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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Tyvette S. Hilliard in JoVE
Alginate Hydrogels for Three-Dimensional Organ Culture of Ovaries and Oviducts
Shelby M. King*, Suzanne Quartuccio*, Tyvette S. Hilliard*, Kari Inoue, Joanna E. Burdette
Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois at Chicago
Culture of normal cells in their three-dimensional context represents an alternative method to study early events required for cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. This method is used to grow normal ovarian and oviductal cells to study early events in ovarian cancer formation.
Other articles by Tyvette S. Hilliard on PubMed
Three-dimensional Ovarian Organ Culture As a Tool to Study Normal Ovarian Surface Epithelial Wound Repair
Endocrinology. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19423762
Ovarian cancers are primarily derived from a single layer of epithelial cells surrounding the ovary, the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Ovarian surface proliferation is associated with ovulation and has been suggested to play a role in ovarian surface transformation and cancer progression. Aspects of ovarian surface repair after ovulation include proliferation, migration, and surface regeneration. To study ovarian surface repair, an organ culture system was developed that supports the proliferation, encapsulation, and repair of an artificially wounded surface. Wounded mouse ovaries embedded into an alginate hydrogel matrix have normal OSE cells as demonstrated by expression of cytokeratin 8, vimentin, N-cadherin, and a lack of E-cadherin. Normal OSE cells began proliferating and migrating around wounded surfaces after 1 d of culture. Organ cultures were propagated in medium supplemented with BSA and fetal bovine serum to determine optimal growth conditions. BSA cultured organs had OSE that proliferated significantly more than controls until d 4, whereas fetal bovine serum cultured organs had significantly more surface area encapsulated by OSE. Overall, a three-dimensional ovarian organ culture supports the growth of normal OSE in response to artificial wounding and provides a novel system for investigating wound repair as it relates to the possible role of ovulation and ovarian cancer.
The Impact of Ovulation on Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells: Evaluating Three Hypotheses Connecting Ovulation and Serous Ovarian Cancer
Endocrine-related Cancer. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21813729
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy affecting American women. Current hypotheses concerning the etiology of ovarian cancer propose that a reduction in the lifetime number of ovulations decreases ovarian cancer risk. Advanced serous carcinoma shares several biomarkers with fallopian tube epithelial cells, suggesting that some forms of ovarian carcinoma may originate in the fallopian tube. Currently, the impact of ovulation on the tubal epithelium is unknown. In CD1 mice, ovulation did not increase tubal epithelial cell (TEC) proliferation as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining as compared to unstimulated animals. In superovulated mice, an increase in the number of pro-inflammatory macrophages was detected in the oviduct. Ovulation also increased levels of phospho-γH2A.X in TEC, indicating that these cells were susceptible to double-strand DNA breakage following ovulation. To determine which components of ovulation contributed to DNA damage in the fallopian tube, an immortalized baboon TEC cell line and a three-dimensional organ culture system for mouse oviduct and baboon fallopian tubes were developed. TEC did not proliferate or display increased DNA damage in response to the gonadotropins or estradiol alone in vitro. Oxidative stress generated by treatment with hydrogen peroxide or macrophage-conditioned medium increased DNA damage in TEC in culture. Ovulation may impact the fallopian tube epithelium by generating DNA damage and stimulating macrophage infiltration but does not increase proliferation through gonadotropin signaling.
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Inhibitors Induce Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells and Inhibit In-vivo Tumor Growth
Anti-cancer Drugs. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21878813
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among US women. Paclitaxel/carboplatin is the current drug therapy used to treat ovarian cancer, but most women develop drug resistance and recurrence of the disease, necessitating alternative strategies for treatment. A possible molecular target for cancer therapy is glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a downstream kinase in the Wnt signaling pathway that is overexpressed in serous ovarian cancer. Novel maleimide-based GSK3β inhibitors (GSK3βi) were synthesized, selected, and tested in vitro using SKOV3 and OVCA432 serous ovarian cancer cell lines. From a panel of 10 inhibitors, GSK3βi 9ING41 was found to be the most effective in vitro. 9ING41 induced apoptosis as indicated by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-positive nuclear condensation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. The mechanism for apoptosis was through caspase-3 cleavage. GSK3βi upregulated phosphorylation of the inhibitory serine residue of GSK3β in OVCA432 and SKOV3 cell lines and also inhibited phosphorylation of the downstream target glycogen synthase. An in-vivo xenograft study using SKOV3 cells demonstrated that tumor progression was hindered by 9ING41 in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose for 9ING41 was greater than 500 mg/kg in rats. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed 9ING41 to have a bioavailability of 4.5% and to be well distributed in tissues. Therefore, GSK3β inhibitors alone or in combination with existing drugs may hinder the growth of serous ovarian cancers.