In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (1)

Articles by Tracy Y. Chan in JoVE

Other articles by Tracy Y. Chan on PubMed

Recurrent Headache in Chinese Children: Any Agreement Between Clinician Diagnosis and Symptom-based Diagnoses Using the International Classification of Headache Disorders (Second Edition)?

Journal of Child Neurology. Feb, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16566877

There has been a lack of published data on the pattern of recurrent headache in Chinese children. The validity of the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria has not been evaluated in Chinese children. We performed a retrospective medical record review of 124 children aged <18 years with an International Classification of Diseases coding of headache followed up in a general outpatient clinic in a university-based hospital over a 3-year period (2000-2002). The aims of our study were to (1) study the pattern of recurrent headache in Chinese children and (2) study any agreement between clinical diagnoses made by our board-certified pediatricians and symptom-based diagnoses using the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (International Classification of Headache Disorders-II). The most common type was unclassified headache (70.2%), followed by infrequent episodic tension-type headache (24.2%) and migraine without aura (5.6%). A family history of headache or migraine was more commonly found in children with infrequent episodic tension-type headache or migraine without aura (P = .0109). The co-occurrence of abdominal pain with infrequent episodic tension-type headache was 30%; for unclassified headache, it was 19.5%. Dysmenorrhea occurred in 7.1% of girls with infrequent episodic tension-type headache and 8.6% of girls with unclassified headache. However, migraine without aura was not associated with abdominal pain or dysmenorrhea. Children with migraine without aura were more frequently referred to child neurologists (P = .0207) and admitted (P = .0000). Neurologic investigations, including electroencephalography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, were performed in less than 30% of cases. Abnormal results were found in only seven cases; with two referred to a neurosurgeon and none requiring surgical intervention. Thus, by using the clinical diagnosis of our board-certified pediatricians as the standard, the sensitivity and specificity of International Classification of Headache Disorders-II-based definition of migraine without aura was 23.1% and 93.4%, respectively, and for infrequent episodic tension-type headache, it was 37.5% and 76%, respectively. The typical characteristics of migraine tend to emerge later and might have led to underdiagnosis of the younger age group, with a higher rate of referral and inpatient management. The new edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria is still restrictive in clinical practice and might not be able to reflect current pediatric practice. Further studies with a defined study period or recurrent headache might be more useful in analyzing the use of these new International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria in the diagnosis of recurrent headache in children.

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