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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
Articles by Tobias Funk in JoVE
X-ray Dose Reduction through Adaptive Exposure in Fluoroscopic Imaging
Steve Burion, Tobias Funk
Triple Ring Technologies
We are developing a dynamic adaptive exposure technique using our scanning beam digital X-ray system. Rather than exposing an object uniformly, the exposure is adapted depending on the opacity of the object. Here we show an experiment on an anthropomorphic phantom that resulted in a dose saving of 30%.
Other articles by Tobias Funk on PubMed
Physical Review Letters. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12731929
Ga(1-x)In(x)N(y)As(1-y) is a promising material system for the fabrication of inexpensive "last-mile" optoelectronic components. However, details of its atomic arrangement and the relationship to observed optical properties is not fully known. Particularly, a blueshift of emission wavelength is observed after annealing. In this work, we use x-ray absorption fine structure to study the chemical environment around N atoms in the material before and after annealing. We find that as-grown molecular beam epitaxy material consists of a nearly random distribution of atoms, while postannealed material shows segregation of In toward N. Ab initio simulations show that this short-range ordering creates a more thermodynamically stable alloy and is responsible for blueshifting the emission.
Chemically Distinct Ni Sites in the A-cluster in Subunit Beta of the Acetyl-CoA Decarbonylase/synthase Complex from Methanosarcina Thermophila: Ni L-edge Absorption and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Analyses
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14709073
The 5-subunit-containing acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase (ACDS) complex plays an important role in methanogenic Archaea that convert acetate to methane, by catalyzing the central reaction of acetate C-C bond cleavage in which acetyl-CoA serves as the acetyl donor substrate reacting at the ACDS beta subunit active site. The properties of Ni in the active site A-cluster in the ACDS beta subunit from Methanosarcina thermophila were investigated. A recombinant, C-terminally truncated form of the beta subunit was employed, which mimics the native subunit previously isolated from the ACDS complex, and contains an A-cluster composed of an [Fe(4)S(4)] center bridged to a binuclear Ni-Ni site. The electronic structures of these two Ni were studied using L-edge absorption and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy. The L-edge absorption data provided evidence for two distinct Ni species in the as-isolated enzyme, one with low-spin Ni(II) and the other with high-spin Ni(II). XMCD spectroscopy confirmed that the species producing the high-spin signal was paramagnetic. Upon treatment with Ti(3+) citrate, an additional Ni species emerged, which was assigned to Ni(I). By contrast, CO treatment of the reduced enzyme converted nearly all of the Ni in the sample to low-spin Ni(II). The results implicate reaction of a high-spin tetrahedral Ni site with CO to form an enzyme-CO adduct transformed to a low-spin Ni(II) state. These findings are discussed in relation to the mechanism of C-C bond activation, in connection with the model of the beta subunit A-cluster developed from companion Ni and Fe K edge, XANES, and EXAFS studies.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15125678
We show that X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) can be employed to probe the oxidation states and other electronic structural features of nickel active sites in proteins. As a calibration standard, we have measured XMCD and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectra for the nickel(II) derivative of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (NiAz). Our analysis of these spectra confirms that the electronic ground state of NiAz is high-spin (S = 1); we also find that the L(3)-centroid energy is 853.1(1) eV, the branching ratio is 0.722(4), and the magnetic moment is 1.9(4) mu(B). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on model NiAz structures establish that orbitals 3d(x2-y2) and 3d(z2) are the two valence holes in the high-spin Ni(II) ground state, and in accord with the experimentally determined orbital magnetic moment, the DFT results also demonstrate that both holes are highly delocalized, with 3d(x2-y2) having much greater ligand character.
Medical Physics. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15487751
Calculations of radiation dose are important in assessing the medical and biological implications of ionizing radiation in medical imaging techniques such as SPECT and PET. In contrast, radiation dose estimates of SPECT and PET imaging of small animals are not very well established. For that reason we have estimated the whole-body radiation dose to mice and rats for isotopes such as 18F, 99mTc, 201Tl, (111)In, 123I, and 125I that are used commonly for small animal imaging. We have approximated mouse and rat bodies with uniform soft tissue equivalent ellipsoids. The mouse and rat sized ellipsoids had a mass of 30 g and 300 g, respectively, and a ratio of the principal axes of 1:1:4 and 0.7:1:4. The absorbed fractions for various photon energies have been calculated using the Monte Carlo software package MCNP. Using these values, we then calculated MIRD S-values for two geometries that model the distribution of activity in the animal body: (a) a central point source and (b) a homogeneously distributed source, and compared these values against S-value calculations for small ellipsoids tabulated in MIRD Pamphlet 8 to validate our results. Finally we calculated the radiation dose taking into account the biological half-life of the radiopharmaceuticals and the amount of activity administered. Our calculations produced S-values between 1.06 x 10(-13) Gy/Bq s and 2.77 x 10(-13) Gy/Bq s for SPECT agents, and 15.0 x 10(-13) Gy/Bq s for the PET agent 18F, assuming mouse sized ellipsoids with uniform source distribution. The S-values for a central point source in an ellipsoid are about 10% higher than the values obtained for the uniform source distribution. Furthermore, the S-values for mouse sized ellipsoids are approximately 10 times higher than for the rat sized ellipsoids reflecting the difference in mass. We reviewed published data to obtain administered radioactivity and residence times for small animal imaging. From these values and our computed S-values we estimated that the whole body dose in small animals ranges between 6 cGy and 90 cGy for mice and between about 1 cGy and 27 cGy for rats. The whole body dose in small animal imaging can be very high in comparison to the lethal dose to mice (LD50/30 approximately 7 Gy). For this reason the dose in small animal imaging should be monitored carefully and the administered activity should be kept to a minimum. These results also underscore the need of further development of instrumentation that improves detection efficiency and reduces radiation dose in small animal imaging.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16595492
Myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT remains critically important for diagnosing, assessing, and evaluating treatment of coronary artery disease. However, conventional rotational SPECT suffers from prolonged study times because of relatively low detection efficiency. We therefore have investigated a multipinhole collimator that could improve the detection efficiency in cardiac SPECT by a factor 5, while providing image quality comparable to standard rotational SPECT techniques using parallel-hole collimation.
Medical Physics. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16752560
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an important technology for molecular imaging studies of small animals. In this arena, there is an increasing demand for high performance imaging systems that offer improved spatial resolution and detection efficiency. We have designed a multipinhole small animal imaging system based on position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) detectors with the goal of submillimeter spatial resolution and high detection efficiency, which will allow us to minimize the radiation dose to the animal and to shorten the time needed for the imaging study. Our design will use 8 x 24 mm2 PSAPD detector modules coupled to thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] scintillators, which can achieve an intrinsic spatial resolution of 0.5 mm at 140 keV. These detectors will be arranged in rings of 24 modules each; the animal is positioned in the center of the 9 stationary detector rings which capture projection data from the animal with a cylindrical tungsten multipinhole collimator. The animal is supported on a bed which can be rocked about the central axis to increase angular sampling of the object. In contrast to conventional SPECT pinhole systems, in our design each pinhole views only a portion of the object. However, the ensemble of projection data from all of the multipinhole detectors provide angular sampling that is sufficient to reconstruct tomographic data from the object. The performance of this multipinhole PSAPD imaging system was simulated using a ray tracing program that models the appropriate point spread functions and then was compared against the performance of a dual-headed pinhole SPECT system. The detection efficiency of both systems was simulated and projection data of a hot rod phantom were generated and reconstructed to assess spatial resolution. Appropriate Poisson noise was added to the data to simulate an acquisition time of 15 min and an activity of 18.5 MBq distributed in the phantom. Both sets of data were reconstructed with an ML-EM reconstruction algorithm. In addition, the imaging performance of both systems was evaluated with a uniformity phantom and a realistic digital mouse phantom. Simulations show that our proposed system produces a spatial resolution of 0.8 mm and an average detection efficiency of 630 cps/MBq. In contrast, simulations of the dual-headed pinhole SPECT system produce a spatial resolution of 1.1 mm and an average detection efficiency of 53 cps/MBq. These results suggest that our novel design will achieve high spatial resolution and will improve the detection efficiency by more than an order of magnitude compared to a dual-headed pinhole SPECT system. We expect that this system can perform SPECT with submillimeter spatial resolution, high throughput, and low radiation dose suitable for in vivo imaging of small animals.
Physics in Medicine and Biology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17505089
Avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and in particular position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs), are an attractive alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for reading out scintillators for PET and SPECT. These solid-state devices offer high gain and quantum efficiency, and can potentially lead to more compact and robust imaging systems with improved spatial and energy resolution. In order to evaluate this performance improvement, we have conducted Monte Carlo simulations of gamma cameras based on avalanche photodiodes. Specifically, we investigated the relative merit of discrete and PSAPDs in a simple continuous crystal gamma camera. The simulated camera was composed of either a 4 x 4 array of four channels 8 x 8 mm2 PSAPDs or an 8 x 8 array of 4 x 4 mm2 discrete APDs. These configurations, requiring 64 channels readout each, were used to read the scintillation light from a 6 mm thick continuous CsI:Tl crystal covering the entire 3.6 x 3.6 cm2 photodiode array. The simulations, conducted with GEANT4, accounted for the optical properties of the materials, the noise characteristics of the photodiodes and the nonlinear charge division in PSAPDs. The performance of the simulated camera was evaluated in terms of spatial resolution, energy resolution and spatial uniformity at 99mTc (140 keV) and 125I ( approximately 30 keV) energies. Intrinsic spatial resolutions of 1.0 and 0.9 mm were obtained for the APD- and PSAPD-based cameras respectively for 99mTc, and corresponding values of 1.2 and 1.3 mm FWHM for 125I. The simulations yielded maximal energy resolutions of 7% and 23% for 99mTc and 125I, respectively. PSAPDs also provided better spatial uniformity than APDs in the simple system studied. These results suggest that APDs constitute an attractive technology especially suitable to build compact, small field of view gamma cameras dedicated, for example, to small animal or organ imaging.
Computed Tomographic Metal Artifact Reduction for the Detection and Quantitation of Small Features Near Large Metallic Implants: a Comparison of Published Methods
Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. Jul-Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18664852
Computed tomographic imaging of tissue surrounding metallic implants is often limited by metal artifacts. This paper compares 3 existing metal artifact reduction techniques that are based on segmentation of metal-affected regions in native images, followed by reprojection of segmented areas into original Radon space, removal of metal trace(s), and renewed reconstruction: Detector row-wise linear interpolation, 2-dimensional interpolation, and combination of row-wise linear interpolation and adaptive filtering. For each method, improvements of CT number accuracy and signal-noise as well as contrast-noise ratios near the prosthesis and in the image periphery over the values found for native images were evaluated in a phantom experiment simulating osteolytic bone lesions of different size and density around a Chrome-Cobalt hip prosthesis stem. Improvement in diagnostic usability was evaluated as lesion detectability by size. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that the linear interpolation and the combination method removed the artifacts most effectively. The mean accuracy error over different regions of interest placed in the direct vicinity of the metal and in the periphery of the object decreased 10-fold with linear interpolation. These methods increased contrast-noise ratio up to 68% of that measured on artifact-free images for the least dense lesion. Qualitatively, the linear interpolation and the combination method improved the lesion detectability and enabled differentiation of different lesion densities. However, in proximity to the stem, some artifacts remained for all methods. We conclude that published algorithms for metal artifact reduction substantially improve image quality for CT imaging of a metallic object and may be adequate for quantitative measurements except for the direct vicinity of the metallic object.