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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (21)
- The British Journal of Nutrition
- Journal of Chromatography. A
- The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- The British Journal of Nutrition
- The Journal of Nutrition
- Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
- The British Journal of Nutrition
- The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
- Journal of Proteome Research
- Journal of Food Science
- Journal of Chromatography. A
- Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
- Journal of Proteomics
- Journal of Medicinal Food
- The Journal of Nutrition
- Nutrition and Cancer
- The British Journal of Nutrition
- Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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Articles by Torsten Bohn in JoVE
Toxinvapen Induktion och Protein Extraction från Fusarium SPP. Kulturer för proteomik studier
Matias Pasquali, Frédéric Giraud, Jean Paul Lasserre, Sebastien Planchon, Lucien Hoffmann, Torsten Bohn, Jenny Renaut
Department of Environment and Agro-Biotechnologies (EVA), Nutrition and Toxicology Unit (NuTox), Centre de Recherche Public-Gabriel Lippmann
Protein extraktion för proteomik analyser i svamparter kräver höga nivåer av standardisering som skall utföras i enlighet med den minsta information om ett proteomik experiment (MIAPE) riktlinjer. Vi presenterar en video-protokoll som innehåller ett förfarande för att minimera experimentella partiskhet under toxin induktion och protein utvinnas ur
Other articles by Torsten Bohn on PubMed
Comparison of Urinary Monitoring, Faecal Monitoring and Erythrocyte Analysis of Stable Isotope Labels to Determine Magnesium Absorption in Human Subjects
The British Journal of Nutrition. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14748944
We have evaluated urinary monitoring and erythrocyte analysis to determine Mg absorption in human subjects as alternatives to the conventional technique of faecal monitoring by stable-isotope techniques. Ten healthy adults received 2.2 mmol (25)Mg in water, together with wheat bread, followed 15 min later by intravenous injection of 0.6 mmol (26)Mg (day 1). Brilliant blue and Yb (given on day 0 and day 1 respectively) served as qualitative and quantitative faecal markers. Urine was collected for 6 d after test meal intake. Complete collections of faeces were made until excretion of the second brilliant blue marker (given on day 7). Mg isotope ratios were determined by thermal ionisation-MS in urine and faeces and by inductively coupled plasma-MS in erythrocytes. Absorption was determined based on: (1) 6 d urine pools; (2) 24 h urine pools (collected 22-46 h after test meal intake); (3) erythrocytes from a blood sample drawn on day 14; (4) complete 6 d faecal pools; (5) faecal pools based on the first three consecutive stools after excretion of the first brilliant blue marker. Differences in mean Mg absorption (42 44 %) were statistically insignificant between techniques, except when based on 6 d urine pools for which the value was significantly lower (33 (sd 7) %, P=0.0003, ANOVA). The results indicate that Mg absorption can be determined from 24 h urine pools or erythrocytes obtained 14 d after test meal intake, an alternative method to the more time-consuming and labour-intense faecal monitoring. The choice of technique depends on practical and financial considerations.
Determination of Chlorophyll in Plant Samples by Liquid Chromatography Using Zinc-phthalocyanine As an Internal Standard
Journal of Chromatography. A. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14753714
Chlorophyll analysis at high precision and accuracy is limited by the lack of suitable, commercially available internal standards for HPLC analysis. Here, the commercially available dye zinc-phthalocyanine is presented as a new internal standard to quantify chlorophylls in vegetable foods and to detect chlorophyll degradation products. The technique was applied to chlorophyll analysis of a selection of vegetable foods. Pigments were extracted with N,N-dimethylformamide from the vegetables and purified by solid phase extraction. Chlorophyll a, a', b, b', corresponding pheophytins, and zinc-phthalocyanine were separated by HPLC using a C18 reverse-phase column and fluorescence detection.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14985216
Phytic acid has been reported to impair the absorption of minerals and trace elements such as calcium, zinc, and iron in humans. However, limited information is available on the effect of phytic acid on magnesium absorption.
Fractional Magnesium Absorption is Significantly Lower in Human Subjects from a Meal Served with an Oxalate-rich Vegetable, Spinach, As Compared with a Meal Served with Kale, a Vegetable with a Low Oxalate Content
The British Journal of Nutrition. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15035687
The aim of the present study was to evaluate Mg absorption from a test meal served with an oxalate-rich vegetable, spinach, as compared with a test meal served with a vegetable with a low oxalate content, kale. Mg absorption was measured by a stable-isotope technique based on extrinsic labelling of the test meals and faecal monitoring of the excreted isotope labels. Nine healthy adults participated in the study. The test meals were based on 100 g phytate-free white bread, served with 300 g spinach (6.6 mmol oxalate; 0.7 mmol (25)Mg label added, 5.0 mmol total Mg) or 300 g kale (0.1 mmol oxalate; 1.2 mmol (26)Mg label added, 4.8 mmol total Mg). The test meals were served on days 1 and 3, at breakfast and lunch, using a cross-over design. The results from the present study demonstrated that apparent Mg absorption was significantly lower from the meal served with spinach (26.7 (sd 10.4) %) than the meal served with kale (36.5 (sd 11.8) %) (P=0.01). However, the lower fractional apparent Mg absorption from the test meal served with spinach can be assumed to be, at least partly, counterbalanced by the higher native Mg content of spinach as compared with kale. Although based on indirect evidence, i.e. not based on an evaluation of added (or removed) oxalic acid, the difference in Mg absorption observed in the present study is attributed to the difference in oxalic acid content between the two vegetables.
Carotenoid Absorption from Salad and Salsa by Humans is Enhanced by the Addition of Avocado or Avocado Oil
The Journal of Nutrition. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15735074
Dietary lipids are hypothesized to be an important factor for carotenoid bioavailability. However, most carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are low in lipids. The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of avocado fruit as a lipid source enhances carotenoid absorption in humans. Healthy subjects (n = 11/study) were recruited for 2 crossover, postprandial studies. The effect of avocado addition (150 g) to salsa on lycopene and beta-carotene absorption was examined in Study 1, and the absorption of lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene from salad in Study 2. Furthermore, the effects of avocado dose (75 vs. 150 g containing 12 vs. 24 g lipid, respectively) and of lipid source (avocado fruit vs. avocado oil) on carotenoid absorption were examined in Study 2. Intact carotenoids were quantified in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction during the 9.5 h after consumption of the test meal and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve (AUC). The addition of avocado to salsa enhanced lycopene and beta-carotene absorption (P < 0.003), resulting in 4.4 and 2.6 times the mean AUC after intake of avocado-free salsa, respectively. In Study 2, supplementing 150 g avocado or 24 g avocado oil to salad similarly enhanced alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein absorption (P < 0.01), resulting in 7.2, 15.3, and 5.1 times the mean AUC after intake of avocado-free salad, respectively (150 g avocado). Neither the avocado dose nor the lipid source affected carotenoid absorption. In conclusion, adding avocado fruit can significantly enhance carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa, which is attributed primarily to the lipids present in avocado.
High-performance Liquid Chromatography/atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Determination of Cholesterol Uptake by Caco-2 Cells
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16969766
A simple, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric method (LC/APCI-MS/MS) was developed and applied to quantitative determination of uptake of cholesterol by Caco-2 human intestine cells. Caco-2 cells were cultured in medium containing cholesterol-3,4-13C2 and phytosterols from nutritional supplements after in vitro digestion. Cellular cholesterol (cholesterol-3,4-13C2) and endogenous cholesterol were extracted using methanol/chloroform (1:2, v/v) and directly analyzed using LC/APCI-MS/MS with selected reaction monitoring (SRM), using cholesterol-2,2,3,4,4,6-d6 as an internal standard. Detection and quantification limits were 2.2 and 7.2 pmol, respectively. This method provides an effective tool for rapid determination of cholesterol uptake by cells with increased selectivity and sensitivity in comparison to previously reported LC/APCI-MS analysis using selected ion monitoring (SIM).
Supplementation of Test Meals with Fat-free Phytosterol Products Can Reduce Cholesterol Micellarization During Simulated Digestion and Cholesterol Accumulation by Caco-2 Cells
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17227052
Phytosterols have been shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Supplementing phytosterols in fat-free formulations, however, has yielded controversial results. In the present study, we investigated the effect of supplementing test meals with different fat-free phytosterol products on cholesterol incorporation into mixed micelles during simulated digestion and accumulation of micellar cholesterol by Caco-2 cells: control orange juice (OJ), orange juice supplemented with either multivitamin/multimineral tablets (MVT), multivitamin/multimineral tablets containing phytosterols (MVT+P), and phytosterol powder (PP). These combinations were added to Ensure-based test meals and spiked with cholesterol of natural isotopic composition or 13C2-cholesterol to differentiate external from endogenous cholesterol. After simulated gastric/small intestinal digestion, micelle fractions were analyzed for cholesterol enzymatically (n = 6-20/product) and by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (n = 12/product) and added to Caco-2 cells to determine the accumulation of 13C2-cholesterol (n = 10-24/product). As compared to OJ, PP and MVT+P significantly decreased cholesterol micellarization (determined enzymatically) by 70 +/- 39 (mean +/- SD) and 70 +/- 39%, respectively (P < 0.001, Bonferroni). The stable isotope experiments revealed that both PP and MVT+P reduced cholesterol micellarization [by 25 +/- 12 (P = 0.055) and 21 +/- 8% (P = 0.020), respectively, Fisher's protected LSD test] and Caco-2 cell accumulation (by 28 +/- 8 and 10 +/- 8%, respectively; P < 0.010, Bonferroni). OJ+P did not inhibit micellarization or accumulation of cholesterol by Caco-2 cells. This study shows that fat-free phytosterol-containing products can significantly inhibit cholesterol micellarization and Caco-2 cell bioaccessibility, albeit to different extents depending on individual formulations. This is most likely explained by inhibition of cholesterol micellarization.
Carotenoid Absorption in Humans Consuming Tomato Sauces Obtained from Tangerine or High-beta-carotene Varieties of Tomatoes
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17243700
Tomato sauces were produced from unique tomato varieties to study carotenoid absorption in humans. Tangerine tomatoes, high in cis-lycopene, especially prolycopene (7Z,9Z,7'Z,9'Z), and high-beta-carotene tomatoes as an alternative dietary source of beta-carotene were grown and processed. Sauces were served after 2 week washout periods and overnight fasting for breakfast to healthy subjects (n = 12, 6M/6F) in a randomized crossover design. The serving size was 150 g (containing 15 g of corn oil), tangerine sauce containing 13 mg of lycopene (97.0% as cis-isomers) and high-beta-carotene sauce containing 17 mg of total beta-carotene (1.6% as the 9-cis-isomer) and 4 mg of lycopene. Blood samples were collected 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9.5 h following test meal consumption and carotenoids determined in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction by HPLC-electrochemical detection. Baseline-corrected areas under the concentration vs time curves (AUC) were used as a measure of absorption. AUC0-9.5h values for total lycopene in the tangerine sauce group were 870 +/- 187 (nmol.h)/L (mean +/- SEM) with >99% as cis-isomers (59% as the tetra-cis-isomer). The AUC0-9.5h values for total beta-carotene and lycopene after consumption of the high-beta-carotene sauce were 304 +/- 54 (4% as 9-cis-carotene) and 118 +/- 24 (nmol.h)/L, respectively. Lycopene dose-adjusted triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein AUC responses in the tangerine sauce group were relatively high when compared to those in the literature and the high-beta-carotene group. The results support the hypothesis that lycopene cis-isomers are highly bioavailable and suggest that special tomato varieties can be utilized to increase both the intake and bioavailability of health-beneficial carotenoids.
Lycopene from Heat-induced Cis-isomer-rich Tomato Sauce is More Bioavailable Than from All-trans-rich Tomato Sauce in Human Subjects
The British Journal of Nutrition. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17391568
Lycopene is present mainly as cis-isomers in human serum and tissues whereas all-trans-lycopene predominates in tomato products, suggesting that all-trans-lycopene is isomerised in the body or is less bioavailable. The objectives of the present study were to develop processing conditions for tomatoes to obtain products with different cis-trans-lycopene isomer distribution and to assess their bioavailability. Healthy adult subjects (n 12) were recruited for this randomised cross-over trial. Each intervention was preceded by a 2-week washout period. Two tomato sauces, one rich in all-trans-lycopene (32.5 mg total lycopene/100 g sauce; 5 % cis-isomers), the other high in cis-lycopene (26.4 mg total lycopene/100 g sauce; 45 % cis-isomers), were produced by different heat-processing techniques. Each sauce (150 g) was served in a standardised meal at 08.00 hours after overnight fasting. Plasma TAG-rich lipoprotein fractions over 9.5 h following test-meal consumption as a measure of lycopene absorption were obtained and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration v. time curves (AUC), using HPLC-electrochemical detection. AUC values adjusted for the amount lycopene consumed showed that total, total cis-, and all-trans-lycopene responses were significantly higher from the cis-isomer-rich sauce, compared with the all-trans-rich sauce, being 7.30 (sem 1.45) v. 4.74 (sem 1.08) nmol x h/l (P = 0.002), 3.80 (sem 0.76) v. 1.98 (sem 0.37) nmol x h/l (P = 0.0005) and 3.50 (sem 0.76) v. 2.76 (sem 0.76) nmol x h/l (P = 0.01), respectively. The present study demonstrates significant lycopene bioavailability from cis-lycopene-rich tomato sauce and highlights the importance of considering isomer-distribution for lycopene bioavailability. Furthermore, processing parameters can be controlled to alter isomer patterns of tomato products and influence lycopene bioavailability.
Isoflavonoid Glucosides Are Deconjugated and Absorbed in the Small Intestine of Human Subjects with Ileostomies
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17413104
Although soy isoflavonoids have a number of health-promoting benefits, information concerning the sites of their absorption and metabolism in humans remains limited. Isoflavonoid absorption from the gut requires deconjugation of glucosides to aglycones.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18837469
The relative contribution of the small intestine to absorption and microbial metabolism of ingested isoflavonoids (IFN) was investigated in swine with canulae in distal ilea to facilitate collection of chyme (canula open). Weaned swine were fed a single meal containing ground roasted soybean and corn with canulae open followed by a second test soy diet at 48 h with canulae closed to allow passage of chyme into the large intestine. All remaining feedings were soy-free (corn-casein diet). Ileal effluent and urine were collected for 16 and 48 h, respectively, and analyzed for IFN and microbial metabolites of IFN. IFN in ileal effluent were present entirely as aglycones. IFN equivalents excreted for 24 h after ingesting the soy diet were not significantly different when canulae were open or closed. Urinary IFN aglycone equivalents on day 2 were similar to those on day 1 when canulae remained closed, but less than 10% of that on day 1 when canulae were open for 16 h postfeeding. Urinary concentrations of dihydrodaidzein, dihydrogenistein, O-desmethylangolensin, and equol exceeded IFN aglycone equivalents. These findings suggest extensive preabsorptive conversion of IFN glucosides to aglycones in the small intestine and relatively efficient microbial metabolism of IFN in weaned swine.
Effects of the Endocrine Disruptors Atrazine and PCB 153 on the Protein Expression of MCF-7 Human Cells
Journal of Proteome Research. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19778091
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and a number of pesticides can act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These molecules exhibit hormonal activity in vivo, and can therefore interact and perturb normal physiological functions. Many of these compounds are persistent in the environment, and their bioaccumulation may constitute a significant threat for human health. Physiological abnormalities following exposure to these xenobiotic compounds go along with alterations at the protein level of individual cells. In this study, MCF-7 cells were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, PCB153 (100 ppb, respectively), 17-beta estradiol (positive control, 10 nM) and a negative control (solvent) for t = 24 h (n = 3 replicates/exposure group). After trizol extraction and protein solubilization, protein expression levels were studied by 2D-DIGE. Proteins differentially expressed were excised, trypsin-digested, and identified by MALDI-ToF-ToF, followed by NCBInr database search. 2D-DIGE experiments demonstrated that 49 spots corresponding to 29 proteins were significantly differentially expressed in MCF-7 cells (>1.5-fold, P < 0.05, Student's paired t test). These proteins belonged to various cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, membrane), and varied in function; 88% of proteins were down-regulated during atrazine exposure, whereas 75% of proteins were up-regulated by PCB153. Affected proteins included those regulating oxidative stress such as superoxide dismutase and structural proteins such as actin or tropomyosin, which may explain morphological changes of cells already observed under the microscope. This study highlights the susceptibility of human cells to compounds with endocrine disrupting properties.
Comparison of 3 Spectrophotometric Methods for Carotenoid Determination in Frequently Consumed Fruits and Vegetables
Journal of Food Science. Jan-Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20492150
Carotenoids are C-40 tetraterpenoid compounds with potential health beneficial effects. Major dietary sources include a variety of fruits and vegetables. Rapid screening methods are therefore desired, but their accuracy varies depending on the carotenoid profile and the matrix of the plant food. In the present study, 3 different methods were compared, all based on a rapid extraction protocol and spectrophotometric measurements to determine the total amount carotenoids present in fruits and vegetables (n = 28), either with or without chlorophyll. Published methods (a) Lichtenthaler and (b) Hornero-Méndez and Mínguez-Mosquera were compared with a newly developed method (method c) based on the average molar absorption coefficient (135310 Lcm(-1)mol(-1)) and wavelength (450 nm in acetone), for the 5 predominant carotenoid species (beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin) in the investigated foods. All results were compared to HPLC (method d). To avoid overestimating carotenoid concentrations due to chlorophyll A and B presence, the effect of saponification was studied for all methods. Overall, saponification led to significant carotenoid losses (12.6 +/- 0.9%). Methods a, b, c, and d yielded 5.1 +/- 0.4 mg/100 g, 4.6 +/- 0.5 mg/100 g, 4.3 +/- 0.5 mg/100 g, and 4.2 +/- 0.5 mg/100 g total carotenoids, respectively, with method a leading to significant higher mean concentrations compared to all other methods (P < 0.001, Bonferroni) with methods b and c being not significantly different and highly correlated compared to HPLC (> r = 0.95). Similar results were found when stratifying for chlorophyll content and fruits compared with vegetables, however, accuracy varied for individual fruits, highlighting the limitation to use the same method for all plant foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study presents a comparison of various rapid spectrophotometric measurements to determine total carotenoid content in various fruits and vegetables and could aid in the selection of the appropriate method for individual plant foods with different carotenoid profile and matrices.
Development of a Multi-class Method for the Quantification of Veterinary Drug Residues in Feedingstuffs by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry
Journal of Chromatography. A. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20810120
A simple multi-residue method was developed for detecting and quantifying 33 analytes from 13 classes of antibiotics (tetracyclines (3), quinolones (7), penicillins (3), ionophore coccidiostats (7), macrolides (3), sulfonamides (1), quinoxalines (2), phenicols (2), lincosamides (1), diaminopyrimidines (1), polypeptides (1), streptogramins (1) and pleuromutilins (1)) in animal feeds. Extraction and clean-up procedures were optimized with spiked piglet feed. Samples were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with a mixture of methanol/acetonitrile/McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.6 (37.5/37.5/25, v/v/v) containing 0.3% of EDTA-Na(2), followed by a clean up using a dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) with PSA (primary secondary amine). Detection of antibiotics was achieved by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) within 28 min using both positive and negative ESI mode. Average recoveries ranged from 51% (oxytetracycline) to 116% (tilmicosin) with associated relative standard deviations of 7.3% and 9.0% and an overall mean of 87%. Limits of quantification ranged from 3.8 ngg(-1) (lincomycin) to 65.0 ngg(-1) (bacitracin). Following optimization, the method was further verified for bovine and lamb feeding stuffs; negative matrix effects were evaluated and overcome by a standard addition method.
Exogenous Antioxidants - Double-edged Swords in Cellular Redox State: Health Beneficial Effects at Physiologic Doses Versus Deleterious Effects at High Doses:
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20972369
The balance between oxidation and antioxidation is believed to be critical in maintaining healthy biological systems. Under physiological conditions, the human antioxidative defense system including e.g. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH), and others, allows the elimination of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) including, among others superoxide anions (O2•-), hydroxyl radicals (OH•), alkoxyl radicals (RO•), and peroxyradicals (ROO•). However, our endogenous antioxidant defense systems are incomplete without exogenous originating reducing compounds such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols, playing an essential role in many antioxidant mechanisms in living organisms. Therefore, there is continuous demand for exogenous antioxidants in order to prevent oxidative stress, representing a disequilibrium redox state in favor of oxidation. However, high doses of isolated compounds may be toxic, owing to prooxidative effects at high concentrations, or their potential to react with beneficial concentrations of ROS normally present at physiological conditions that are required for optimal cellular functioning. This review aims to examine the double-edged effects of dietary originating antioxidants with a focus on the most abundant compounds, especially polyphenols, vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids. Different approaches to enrich our body with exogenous antioxidants such as via synthetic antioxidants, diets rich in fruits and vegetables, and taking supplements will be reviewed, and experimental and epidemiological evidences discussed, highlighting that antioxidants at physiological doses are generally safe, exhibiting interesting health beneficial effects.
Proteomic Analysis of Plasma Samples from Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Identifies Haptoglobin As a Potential Prognostic Biomarker
Journal of Proteomics. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21767674
Prognosis of clinical outcome following myocardial infarction is variable and difficult to predict. We have analyzed the plasma proteome of thirty patients with acute myocardial infarction to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Proteomic analyses of blood samples were performed by 2-D-DiGE after plasma depletion of albumin and immunoglobulins G. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class determined at 1-year follow-up was used to identify patients with heart failure. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of proteomic data revealed that patients could be separated into 3 groups. The 22 differentially expressed proteins involved in this grouping were identified as haptoglobin (Hp) and respective isoforms. The 3 groups of patients had distinct Hp isoforms: patients from group 1 had the α1-α1, patients from group 2 the α2-α1, and patients from group 3 the α2-α2 genotype. This classification was also associated with different total plasma levels of Hp. The presence of the α2 genotype and low plasma levels of Hp was associated with a higher NYHA class and therefore with a detrimental functional outcome after myocardial infarction. A plasma level of Hp below 1.4g/L predicted the occurrence of heart failure (NYHA 2, 3, 4) at 1-year with 100% sensitivity.
Journal of Medicinal Food. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21861714
Many health beneficial functions of dietary ingredients, including antimutagenity and anticarcinogenity, have been discussed in relation to their antioxidant properties. In this study, antioxidative mechanisms of whole-apple antioxidants (from seven varieties) were investigated using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assay, the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the ferrous iron(II) chelating activity assay. Results indicated the ability of primary antioxidants to act as hydrogen or electron donors, with considerable differences depending on variety, with ABTS and FRAP values ranging from 270 to 1,142 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g and from 695 to 3,143 μmol of Fe/100 g, respectively. However, varieties did not display measurable chelating activity except for Florina and Graham, exhibiting a weak activity (0.1-0.2 μg of EDTA equivalents/100 g). Correlation analyses showed that polyphenols were major primary antioxidants contributing to antioxidative mechanisms (r>0.99, P<.001), whereas their involvement as secondary antioxidants (i.e., as chelating compounds) was negligible. Our findings further showed that the intake of 100 g of apple fruits can provide antioxidants equivalent to approximately 270-1,140 mg of vitamin C, with highest antioxidant concentrations for the older varieties Grauapfel and Goldparmäne.
Divalent Minerals Decrease Micellarization and Uptake of Carotenoids and Digestion Products into Caco-2 Cells
The Journal of Nutrition. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21865558
Carotenoids are lipophilic, dietary antioxidants with the potential to prevent chronic and age-related diseases. Prior to their availability for physiological functions, carotenoids require micellarization and intestinal uptake, both constituting marginally understood processes. Based on an in vitro digestion model coupled to Caco-2 cells, we assessed the effect of dietary abundant divalent ions on spinach-derived carotenoid micellarization and cellular uptake: Ca and Mg ranging from 7.5 to 25 mmol/L in the digesta and Zn and Fe ranging from 3.8 to 12.5 mmol/L. Both micellarization and uptake were significantly inhibited by minerals in a concentration-dependent manner, with stronger effects for Fe and Zn compared to Ca and Mg. Compared to controls (no mineral addition), fractional micellarization and uptake were decreased to the greatest extent (to 22.5 and 5.0%, respectively; P < 0.001) by 12.5 mmol/L Fe. Effects of Mg were of the least magnitude; at 25 mmol/L, only uptake was decreased significantly to 69.2% of the control value (P < 0.001). Total cellular carotenoid uptake from test meals decreased similarly compared to micellarization; however, decreased β-carotene micellarization was counterbalanced by improved fractional cellular uptakes from the micelles for all ions. Compared to controls, fractional β-carotene uptake from the micelles was greater in samples digested in the presence of Fe, Ca, and Zn, by up to 5-10 times at the highest concentrations of each ion (P < 0.001). Like for the above carotenoids, a high cellular uptake of the epoxycarotenoid conversion products neochrome (from neoxanthin) and luteoxanthin+auroxanthin (from violaxanthin) was also observed. The present results indicate that divalent ions may inhibit carotenoid micellarization and uptake.
Bioavailability of Phytochemical Constituents From a Novel Soy Fortified Lycopene Rich Tomato Juice Developed for Targeted Cancer Prevention Trials
Nutrition and Cancer. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22098224
Studies suggest that tomato and soy foods may contribute to a lower risk of certain cancers. We developed a novel soy germ tomato juice to be used in controlled cancer prevention trials. This study describes an initial test of compliance, phytochemical bioavailability, and effects on biomarkers of blood lipids. Healthy men and women (n = 18) consumed a soy germ-fortified juice daily (300 mL supplying 66 mg isoflavones and 22 mg lycopene) for 8 wk. A single-dose bioavailability study was completed on day 1 and isoflavones in plasma and urine, and lycopene in the plasma, were measured. All subjects completed the trial, with 97.7% ± 3.5% (mean ± SD) of the scheduled juice consumed. No adverse effects were documented. The postprandial study indicated that 3.1% ± 2.3% of lycopene was absorbed and that 49.3% ± 12.1% isoflavones ingested were recovered in 24-h urines. Lycopene plasma concentration changed from 0.60 ± 0.22 to 1.24 ± 0.30 μmol/L during 8 wk of consumption. Juice consumption significantly improved resistance of LDL+VLDL-C to Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation (P = 0.039), HDL-C (47.3 ± 15.8 to 51.7 ± 14.8 mg/dL, P < 0.001), and the ratio of total-C/HDL-C (4.25 ± 1.59 to 3.63 ± 1.16, P < 0.001) at 8 wk. A well-characterized soy-fortified tomato juice can be produced in large scale for multiinstitutional long-term cancer prevention trials and showed excellent compliance with no toxicity, while demonstrating absorption of biologically active phytochemicals.
Carotenoid Exposure of Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells Did Not Affect Selected Inflammatory Markers but Altered Their Proteomic Response
The British Journal of Nutrition. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22152988
Carotenoid consumption has been linked to a number of beneficial health effects, including the reduction of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular complications. However, no data are available on their action on the intestinal epithelium, being exposed to the highest concentrations of carotenoids in the human body, and where they could act preventively on intestinal inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether lycopene and β-carotene in micelles (M), at concentrations that could be reached via the diet (10-25 μg/ml) could aid in the reduction of TNF-α plus IL-1β-induced inflammation of Caco-2 human epithelial cells. The impact on biomarkers of inflammation, including IL-8, NO and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (through PGE-2α), and the NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways of intracellular signalling cascades were evaluated compared with controls (empty M). Furthermore, proteomic analyses were conducted from total cellular protein extracts. The results revealed that isolated carotenoids had no statistical significant anti-inflammatory effect on the biomarkers observed, or on the regulation of NF-κB and MAPK. Nevertheless, analyses of the proteome suggested that fifteen proteins were significantly (P < 0·05, expression ratio >1·3) differentially regulated following β-carotene exposure, participating mostly in metabolic activities including antioxidant mechanisms, such as glutathione S-transferase A1. Only one protein was differentially regulated by lycopene (profilin-1). To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to investigate pathways involved in the action of carotenoids on the intestinal epithelium.
Benzo[α]pyrene-Induced Anti-Depressive-like Behaviour in Adult Female Mice: Role of Monoaminergic Systems
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22212102
Benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant exhibiting adverse effects on cognitive function and behaviour. In this study, depressive or antidepressive effects of B[α]P were investigated. Here, we report that a subacute B[α]P oral exposure (0.02-0.2 mg/kg) increases mobility behaviour in female adult mice in the tail suspension test, but not in the forced swimming test, without altering locomotion, suggesting that the tail suspension test was a more sensitive indicator of B[α]P-induced neurobehavioural disturbance. This might be because of differences in neurochemical substrates and pathways, mediating the performance in these behavioural models of depression. The effect of B[α]P on female adult mice in the tail suspension test was similar to that obtained with subacute treatment of the antidepressant reference drug imipramine (10 mg/kg). Therefore, B[α]P at 0.02 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg induces an antidepressant-like effect in mice, suggesting a neurobehavioural disturbance after oral exposure to this environmental compound. Furthermore, oral exposure to B[α]P at 0.02 mg/kg significantly increased gene expression levels of the brain receptors 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 1A (5HT(1) (A) ) and alpha-1D adrenergic (ADRA(1) (D) ). In summary, the presented findings suggest that subacute oral exposure to B[α]P results in behavioural changes in female adult mice, possibly caused by alterations in the serotoninergic and adrenergic systems.