we define the contribution of adenosine to cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17442731
Previous studies showed increased extracellular nucleotides during renal ischemia-reperfusion. While nucleotides represent the main source for extracellular adenosine and adenosine signaling contributes to renal protection from ischemia, we hypothesized a role for ecto-nucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) in renal protection. We used a model of murine ischemia-reperfusion and in situ ischemic preconditioning (IP) via a hanging weight system for atraumatic renal artery occlusion. Initial studies with a nonspecific inhibitor of E-NTPDases (POM-1) revealed inhibition of renal protection by IP. We next pursued transcriptional responses of E-NTPDases (E-NTPDase1-3, and 8) to renal IP, and found a robust and selective induction of E-NTPDase1/CD39 transcript and protein. Moreover, based on clearance studies, plasma electrolytes, and renal tubular histology, IP protection was abolished in gene-targeted mice for cd39 whereas increased renal adenosine content with IP was attenuated. Furthermore, administration of apyrase reconstituted renal protection by IP in cd39-/- mice. Finally, apyrase treatment of wild-type mice resulted in increased renal adenosine concentrations and a similar degree of renal protection from ischemia as IP treatment. Taken together, these data identify CD39-dependent nucleotide phosphohydrolysis in renal protection. Moreover, the present studies suggest apyrase treatment as a novel pharmacological approach to renal diseases precipitated by limited oxygen availability.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17548651
Acute lung injury (ALI), such as that which occurs with mechanical ventilation, contributes to morbidity and mortality of critical illness. Nonetheless, in many instances, ALI resolves spontaneously through unknown mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized the presence of innate adaptive pathways to protect the lungs during mechanical ventilation. In this study, we used ventilator-induced lung injury as a model to identify endogenous mechanisms of lung protection. Initial in vitro studies revealed that supernatants from stretch-induced injury contained a stable factor which diminished endothelial leakage. This factor was subsequently identified as adenosine. Additional studies in vivo revealed prominent increases in pulmonary adenosine levels with mechanical ventilation. Because ectoapyrase (CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) are rate limiting for extracellular adenosine generation, we examined their contribution to ALI. In fact, both pulmonary CD39 and CD73 are induced by mechanical ventilation. Moreover, we observed pressure- and time-dependent increases in pulmonary edema and inflammation in ventilated cd39(-/-) mice. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition or targeted gene deletion of cd73 was associated with increased symptom severity of ventilator-induced ALI. Reconstitution of cd39(-/-) or cd73(-/-) mice with soluble apyrase or 5'-nucleotidase, respectively, reversed such increases. In addition, ALI was significantly attenuated and survival improved after i.p. treatment of wild-type mice with soluble apyrase or 5'-nucleotidase. Taken together, these data reveal a previously unrecognized role for CD39 and CD73 in lung protection and suggest treatment with their soluble compounds as a therapeutic strategy for noninfectious ALI.
Lack of Effect of Extracellular Adenosine Generation and Signaling on Renal Erythropoietin Secretion During Hypoxia
American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17855480
Previous studies have yielded conflicting results as to whether extracellular adenosine generation and signaling contributes to hypoxia-induced increases in renal erythropoietin (EPO) secretion. In this study, we combined pharmacological and genetic approaches to elucidate a potential contribution of extracellular adenosine to renal EPO release in mice. To stimulate EPO secretion, we used murine carbon monoxide exposure (400 and 750 parts per million CO, 4 h), ambient hypoxia (8% oxygen, 4 h), or arterial hemodilution. Because the ecto-5-nucleotidase (CD73, conversion of AMP to adenosine) is considered the pacemaker of extracellular adenosine generation, we first tested the effect of blocking extracellular adenosine generation with the specific CD73-inhibitor adenosine 5'-(alpha,beta-methylene) diphosphate (APCP) or by gene-targeted deletion of cd73. These studies showed that neither APCP-treatment nor targeted deletion of cd73 resulted in changes of stimulated EPO mRNA or serum levels, although the increases of adenosine levels in the kidney following CO exposure were attenuated in mice with APCP treatment or in cd73(-/-) mice. Moreover, pharmacological studies using specific inhibitors of individual adenosine receptors (A1 AR, DPCPX; A 2A AR, DMPX; A 2B AR, PSB 1115; A3AR, MRS 1191) showed no effect on stimulated increases of EPO mRNA or serum levels. Finally, stimulated EPO secretion was not attenuated in gene-targeted mice lacking A1A(-/-, A2A AR-/-, A2BAR(-/-), or A3AR-/-. Together, these studies combine genetic and pharmacological in vivo evidence that increases of EPO secretion during limited oxygen availability are not affected by extracellular adenosine generation or signaling.
CD39/ectonucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase 1 Provides Myocardial Protection During Cardiac Ischemia/reperfusion Injury
Circulation. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17909107
Extracellular adenosine, generated from extracellular nucleotides via ectonucleotidases, binds to specific receptors and provides cardioprotection from ischemia and reperfusion. In the present study, we studied ecto-enzymatic ATP/ADP-phosphohydrolysis by select members of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) family during myocardial ischemia.
Use of a Hanging-weight System for Isolated Renal Artery Occlusion During Ischemic Preconditioning in Mice
American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16912063
Renal failure from ischemia contributes to morbidity and mortality. Ischemic preconditioning (IP) represents a powerful strategy for kidney protection, and recent advances in transgenic mice may help elucidate its molecular mechanisms. However, murine IP is technically challenging and experimental details significantly influence results. Thus we developed a novel model for renal IP using a hanging-weight system for isolated renal artery occlusion. In contrast to previous models, this technique eliminates the need for clamping the vascular pedicle (artery/vein). In fact, assessment of renal injury after different time periods of ischemia (10-60 min) revealed highly reproducible increases in plasma creatinine and potassium levels, while creatinine clearance, urinary flow and potassium/sodium excretion were significantly attenuated. Using different numbers of IP cycles, we found maximal protection with four cycles of 4 min of ischemia-reperfusion. In contrast, no significant renal protection was observed with IP of the vascular pedicle. To assess transcriptional responses in this model, we isolated RNA from preconditioned kidneys and found time-dependent induction of erythropoietin mRNA and plasma levels with IP. Taken together, this model provides highly reproducible renal injury and protection by IP, thus minimizing variability associated with previous techniques based on clamping of the renal pedicle. Further studies on renal ischemia/IP in mice may consider this technique.
Blood. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18056839
Extracellular adenosine has been implicated in adaptation to hypoxia and previous studies demonstrated a central role in vascular responses. Here, we examined the contribution of individual adenosine receptors (ARs: A1AR/A2AAR/A2BAR/A3AR) to vascular leak induced by hypoxia. Initial profiling studies revealed that siRNA-mediated repression of the A2BAR selectively increased endothelial leak in response to hypoxia in vitro. In parallel, vascular permeability was significantly increased in vascular organs of A2BAR(-/-)-mice subjected to ambient hypoxia (8% oxygen, 4 hours; eg, lung: 2.1 +/- 0.12-fold increase). By contrast, hypoxia-induced vascular leak was not accentuated in A1AR(-/-)-, A2AAR(-/-)-, or A3AR(-/-)-deficient mice, suggesting a degree of specificity for the A2BAR. Further studies in wild type mice revealed that the selective A2BAR antagonist PSB1115 resulted in profound increases in hypoxia-associated vascular leakage while A2BAR agonist (BAY60-6583 [2-[6-amino-3,5-dicyano-4-[4-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-. phenyl]pyridin-2-ylsulfanyl]acetamide]) treatment was associated with almost complete reversal of hypoxia-induced vascular leakage (eg, lung: 2.0 +/- 0.21-fold reduction). Studies in bone marrow chimeric A2BAR mice suggested a predominant role of vascular A2BARs in this response, while hypoxia-associated increases in tissue neutrophils were, at least in part, mediated by A2BAR expressing hematopoietic cells. Taken together, these studies provide pharmacologic and genetic evidence for vascular A2BAR signaling as central control point of hypoxia-associated vascular leak.
Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.). Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18156310
The murine in vivo model of acute myocardial infarction is increasingly used to study signal transduction pathways. However, methodological details of this model are rarely published, and durations of ischemia and reperfusion (REP) time vary considerably among different laboratories. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that infarct size (IS) is dependent on both duration of ischemia and REP time. Pentobarbital-anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice were intubated, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented for continuous monitoring of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. After left fourth thoracotomy, the left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated. Mice were randomly assigned to receive 30, 45, or 60 mins of coronary artery occlusion (CAO) and 120, 180, or 240 mins of REP, respectively. IS was determined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and area at risk (AAR) with Evans blue, respectively. Arterial blood gas analysis and hemodynamics were not different among groups. Prolongation of CAO from 30 to 60 mins significantly (*P<0.05) increased IS from 18% +/- 5% to 69% +/- 3%*, from 20% +/- 2% to 69% +/- 6%* and from 42% +/- 10% to 75% +/- 2%* after 120, 180, and 240 mins REP, respectively. Moreover, IS was increased from 18% +/- 5% to 42% +/- 10%* (30 mins CAO) and from 40% +/- 3% to 72% +/- 6%* (45 mins CAO) when REP time was prolonged from 120 to 240 mins. IS was not increased when REP was prolonged from 120 to 240 mins at 60 mins CAO (69% +/- 3% vs. 75% +/- 2%). In the present study, we describe important methodological aspects of the murine in vivo model of acute myocardial infarction and provide evidence that, in this model, IS depends both on duration of ischemia and on REP time.
The New England Journal of Medicine. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18450610
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18511695
Adenosine signaling is known to inhibit platelet aggregation. Extracellular adenosine mainly stems from enzymatic phosphohydrolysis of precursor nucleotides via ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Previous studies suggest that soluble 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT) derived from Crotalus atrox venom may be clinically beneficial in vascular leakage, myocardial, renal, and intestinal ischemia, or acute lung injury. However, the effects of 5'-NT treatment on platelet aggregation remain unknown. We examined the direct effects of 5'-NT treatment on platelet aggregation in vivo and ex vivo using a whole blood aggregation method.
PLoS Medicine. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18578565
Acute renal failure from ischemia significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in clinical settings, and strategies to improve renal resistance to ischemia are urgently needed. Here, we identified a novel pathway of renal protection from ischemia using ischemic preconditioning (IP).
Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 is Central to Cardioprotection: a New Paradigm for Ischemic Preconditioning
Circulation. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18591435
Ischemic preconditioning provides strong cardioprotection from ischemia, but its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Convincing evidence confirms a central role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. Thus, we pursued HIF-1 as a central component of cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning.
Usefulness of Pressure-controlled Ventilation at High Inspiratory Pressures to Induce Acute Lung Injury in Mice
American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18708630
Acute lung injury (ALI), as occurs with prolonged mechanical ventilation, contributes to morbidity and mortality of critical illness, and studies on novel genetic or pharmacological targets are areas of intense investigation. Here, we systematically tested a murine model of ALI by using pressure-controlled ventilation to induce ventilator-induced lung injury. For this purpose, C57BL/6 or Sv129 mice were anesthetized and underwent tracheotomy followed by induction of ALI via mechanical ventilation. Mice were ventilated in a pressure-controlled setting at different inspiratory pressure levels (15-45 mbar) and over different times (0-90 min, 100% oxygen). As outcome parameters, we assessed pulmonary edema (wet-to-dry ratios), bronchoalveolar fluid albumin content, pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and pulmonary gas exchange. These studies revealed maximal differences in severity of lung injury between different mouse strains after 90 min of ventilation time at 45 mbar. Use of lower concentrations of inspired oxygen did not alter disease severity. Increases of CD73 transcript (5'-ectonucleotidase, pacemaker of extracellular adenosine production) or total pulmonary adenosine levels with mechanical ventilation were less pronounced in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting attenuated adenosine protection in C57BL/6 mice. Together, these studies demonstrate feasibility of this model to induce murine ALI.
A2B Adenosine Receptor Signaling Attenuates Acute Lung Injury by Enhancing Alveolar Fluid Clearance in Mice
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18787641
Although acute lung injury contributes significantly to critical illness, resolution often occurs spontaneously via activation of incompletely understood pathways. We recently found that mechanical ventilation of mice increases the level of pulmonary adenosine, and that mice deficient for extracellular adenosine generation show increased pulmonary edema and inflammation after ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Here, we profiled the response to VILI in mice with genetic deletions of each of the 4 adenosine receptors (ARs) and found that deletion of the A2BAR gene was specifically associated with reduced survival time and increased pulmonary albumin leakage after injury. In WT mice, treatment with an A2BAR-selective antagonist resulted in enhanced pulmonary inflammation, edema, and attenuated gas exchange, while an A2BAR agonist attenuated VILI. In bone marrow-chimeric A2BAR mice, although the pulmonary inflammatory response involved A2BAR signaling from bone marrow-derived cells, A2BARs located on the lung tissue attenuated VILI-induced albumin leakage and pulmonary edema. Furthermore, measurement of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) demonstrated that A2BAR signaling enhanced amiloride-sensitive fluid transport and elevation of pulmonary cAMP levels following VILI, suggesting that A2BAR agonist treatment protects by drying out the lungs. Similar enhancement of pulmonary cAMP and AFC were also observed after beta-adrenergic stimulation, a pathway known to promote AFC. Taken together, these studies reveal a role for A2BAR signaling in attenuating VILI and implicate this receptor as a potential therapeutic target during acute lung injury.
Blood. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18812468
Hypoxia is common to several inflammatory diseases, where multiple cell types release adenine-nucleotides (particularly adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate). Adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate is metabolized to adenosine through a 2-step enzymatic reaction initiated by CD39 (ectonucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolase-1). Thus, extracellular adenosine becomes available to regulate multiple inflammatory endpoints. Here, we hypothesized that hypoxia transcriptionally up-regulates CD39 expression. Initial studies revealed hypoxia-dependent increases in CD39 mRNA and immunoreactivity on endothelia. Examination of the human CD39 gene promoter identified a region important in hypoxia inducibility. Multiple levels of analysis, including site-directed mutagenesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and inhibition by antisense, revealed a critical role for transcription-factor Sp1 in hypoxia-induction of CD39. Using a combination of cd39(-/-) mice and Sp1 small interfering RNA in in vivo cardiac ischemia models revealed Sp1-mediated induction of cardiac CD39 during myocardial ischemia. In summary, these results identify a novel Sp1-dependent regulatory pathway for CD39 and indicate the likelihood that CD39 is central to protective responses to hypoxia/ischemia.
The New England Journal of Medicine. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19321876
Selective Deletion of the A1 Adenosine Receptor Abolishes Heart-rate Slowing Effects of Intravascular Adenosine in Vivo
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19707555
Intravenous adenosine induces temporary bradycardia. This is due to the activation of extracellular adenosine receptors (ARs). While adenosine can signal through any of four ARs (A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR, A3AR), previous ex vivo studies implicated the A1AR in the heart-rate slowing effects. Here, we used comparative genetic in vivo studies to address the contribution of individual ARs to the heart-rate slowing effects of intravascular adenosine.
Physiology (Bethesda, Md.). Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19815856
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a lung disease characterized by pulmonary edema and severe hypoxia. The past decade hosted a search for endogenous mechanisms controlling lung inflammation and pulmonary edema during ALI. As such, recent evidence indicates extracellular adenosine in orchestrating the resolution of pulmonary edema and inflammation during ALI.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20348420
Sepsis and septic acute lung injury are among the leading causes for morbidity and mortality of critical illness. Extracellular adenosine is a signaling molecule implicated in the cellular adaptation to hypoxia, ischemia, or inflammation. Therefore, we pursued the role of the A2B adenosine receptor (AR) as potential therapeutic target in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. We gained initial insight from in vitro studies of cultured endothelia or epithelia exposed to inflammatory mediators showing time-dependent induction of the A2BAR (up to 12.9 + or - 3.4-fold, p < 0.05). Similarly, murine studies of endotoxin-induced lung injury identified an almost 4.6-fold induction of A2BAR transcript and corresponding protein induction with LPS exposure. Studies utilizing A2BAR promoter constructs and RNA protection assays indicated that A2BAR induction involved mRNA stability. Functional studies of LPS-induced lung injury revealed that pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of the A2BAR was associated with dramatic increases in lung inflammation and histologic tissue injury. Studies of A2BAR bone marrow chimeric mice suggested pulmonary A2BAR signaling in lung protection. Finally, studies with a specific A2BAR agonist (BAY 60-6583) demonstrated attenuation of lung inflammation and pulmonary edema in wild-type but not in gene-targeted mice for the A2BAR. These studies suggest the A2BAR as potential therapeutic target in the treatment of endotoxin-induced forms of acute lung injury.
Anesthesiology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21278567
Advances in Pharmacology (San Diego, Calif.). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21586359
That adenosine signaling can elicit adaptive tissue responses during conditions of limited oxygen availability (hypoxia) is a long-suspected notion that recently gained general acceptance from genetic and pharmacologic studies of the adenosine signaling pathway. As hypoxia and inflammation share an interdependent relationship, these studies have demonstrated that adenosine signaling events can be targeted to dampen hypoxia-induced inflammation. Here, we build on the hypothesis that particularly the A(2B) adenosine receptor (ADORA(2B)) plays a central role in tissue adaptation to hypoxia. In fact, the ADORA(2B) requires higher adenosine concentrations than any of the other adenosine receptors. However, during conditions of hypoxia or ischemia, the hypoxia-elicited rise in extracellular adenosine is sufficient to activate the ADORA(2B). Moreover, several studies have demonstrated very robust induction of the ADORA(2B) elicited by transcriptional mechanisms involving hypoxia-dependent signaling pathways and the transcription factor "hypoxia-induced factor" 1. In the present chapter, genetic and pharmacologic evidence is presented to support our hypothesis of a tissue protective role of ADORA(2B) signaling during hypoxic conditions, including hypoxia-elicited vascular leakage, organ ischemia, or acute lung injury. All these disease models are characterized by hypoxia-elicited tissue inflammation. As such, the ADORA(2B) has emerged as a therapeutic target for dampening hypoxia-induced inflammation and tissue adaptation to limited oxygen availability.
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21659868
Hypoxia represents one of the strongest transcriptional stimuli known to us. In most cases, hypoxia-induced changes in gene expression are directed towards adapting tissues to conditions of limited oxygen availability.
Nature Medicine. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22064429
Ischemia and reperfusion-elicited tissue injury contributes to morbidity and mortality in a wide range of pathologies, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute kidney injury, trauma, circulatory arrest, sickle cell disease and sleep apnea. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is also a major challenge during organ transplantation and cardiothoracic, vascular and general surgery. An imbalance in metabolic supply and demand within the ischemic organ results in profound tissue hypoxia and microvascular dysfunction. Subsequent reperfusion further enhances the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses and cell death programs. Recent advances in understanding the molecular and immunological consequences of ischemia and reperfusion may lead to innovative therapeutic strategies for treating patients with ischemia and reperfusion-associated tissue inflammation and organ dysfunction.