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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Methods (San Diego, Calif.)
- Developmental Biology
- Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
- PloS One
- Journal of Cell Science
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Articles by Weili Cai in JoVE
Antikor Etiketleme Drosophila politen Kromozom kabak hazırlanması
Weili Cai, Ye Jin, Jack Girton, Jorgen Johansen, Kristen M. Johansen
Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University
Bu video protokol hazırlamak için Johansen laboratuvarında kullanılan kabak tekniği göstermektedir.
Other articles by Weili Cai on PubMed
Nanotechnology. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 21727384
Hexagonal wurtzite structure Tb(OH)(3) nanowires with a uniform diameter of about 70-80 nm and lengths of up to several micrometres have been synthesized on a large scale via a hydrothermal treatment based on the use of an anodic aluminium membrane as the template. Aligned Tb(OH)(3) nanowire arrays can be obtained by dissolving the template. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. The PL spectrum of Tb(OH)(3) under 350 nm excitation consists of four main peaks at 489.9, 543, 584 and 621 nm, among which that for the electric dipole transition (5)D(4) to (7)F(5) (at 543 nm) is the strongest. Furthermore, a preliminary suggestion for the mechanism of growth of the Tb(OH)(3) nanowires using the hydrothermal-template synthesis technique has been proposed.
Development (Cambridge, England). Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18199578
Histones are subject to numerous post-translational modifications that correlate with the state of higher-order chromatin structure and gene expression. However, it is not clear whether changes in these epigenetic marks are causative regulatory factors in chromatin structure changes or whether they play a mainly reinforcing or maintenance role. In Drosophila phosphorylation of histone H3S10 in euchromatic chromatin regions by the JIL-1 tandem kinase has been implicated in counteracting heterochromatization and gene silencing. Here we show, using a LacI-tethering system, that JIL-1 mediated ectopic histone H3S10 phosphorylation is sufficient to induce a change in higher-order chromatin structure from a condensed heterochromatin-like state to a more open euchromatic state. This effect was absent when a ;kinase dead' LacI-JIL-1 construct without histone H3S10 phosphorylation activity was expressed. Instead, the 'kinase dead' construct had a dominant-negative effect, leading to a disruption of chromatin structure that was associated with a global repression of histone H3S10 phosphorylation levels. These findings provide direct evidence that the epigenetic histone tail modification of H3S10 phosphorylation at interphase can function as a causative regulator of higher-order chromatin structure in Drosophila in vivo.
RNA Polymerase II-mediated Transcription at Active Loci Does Not Require Histone H3S10 Phosphorylation in Drosophila
Development (Cambridge, England). Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18667461
JIL-1 is the major kinase controlling the phosphorylation state of histone H3S10 at interphase in Drosophila. In this study, we used three different commercially available histone H3S10 phosphorylation antibodies, as well as an acid-free polytene chromosome squash protocol that preserves the antigenicity of the histone H3S10 phospho-epitope, to examine the role of histone H3S10 phosphorylation in transcription under both heat shock and non-heat shock conditions. We show that there is no redistribution or upregulation of JIL-1 or histone H3S10 phosphorylation at transcriptionally active puffs in such polytene squash preparations after heat shock treatment. Furthermore, we provide evidence that heat shock-induced puffs in JIL-1 null mutant backgrounds are strongly labeled by antibody to the elongating form of RNA polymerase II (Pol IIoser2), indicating that Pol IIoser2 is actively involved in heat shock-induced transcription in the absence of histone H3S10 phosphorylation. This is supported by the finding that there is no change in the levels of Pol IIoser2 in JIL-1 null mutant backgrounds compared with wild type. mRNA from the six genes that encode the major heat shock protein in Drosophila, Hsp70, is transcribed at robust levels in JIL-1 null mutants, as directly demonstrated by qRT-PCR. Taken together, these data are inconsistent with the model that Pol II-dependent transcription at active loci requires JIL-1-mediated histone H3S10 phosphorylation, and instead support a model in which transcriptional defects in the absence of histone H3S10 phosphorylation are a result of structural alterations of chromatin.
The COOH-terminal Domain of the JIL-1 Histone H3S10 Kinase Interacts with Histone H3 and is Required for Correct Targeting to Chromatin
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18819909
The JIL-1 histone H3S10 kinase in Drosophila localizes specifically to euchromatic interband regions of polytene chromosomes and is enriched 2-fold on the male X chromosome. JIL-1 can be divided into four main domains including an NH(2)-terminal domain, two separate kinase domains, and a COOH-terminal domain. Our results demonstrate that the COOH-terminal domain of JIL-1 is necessary and sufficient for correct chromosome targeting to autosomes but that both COOH- and NH(2)-terminal sequences are necessary for enrichment on the male X chromosome. We furthermore show that a small 53-amino acid region within the COOH-terminal domain can interact with the tail region of histone H3, suggesting that this interaction is necessary for the correct chromatin targeting of the JIL-1 kinase. Interestingly, our data indicate that the COOH-terminal domain alone is sufficient to rescue JIL-1 null mutant polytene chromosome defects including those of the male X chromosome. Nonetheless, we also found that a truncated JIL-1 protein which was without the COOH-terminal domain but retained histone H3S10 kinase activity was able to rescue autosome as well as partially rescue male X polytene chromosome morphology. Taken together these findings indicate that JIL-1 may participate in regulating chromatin structure by multiple and partially redundant mechanisms.
Polytene Chromosome Squash Methods for Studying Transcription and Epigenetic Chromatin Modification in Drosophila Using Antibodies
Methods (San Diego, Calif.). Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19272452
The giant polytene chromosomes from Drosophila third instar larval salivary glands provide an important model system for studying the architectural changes in chromatin morphology associated with the process of transcription initiation and elongation. Especially, analysis of the heat shock response has proved useful in correlating chromatin structure remodeling with transcriptional activity. An important tool for such studies is the labeling of polytene chromosome squash preparations with antibodies to the enzymes, transcription factors, or histone modifications of interest. However, in any immunohistochemical experiment there will be advantages and disadvantages to different methods of fixation and sample preparation, the relative merits of which must be balanced. Here we provide detailed protocols for polytene chromosome squash preparation and discuss their relative pros and cons in terms of suitability for reliable antibody labeling and preservation of high resolution chromatin structure.
Developmental Biology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19632217
The chromodomain protein, Chromator, has been shown to have multiple functions that include regulation of chromatin structure as well as coordination of muscle remodeling during metamorphosis depending on the developmental context. In this study we show that mitotic neuroblasts from brain squash preparations from larvae heteroallelic for the two Chromator loss-of-function alleles Chro(71) and Chro(612) have severe microtubule spindle and chromosome segregation defects that were associated with a reduction in brain size. The microtubule spindles formed were incomplete, unfocused, and/or without clear spindle poles and at anaphase chromosomes were lagging and scattered. Time-lapse analysis of mitosis in S2 cells depleted of Chromator by RNAi treatment suggested that the lagging and scattered chromosome phenotypes were caused by incomplete alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate, possibly due to a defective spindle-assembly checkpoint, as well as of frayed and unstable microtubule spindles during anaphase. Expression of full-length Chromator transgenes under endogenous promoter control restored both microtubule spindle morphology as well as brain size strongly indicating that the observed mutant defects were directly attributable to lack of Chromator function.
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19890914
We have used a yeast two-hybrid interaction assay to identify Asator, a tau-tubulin kinase homolog in Drosophila that interacts directly with the spindle matrix protein Megator. Using immunocytochemical labeling by an Asator-specific mAb as well as by transgenic expression of a GFP-labeled Asator construct, we show that Asator is localized to the cytoplasm during interphase but redistributes to the spindle region during mitosis. Determination of transcript levels using qRT-PCR suggested that Asator is expressed throughout development but at relatively low levels. By P-element excision, we generated a null or strong hypomorphic Asator(exc) allele that resulted in complete adult lethality when homozygous, indicating that Asator is an essential gene. That the observed lethality was caused by impaired Asator function was further supported by the partial restoration of viability by transgenic expression of Asator-GFP in the Asator(exc) homozygous mutant background. The finding that Asator localizes to the spindle region during mitosis and directly can interact with Megator suggests that its kinase activity may be involved in regulating microtubule dynamics and microtubule spindle function.
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20386606
The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR)3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR)3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR)3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR)3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR)3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR)3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR)3-9 and JIL-1.
JIL-1 and Su(var)3-7 Interact Genetically and Counteract Each Other's Effect on Position-effect Variegation in Drosophila
Genetics. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20457875
The essential JIL-1 histone H3S10 kinase is a key regulator of chromatin structure that functions to maintain euchromatic domains while counteracting heterochromatization and gene silencing. In the absence of the JIL-1 kinase, two of the major heterochromatin markers H3K9me2 and HP1a spread in tandem to ectopic locations on the chromosome arms. Here we address the role of the third major heterochromatin component, the zinc-finger protein Su(var)3-7. We show that the lethality but not the chromosome morphology defects associated with the null JIL-1 phenotype to a large degree can be rescued by reducing the dose of the Su(var)3-7 gene and that Su(var)3-7 and JIL-1 loss-of-function mutations have an antagonistic and counterbalancing effect on position-effect variegation (PEV). Furthermore, we show that in the absence of JIL-1 kinase activity, Su(var)3-7 gets redistributed and upregulated on the chromosome arms. Reducing the dose of the Su(var)3-7 gene dramatically decreases this redistribution; however, the spreading of H3K9me2 to the chromosome arms was unaffected, strongly indicating that ectopic Su(var)3-9 activity is not a direct cause of lethality. These observations suggest a model where Su(var)3-7 functions as an effector downstream of Su(var)3-9 and H3K9 dimethylation in heterochromatic spreading and gene silencing that is normally counteracted by JIL-1 kinase activity.
The Chromodomain-containing NH(2)-terminus of Chromator Interacts with Histone H1 and is Required for Correct Targeting to Chromatin
Chromosoma. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22203189
The chromodomain protein, Chromator, can be divided into two main domains, a NH(2)-terminal domain (NTD) containing the chromodomain (ChD) and a COOH-terminal domain (CTD) containing a nuclear localization signal. During interphase Chromator is localized to chromosomes; however, during cell division Chromator redistributes to form a macro molecular spindle matrix complex together with other nuclear proteins that contribute to microtubule spindle dynamics and proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. It has previously been demonstrated that the CTD is sufficient for targeting Chromator to the spindle matrix. In this study, we show that the NTD domain of Chromator is required for proper localization to chromatin during interphase and that chromosome morphology defects observed in Chromator hypomorphic mutant backgrounds can be largely rescued by expression of this domain. Furthermore, we show that the ChD domain can interact with histone H1 and that this interaction is necessary for correct chromatin targeting. Nonetheless, that localization to chromatin still occurs in the absence of the ChD indicates that Chromator possesses a second mechanism for chromatin association and we provide evidence that this association is mediated by other sequences residing in the NTD. Taken together these findings suggest that Chromator's chromatin functions are largely governed by the NH(2)-terminal domain whereas functions related to mitosis are mediated mainly by COOH-terminal sequences.
The Epigenetic H3S10 Phosphorylation Mark is Required for Counteracting Heterochromatic Spreading and Gene Silencing in Drosophila Melanogaster
Journal of Cell Science. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22247192
The JIL-1 kinase localizes specifically to euchromatin interband regions of polytene chromosomes and is the kinase responsible for histone H3S10 phosphorylation at interphase. Genetic interaction assays with strong JIL-1 hypomorphic loss-of-function alleles have demonstrated that the JIL-1 protein can counterbalance the effect of the major heterochromatin components on position-effect variegation (PEV) and gene silencing. However, it is unclear whether this was a causative effect of the epigenetic H3S10 phosphorylation mark, or whether the effect of the JIL-1 protein on PEV was in fact caused by other functions or structural features of the protein. By transgenically expressing various truncated versions of JIL-1, with or without kinase activity, and assessing their effect on PEV and heterochromatic spreading, we show that the gross perturbation of polytene chromosome morphology observed in JIL-1 null mutants is unrelated to gene silencing in PEV and is likely to occur as a result of faulty polytene chromosome alignment and/or organization, separate from epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that the epigenetic H3S10 phosphorylation mark itself is necessary for preventing the observed heterochromatic spreading independently of any structural contributions from the JIL-1 protein.