Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
This translation into Russian was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Tsui-Ting Ching in JoVE
Твердые пластины основе Диетические ограничения в Caenorhabditis Элеганс
Tsui-Ting Ching1, Ao-Lin Hsu1,2
1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Michigan, 2Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan
Здесь мы приводим протокол для проведения твердой пластиной, основанных на пищевых ограничений в
Other articles by Tsui-Ting Ching on PubMed
Distinct Ligand Binding Sites in Integrin Alpha3beta1 Regulate Matrix Adhesion and Cell-cell Contact
The Journal of Cell Biology. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14557254
The integrin alpha3beta1 mediates cellular adhesion to the matrix ligand laminin-5. A second integrin ligand, the urokinase receptor (uPAR), associates with alpha3beta1 via a surface loop within the alpha3 beta-propeller (residues 242-246) but outside the laminin binding region, suggesting that uPAR-integrin interactions could signal differently from matrix engagement. To explore this, alpha3-/- epithelial cells were reconstituted with wild-type (wt) alpha3 or alpha3 with Ala mutations within the uPAR-interacting loop (H245A or R244A). Wt or mutant-bearing cells showed comparable expression and adhesion to laminin-5. Cells expressing wt alpha3 and uPAR dissociated in culture, with increased Src activity, up-regulation of SLUG, and down-regulation of E-cadherin and gamma-catenin. Src kinase inhibition or expression of Src 1-251 restored the epithelial phenotype. The H245A and R244A mutants were unaffected by coexpression of uPAR. We conclude that alpha3beta1 regulates both cell-cell contact and matrix adhesion, but through distinct protein interaction sites within its beta-propeller. These studies reveal an integrin- and Src-dependent pathway for SLUG expression and mesenchymal transition.
Epigenome Analyses Using BAC Microarrays Identify Evolutionary Conservation of Tissue-specific Methylation of SHANK3
Nature Genetics. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15895082
CpG islands are present in one-half of all human and mouse genes and typically overlap with promoters or exons. We developed a method for high-resolution analysis of the methylation status of CpG islands genome-wide, using arrays of BAC clones and the methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme NotI. Here we demonstrate the accuracy and specificity of the method. By computationally mapping all NotI sites, methylation events can be defined with single-nucleotide precision throughout the genome. We also demonstrate the unique expandability of the array method using a different methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme, BssHII. We identified and validated new CpG island loci that are methylated in a tissue-specific manner in normal human tissues. The methylation status of the CpG islands is associated with gene expression for several genes, including SHANK3, which encodes a structural protein in neuronal postsynaptic densities. Defects in SHANK3 seem to underlie human 22q13 deletion syndrome. Furthermore, these patterns for SHANK3 are conserved in mice and rats.
Genome-wide Hypomethylation in Human Glioblastomas Associated with Specific Copy Number Alteration, Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Allele Status, and Increased Proliferation
Cancer Research. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16951158
Genome-wide reduction in 5-methylcytosine is an epigenetic hallmark of human tumorigenesis. Experimentally induced hypomethylation in mice promotes genomic instability and is sufficient to initiate tumorigenesis. Here, we report that global hypomethylation is common in primary human glioblastomas [glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)] and can affect up to an estimated 10 million CpG dinucleotides per haploid tumor genome. Demethylation involves satellite 2 (Sat2) pericentromeric DNA at chromosomes 1 and 16, the subtelomeric repeat sequence D4Z4 at chromosomes 4q and 10q, and interspersed Alu elements. Severe hypomethylation of Sat2 sequences is associated with copy number alterations of the adjacent euchromatin, suggesting that hypomethylation may be one factor predisposing to specific genetic alterations commonly occurring in GBMs. An additional apparent consequence of global hypomethylation is reactivation of the cancer-testis antigen MAGEA1 via promoter demethylation, but only in GBMs and GBM cell lines exhibiting a 5-methylcytosine content below a threshold of approximately 50%. Primary GBMs with significant hypomethylation tended to be heterozygous or homozygous for the low-functioning Val allele of the rate-limiting methyl group metabolism gene methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), or had a deletion encompassing this gene at 1p36. Tumors with severe genomic hypomethylation also had an elevated proliferation index and deletion of the MTHFR gene. These data suggest a model whereby either excessive cell proliferation in the context of inadequate methyl donor production from MTHFR deficiency promotes genomic hypomethylation and further genomic instability, or that MTHFR deficiency-associated demethylation leads to increased proliferative activity in GBM.
Drr-2 Encodes an EIF4H That Acts Downstream of TOR in Diet-restriction-induced Longevity of C. Elegans
Aging Cell. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20456299
Dietary restriction (DR) results in a robust increase in lifespan while maintaining the physiology of much younger animals in a wide range of species. Here, we examine the role of drr-2, a DR-responsive gene recently identified, in determining the longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans. Inhibition of drr-2 has been shown to increase longevity. However, the molecular mechanisms by which drr-2 influences longevity remain unknown. We report here that drr-2 encodes an ortholog of human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H (eIF4H), whose function is to mediate the initiation step of mRNA translation. The molecular function of DRR-2 is validated by the association of DRR-2 with polysomes and by the decreased rate of protein synthesis observed in drr-2 knockdown animals. Previous studies have also suggested that DR might trigger a regulated reduction in drr-2 expression to initiate its longevity response. By examining the effect of increasing drr-2 expression on DR animals, we find that drr-2 is essential for a large portion of the longevity response to DR. The nutrient-sensing target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway has been shown to mediate the longevity effects of DR in C. elegans. Results from our genetic analyses suggest that eIF4H/DRR-2 functions downstream of TOR, but in parallel to the S6K/PHA-4 pathway to mediate the lifespan effects of DR. Together, our findings reveal an important role for eIF4H/drr-2 in the TOR-mediated longevity responses to DR.
Celecoxib Extends C. Elegans Lifespan Via Inhibition of Insulin-like Signaling but Not Cyclooxygenase-2 Activity
Aging Cell. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21348927
One goal of aging research is to develop interventions that combat age-related illnesses and slow aging. Although numerous mutations have been shown to achieve this in various model organisms, only a handful of chemicals have been identified to slow aging. Here, we report that celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used to treat pain and inflammation, extends Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and delays the age-associated physiological changes, such as motor activity decline. Celecoxib also delays the progression of age-related proteotoxicity as well as tumor growth in C. elegans. Celecoxib was originally developed as a potent cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. However, the result from a structural-activity analysis demonstrated that the antiaging effect of celecoxib might be independent of its COX-2 inhibitory activity, as analogs of celecoxib that lack COX-2 inhibitory activity produce a similar effect on lifespan. Furthermore, we found that celecoxib acts directly on 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, a component of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling cascade to increase lifespan.
HSF-1 Regulators DDL-1/2 Link Insulin-like Signaling to Heat-Shock Responses and Modulation of Longevity
Cell. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22265419
Extended longevity is often correlated with increased resistance against various stressors. Insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS) is known to have a conserved role in aging and cellular mechanisms against stress. In C. elegans, genetic studies suggest that heat-shock transcription factor HSF-1 is required for IIS to modulate longevity. Here, we report that the activity of HSF-1 is regulated by IIS. This regulation occurs at an early step of HSF-1 activation via two HSF-1 regulators, DDL-1 and DDL-2. Inhibition of DDL-1/2 increases longevity and thermotolerance in an hsf-1-dependent manner. Furthermore, biochemical analyses suggest that DDL-1/2 negatively regulate HSF-1 activity by forming a protein complex with HSF-1. The formation of this complex (DHIC) is affected by the phosphorylation status of DDL-1. Both the formation of DHIC and the phosphorylation of DDL-1 are controlled by IIS. Our findings point to DDL-1/2 as a link between IIS and the HSF-1 pathway.