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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (12)
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- Current Opinion in Immunology
- Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
- Advances in Immunology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Molecular Cell
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Biochemical Society Transactions
- Nature Immunology
Articles by Uttiya Basu in JoVE
Recombinant Retroviral Production and Infection of B Cells
Celia Keim1, Veronika Grinstein1, Uttiya Basu1,2
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 2Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University
An efficient system of structure and function analysis of a gene in an ex vivo culture of splenic B-lymphocytes is described. This method takes advantage of recombinant retroviral production in a helper free, ecotrophic packaging cell line. Stable, heritable expression of a gene of interest within primary lymphocytes is achieved leading to generation of surface antibodies on B cells undergoing class switch recombination.
Other articles by Uttiya Basu on PubMed
Phosphorylation of Mammalian Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 6 and Its Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Homologue Tif6p: Evidence That Phosphorylation of Tif6p Regulates Its Nucleocytoplasmic Distribution and is Required for Yeast Cell Growth
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12917340
The synthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires Tif6p, the yeast homologue of mammalian eukaryotic translation initiation factor 6 (eIF6). In the present work, we have isolated a protein kinase from rabbit reticulocyte lysates on the basis of its ability to phosphorylate recombinant human eIF6. Mass spectrometric analysis as well as antigenic properties of the purified kinase identified it as casein kinase I. The site of in vitro phosphorylation, which is highly conserved from yeast to mammals, was identified as the serine residues at positions 174 (major site) and 175 (minor site). The homologous yeast protein Tif6p was also phosphorylated in vivo in yeast cells. Mutation of Tif6p at serine-174 to alanine reduced phosphorylation drastically and caused loss of cell growth and viability. When both Ser-174 and Ser-175 were mutated to alanine, phosphorylation of Tif6p was completely abolished. Furthermore, while wild-type Tif6p was distributed both in nuclei and the cytoplasm of yeast cells, the mutant Tif6p (with Ser174Ala and Ser175Ala) became a constitutively nuclear protein. These results suggest that phosphorylatable Ser-174 and Ser-175 play a critical role in the nuclear export of Tif6p.
Nature. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16251902
Antibodies, which are produced by B-lineage cells, consist of immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chains that have amino-terminal variable regions and carboxy-terminal constant regions. In response to antigens, B cells undergo two types of genomic alterations to increase antibody diversity. Affinity for antigen can be increased by introduction of point mutations into IgH and IgL variable regions by somatic hypermutation. In addition, antibody effector functions can be altered by changing the expressed IgH constant region exons through IgH class switch recombination (CSR). Somatic hypermutation and CSR both require the B-cell-specific activation-induced cytidine deaminase protein (AID), which initiates these reactions through its single-stranded (ss)DNA-specific cytidine deaminase activity. In biochemical assays, replication protein A (RPA), a ssDNA-binding protein, associates with phosphorylated AID from activated B cells and enhances AID activity on transcribed double-stranded (ds)DNA containing somatic hypermutation or CSR target sequences. This AID-RPA association, which requires phosphorylation, may provide a mechanism for allowing AID to access dsDNA targets in activated B cells. Here we show that AID from B cells is phosphorylated on a consensus protein kinase A (PKA) site and that PKA is the physiological AID kinase. Thus, AID from non-lymphoid cells can be functionally phosphorylated by recombinant PKA to allow interaction with RPA and promote deamination of transcribed dsDNA substrates. Moreover, mutation of the major PKA phosphorylation site of AID preserves ssDNA deamination activity, but markedly reduces RPA-dependent dsDNA deamination activity and severely impairs the ability of AID to effect CSR in vivo. We conclude that PKA has a critical role in post-translational regulation of AID activity in B cells.
Current Opinion in Immunology. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16464563
Somatic hypermutation and class-switch-recombination are initiated by the deamination of deoxycytosine in DNA by activation-induced-deaminase, AID. Recently, there has been much research into how AID targets double-stranded DNA in sub-regions of Ig genes, the involvement of co-factors and posttranslational modifications in this process, the co-option of DNA 'repair' mechanisms and AID evolution.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17338181
Immunoglobulin gene diversification by somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination (CSR), and gene conversion is dependent upon activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID is a single-stranded DNA specific cytidine deaminase that is expressed primarily in activated mature B lymphocytes. AID appears to catalyze DNA cytidine deamination of immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light chain (IgL) variable region (V) exons and IgH switch (S) region sequences to initiate, respectively, IgH and IgL somatic hypermutation (SHM) and IgH class switch recombination (CSR). Here, we will discuss the implications of recent studies that demonstrate the role of AID phosphorylation in augmenting AID activity with respect to these two processes.
Advances in Immunology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17560275
To mount an optimum immune response, mature B lymphocytes can change the class of expressed antibody from IgM to IgG, IgA, or IgE through a recombination/deletion process termed immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR). CSR requires the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which has been shown to employ single-stranded DNA as a substrate in vitro. IgH CSR occurs within and requires large, repetitive sequences, termed S regions, which are parts of germ line transcription units (termed "C(H) genes") that are composed of promoters, S regions, and individual IgH constant region exons. CSR requires and is directed by germ line transcription of participating C(H) genes prior to CSR. AID deamination of cytidines in S regions appears to lead to S region double-stranded breaks (DSBs) required to initiate CSR. Joining of two broken S regions to complete CSR exploits the activities of general DNA DSB repair mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss our current knowledge of the function of S regions, germ line transcription, AID, and DNA repair in CSR. We present a model for CSR in which transcription through S regions provides DNA substrates on which AID can generate DSB-inducing lesions. We also discuss how phosphorylation of AID may mediate interactions with cofactors that facilitate access to transcribed S regions during CSR and transcribed variable regions during the related process of somatic hypermutation (SHM). Finally, in the context of this CSR model, we further discuss current findings that suggest synapsis and joining of S region DSBs during CSR have evolved to exploit general mechanisms that function to join widely separated chromosomal DSBs.
The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae 60 S Ribosome Biogenesis Factor Tif6p is Regulated by Hrr25p-mediated Phosphorylation
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18256024
The biosynthesis of 60 S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires Tif6p, the yeast homologue of mammalian eIF6. This protein is necessary for the formation of 60 S ribosomal subunits because it is essential for the processing of 35 S pre-rRNA to the mature 25 S and 5.8 S rRNAs. In the present work, using molecular genetic and biochemical analyses, we show that Hrr25p, an isoform of yeast casein kinase I, phosphorylates Tif6p both in vitro and in vivo. Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of in vitro phosphorylated Tif6p by Hrr25p and (32)P-labeled Tif6p isolated from yeast cells followed by mass spectrometric analysis revealed that phosphorylation occurred on a single tryptic peptide at Ser-174. Sucrose gradient fractionation and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that a small but significant fraction of Hrr25p is bound to 66 S preribosomal particles that also contain bound Tif6p. Depletion of Hrr25p from a conditional yeast mutant that fails to phosphorylate Tif6p was unable to process pre-rRNAs efficiently, resulting in significant reduction in the formation of 25 S rRNA. These results along with our previous observations that phosphorylatable Ser-174 is required for yeast cell growth and viability, suggest that Hrr25p-mediated phosphorylation of Tif6p plays a critical role in the biogenesis of 60 S ribosomal subunits in yeast cells.
Molecular Cell. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18951095
Interaction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) with replication protein A (RPA) has been proposed to promote AID access to transcribed double-stranded (ds) DNA during immunoglobulin light chain and heavy chain class switch recombination (CSR). Mouse AID (mAID) interaction with RPA and transcription-dependent dsDNA deamination in vitro requires protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation at serine 38 (S38), and normal mAID CSR activity depends on S38. However, zebrafish AID (zAID) catalyzes robust CSR in mouse cells despite lacking an S38-equivalent PKA site. Here, we show that aspartate 44 (D44) in zAID provides similar in vitro and in vivo functionality as mAID S38 phosphorylation. Moreover, introduction of a PKA site into a zAID D44 mutant made it PKA dependent for in vitro activities and restored normal CSR activity. Based on these findings, we generated mAID mutants that similarly function independently of S38 phosphorylation. Comparison of bony fish versus amphibian and mammalian AIDs suggests evolutionary divergence from constitutive to PKA-regulated RPA/AID interaction.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19010772
The assembled immunoglobulin genes in the B cells of mice and humans are altered by distinct processes known as class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation, leading to diversification of the antibody repertoire. These two DNA modification processes are initiated by the B cell-specific protein factor activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID is post-translationally modified by phosphorylation at multiple sites, although functional significance during CSR has been implicated only for phosphorylation at serine-38 (S38). Although multiple laboratories have demonstrated that AID function is regulated via phosphorylation at S38, the precise biological role of S38 phosphorylation has been a topic of debate. Here, we discuss our interpretation of the significance of AID regulation via phosphorylation and also discuss how this form of AID regulation may have evolved in higher organisms.
Integrity of the AID Serine-38 Phosphorylation Site is Critical for Class Switch Recombination and Somatic Hypermutation in Mice
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19196992
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a single-stranded (ss) DNA-specific cytidine deaminase that initiates Ig heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) and Ig somatic hypermutation (SHM) by deaminating cytidines within, respectively, IgH switch (S) regions and Ig variable region (V) exons. AID that is phosphorylated on serine residue 38 interacts with replication protein A (RPA), a ssDNA binding protein, to promote deamination of transcribed double-stranded DNA in vitro, which, along with other evidence, suggests that AID may similarly gain access to transcribed S regions and V exons in vivo. However, the physiological role of AID phosphorylation at serine residue 38 (S38), and even the requirement for the S38 residue, with respect to CSR or SHM has been debated. To address this issue, we used gene targeting to generate an endogenous mouse AID locus that produces AID in which S38 is substituted with alanine (AID(S38A)), a mutant form of AID that retains similar catalytic activity on ssDNA as WT AID (AID(WT)). B cells homozygous for the AID(S38A) mutation show substantially impaired CSR and SHM, correlating with inability of AID(S38A) to interact with endogenous RPA. Moreover, mice haploinsufficient for AID(S38A) have even more severely impaired CSR when compared with mice haploinsufficient for AID(WT), with CSR levels reduced to nearly background levels. These results unequivocally demonstrate that integrity of the AID S38 phosphorylation site is required for normal CSR and SHM in mice and strongly support a role for AID phosphorylation at S38 and RPA interaction in regulating CSR and SHM.
Regulation of Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase DNA Deamination Activity in B-cells by Ser38 Phosphorylation
Biochemical Society Transactions. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19442251
Human and mouse Ig genes are diversified in mature B-cells by distinct processes known as Ig heavy-chain CSR (class switch recombination) and Ig variable-region exon SHM (somatic hypermutation). These DNA-modification processes are initiated by AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase), a DNA cytidine deaminase predominantly expressed in activated B-cells. AID is post-transcriptionally regulated via multiple mechanisms, including microRNA regulation, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, ubiquitination and phosphorylation. Among these regulatory processes, AID phosphorylation at Ser(38) has been a focus of particularly intense study and debate. In the present paper, we discuss recent biochemical and mouse genetic studies that begin to elucidate the functional significance of AID Ser(38) phosphorylation in the context of the evolution of this mode of AID regulation and the potential roles that it may play in activated B-cells during a normal immune response.
The RNA Exosome Targets the AID Cytidine Deaminase to Both Strands of Transcribed Duplex DNA Substrates
Cell. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21255825
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) and Ig variable region somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B lymphocytes by deaminating cytidines on template and nontemplate strands of transcribed DNA substrates. However, the mechanism of AID access to the template DNA strand, particularly when hybridized to a nascent RNA transcript, has been an enigma. We now implicate the RNA exosome, a cellular RNA-processing/degradation complex, in targeting AID to both DNA strands. In B lineage cells activated for CSR, the RNA exosome associates with AID, accumulates on IgH switch regions in an AID-dependent fashion, and is required for optimal CSR. Moreover, both the cellular RNA exosome complex and a recombinant RNA exosome core complex impart robust AID- and transcription-dependent DNA deamination of both strands of transcribed SHM substrates in vitro. Our findings reveal a role for noncoding RNA surveillance machinery in generating antibody diversity.
The Transcription Factor BATF Controls the Global Regulators of Class-switch Recombination in Both B Cells and T Cells
Nature Immunology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21572431
The transcription factor BATF controls the differentiation of interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) by regulating expression of the transcription factor RORγt itself and RORγt target genes such as Il17. Here we report the mechanism by which BATF controls in vivo class-switch recombination (CSR). In T cells, BATF directly controlled expression of the transcription factors Bcl-6 and c-Maf, both of which are needed for development of follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells). Restoring T(FH) cell activity to Batf(-/-) T cells in vivo required coexpression of Bcl-6 and c-Maf. In B cells, BATF directly controlled the expression of both activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and of germline transcripts of the intervening heavy-chain region and constant heavy-chain region (I(H)-C(H)). Thus, BATF functions at multiple hierarchical levels in two cell types to globally regulate switched antibody responses in vivo.