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Articles by Victor D. Varner in JoVE
מעקב אחר דפורמציות המוךפו"גנטי שהולך רקמות בעובר צ'יק מוקדם
Benjamen A. Filas1, Victor D. Varner1, Dmitry A. Voronov1,2, Larry A. Taber1,3
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, 2Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University
מאמר זה מתאר תיוג פני השטח
Other articles by Victor D. Varner on PubMed
Development (Cambridge, England). Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20929950
During its earliest stages, the avian embryo is approximately planar. Through a complex series of folds, this flat geometry is transformed into the intricate three-dimensional structure of the developing organism. Formation of the head fold (HF) is the first step in this cascading sequence of out-of-plane tissue folds. The HF establishes the anterior extent of the embryo and initiates heart, foregut and brain development. Here, we use a combination of computational modeling and experiments to determine the physical forces that drive HF formation. Using chick embryos cultured ex ovo, we measured: (1) changes in tissue morphology in living embryos using optical coherence tomography (OCT); (2) morphogenetic strains (deformations) through the tracking of tissue labels; and (3) regional tissue stresses using changes in the geometry of circular wounds punched through the blastoderm. To determine the physical mechanisms that generate the HF, we created a three-dimensional computational model of the early embryo, consisting of pseudoelastic plates representing the blastoderm and vitelline membrane. Based on previous experimental findings, we simulated the following morphogenetic mechanisms: (1) convergent extension in the neural plate (NP); (2) cell wedging along the anterior NP border; and (3) autonomous in-plane deformations outside the NP. Our numerical predictions agree relatively well with the observed morphology, as well as with our measured stress and strain distributions. The model also predicts the abnormal tissue geometries produced when development is mechanically perturbed. Taken together, the results suggest that the proposed morphogenetic mechanisms provide the main tissue-level forces that drive HF formation.