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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (26)

Articles by Wenji Sun in JoVE

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Artificial Antigen Presenting Cell (aAPC) Mediated Activation and Expansion of Natural Killer T Cells

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland


JoVE 4333

Here we describe a method for activating and expanding human NKT cells from bulk T cell populations using artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC). The use of CD1d-based aAPC provides a standardized method for generating high numbers of functional NKT cells.

Other articles by Wenji Sun on PubMed

A New Steroidal Saponin from Tribulus Terrestris Linn

A new steroidal saponin containing six monosaccharides was obtained from the total plant of Tribulus terrestris and elucidated based on chemical spectroscopic analysis, especially on 2D-NMR technology as 26-0-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-22-methoxy-furostane-3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl(l --> 3)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl(l --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)]]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosy(l --> 2)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside.

TGF-beta(1) Gene Modified Immature Dendritic Cells Exhibit Enhanced Tolerogenicity but Induce Allograft Fibrosis in Vivo

Administration of donor-derived immature dendritic cells (DC) can prolong the survival of MHC-mismatched cardiac allografts. Genetic modification of DC by immunosuppressive molecules can enhance their potential tolerogenicity. In this study bone marrow derived immature DC were genetically modified by transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 by recombinant Ad. TGF-beta(1) gene modified immature DC (TGF-beta-DC) displayed a characteristic phenotype of immature DC, decreased ability to secrete interleukin 12, and reduced allostimulatory ability. TGF-beta-DC induced alloantigen-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness in vitro and in vivo, and Th2 cytokine polarization. mRNA expression of donor MHC class II (Ia(b)) and human TGF-beta(1) was detected in spleen and lymph nodes of the allogeneic recipients for 3 weeks after TGF-beta-DC infusion, indicating that microchimerism of TGF-beta-DC is exhibited in allogeneic recipients. In this murine cervical heterotopic heart transplantation model, the survival of the allograft in recipients intravenously infused with TGF-beta-DC 7 days before transplantation was greatly prolonged, and about 67% of cardiac grafts survived more than 40 days. Histological analysis of the allografts showed that the normal myocardial architecture was well preserved, accompanied by very little necrotic cells, but interstitial fibrosis replaced myocytes, and moderate collagen suffused the whole cardiac allograft in the recipients infused with TGF-beta-DC. mRNA expression of type III procollagen was markedly increased in the allografts of the recipients infused with TGF-beta-DC. Our results suggest that infusion of TGF-beta(1) gene modified immature DC prolongs the survival of the allograft through the effective induction of donor-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness. However, TGF-beta(1) expressed by gene modified immature DC can cause the fibrosis of the allografts, which may limit the application of this approach in the allograft transplantation.

A New Steroidal Saponin from Dioscorea Zingiberensis Wright

Two compounds were obtained from the rhizome of Dioscorea zingiberensis Wright. One of them was elucidated as dioscin, the other one was a new compound and characterized as Spirost-5-en-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, structure was determined on the basis 2D NMR spectroscopic technique and the result of acid hydrolysis.

[Power X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Materials Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae]

To identify Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, eight samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction method. We obtained the characteristic peaks and diffraction fuzzy figures for distinguishing Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae. The results showed that every medicine had its own character which could be well repeated. X-ray diffraction figure plays an important role in distinguishing Chinese materia medica with similar shape and properties, similar tissue texture or similar chemical composition. And X-ray diffraction figure may be used as one fingerprint method for Chinese herbal medicine.

Blockade of CD40 Pathway Enhances the Induction of Immune Tolerance by Immature Dendritic Cells Genetically Modified to Express Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 Immunoglobulin

Immature dendritic cells (DCs) have the tolerogenic potential to induce alloantigen-specific immune tolerance. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) gene-modified immature DCs have been shown to maintain their tolerogenicity and prolong allograft survival to some extent. We investigated whether blockade of CD40 pathway by anti-CD40 ligand (L) monoclonal antibody (mAb) could enhance the immune tolerance induction by immature DCs genetically modified to express CTLA4Ig (DC-CTLA4Ig).

Interferon-gamma is an Autocrine Mediator for Dendritic Cell Maturation

Maturation of dendritic cells (DC) is critical for efficient antigen presentation and initiation of an immune response. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is an important Th1 cytokine. In this study, we investigated the role of IFN-gamma in DC maturation using either IFN-gamma receptor deficient- or IFN-gamma overexpression-models. We showed that immature DC generated in vitro from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells produced low level of IFN-gamma. After LPS stimulation, DC produced more IFN-gamma, and IFN-gamma productions were at comparable levels among C57BL/6 mice-derived DC (C57BL/6 DC), wild-type 129 mice-derived DC (129 DC) and IFN-gamma receptor deficient 129 mice-derived DC (IFN-gammaR-/-DC). We found that IFN-gammaR-/-DC exhibited decreased expression of CD54, CD86, reduced capacity to secrete IL-1beta and IL-12p70, and impaired capacity to stimulate alloreactive T cells and to drive Th1 differentiation. Transfection of IFN-gamma gene into DC promoted DC to express higher CD40, CD54, CD80, CD86, CCR7 and I-Ab, secrete more IL-1beta and IL-12p70, and more potently activate both CD4 and CD8 T cells. These data suggest that IFN-gamma signaling pathway is important for the maturation of DC in an autocrine fashion.

IL-12p40-overexpressing Immature Dendritic Cells Induce T Cell Hyporesponsiveness in Vitro but Accelerate Allograft Rejection in Vivo: Role of NK Cell Activation and Interferon-gamma Production

Infusion of genetically modified dendritic cells (DC) expressing immunosuppressive molecules is a potential therapy for organ rejection. IL-12p70, a cytokine produced mainly by DC and macrophages, consists of two subunits, p40 and p35. IL-12p70 is an activator of T cells, while the IL-12p40 subunit serves as a natural antagonist for IL-12p70 action. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of IL-12p40 gene-modification on both the T-cell stimulatory activity of immature DC (imDC) and their ability to prolong cardiac allograft survival. IL-12p40 gene-modified imDC (DC-p40) exhibited a phenotype characteristic of imDC and displayed impaired T-cell allostimulatory ability in vitro. However, to our surprise, for murine vascularized heterotopic heart transplantation (HHT), administration of donor-derived DC-p40 7 days prior to transplantation did not prolong allograft survival but instead significantly exacerbated cardiac allograft rejection. Further study showed that DC-p40 augmented NK cell activity both in vitro and in vivo and enhanced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in vivo, which might be due to the increased IL-23 production by DC-p40. Our data suggested that although IL-12p40 gene-modified immature DC can induce T cell hyporesponsiveness in vitro, their ability to activate NK cells and induce IFN-gamma production counterbalances this, exacerbating cardiac allograft rejection. The unexpected effects of DC-p40 limit their value in promoting allograft survival in vivo and likely reflect the complexity of IL-12p40 biology.

[Studies on the Fingerprint and Quantitative Analyzes of Quercetin from Aster Tataricus]

To establish a qualitative and quantitative method with RP-HPLC for controlling the quality of Aster tataricus L. f.

[Study on HPLC Fingerprint of Herba Veronicae Dilatatae]

To establish HPLC fingerprint of Herba Veronicae Dilatatae.

Intratumoral Injection of Interferon-gamma Gene-modified Dendritic Cells Elicits Potent Antitumor Effects: Effective Induction of Tumor-specific CD8+ CTL Response

To examine the antitumor efficacy of intratumoral injection of interferon-gamma gene-modified dendritic cells (DC-IFN-gamma) in a B16 melanoma model and to investigate its related immunological mechanisms.

The Experimental Study of Cortex Eucommiae on Meridian Tropsim: the Distribution Study of Aucubin in Rat Tissues

Meridian tropism (MT) theory is a core principle of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theories and plays an essential role in instructing clinical pharmacy. The scientific explanation of MT theory will certainly further promote the reasonable, effective application of TCM. In view of the MT of Cortex Eucommiae (CE), aucubin (AU), the effective component of CE, was appointed and observed its distribution in rat tissues following a single intravenous (i.v.) dose. A simple, inexpensive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of AU in rat tissues. Acceptable intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy at high, medium and low concentration ranged from 0.56% to 4.18% and 0.73% to 4.53%, respectively. Good assay and extraction recoveries were obtained with a single and relatively fast precipitation protein step. The mean assay recovery and extraction recovery of AU were 94.7% and 90.9%, respectively. All tissues reached maximum AU level at 5 min post-dose. Considerable AU was present in kidney and liver. AU concentration was highest in kidney and remained much higher than that in other tissues over the experiment course. Lung, heart, spleen and testis were also detected to contain AU. The results closely conformed to the MT of CE and clearly demonstrated that AU was one of the material bases of the MT of CE.

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Two Compounds (forsythiaside and Forsythin) Isolated from Forsythia Suspensa

Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. has been widely used in traditional medicines in Asia to treat gonorrhoea, erysipelas, inflammation, pyrexia, ulcer and other diseases. Recently the investigation has been focused on the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of this plant. However, limited scientifically proven information is available. We isolated two compounds (forsythiaside and forsythin) from this plant. The aims of this investigation, therefore, were to assay antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of the two main and distinctive compounds isolated and to exploit antioxidants and antibacterial agents from natural compounds. The antioxidant activity was estimated using the 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity method and the in-vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated by microtitre plate method. Forsythiaside was found to possess strong antioxidant and antibacterial activity but forsythin was much weaker. Owing to these properties, the study can be further extended to exploit the possible application of forsythiaside as an alternative antioxidant and antibacterial agent of natural origin.

Co-administration of Radix Curcumae Alters the Tissue Distribution of Danshensu in Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae in Rabbits

The tissue distribution profile of danshensu, one of the bioactive components in Radix salviae miltiorrhiae, was investigated after oral administration of Radix salviae miltiorrhiae coupled with Radix curcumae in rabbits. Eighteen rabbits were evenly divided into 3 groups. Rabbits of the groups were orally administrated with carboxymethyl cellulose, Radix salviae miltiorrhiae (10.0 g/kg) and Radix salviae miltiorrhiae (10.0 g/kg) coupled with Radix curcumae (5.0 g/kg), respectively. High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionic trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) was used for the determination of danshensu in the tissues including heart, liver, kidney and brain. The statistical results demonstrated that the characteristic profiles of danshensu were c(kidney) > c(heart) > c(liver) > c(brain) and c(kidney) > c(brain) > c(liver) > c(heart) after administration of Radix salviae miltiorrhiae and Radix salviae miltiorrhiae coupled with Radix curcumae, respectively, indicating that Radix curcumae could obviously increase the concentration of danshensu in brain. This result would provide substantial foundation for the harmonizing effect of shi herb in a Chinese compound prescription.

Study of Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves and Roots of Scrophularia Ningpoensis

Two saponins: scrokoelziside A (1), scrokoelziside B (2), one iridoid glycoside, eurostoside (3), and two flavonoids: nepitrin (4) and homoplantaginin (5), were isolated from the leaves of Scrophularia ningpoensis for the first time. Moreover, eight known compounds: cane sugar (6), harpagide (7), aucubin (8), 6-O-methylcatalpol (9), harpagoside (10), angoroside C (11), beta-sitosterol (12) and beta-sitosterol glucoside (13) were isolated from the roots of S. ningpoensis. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of the leaves of S. ningpoensis and the 10 compounds (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) was studied in vitro against eight reference strains of bacteria by using the disc-diffusion method and micro-well dilution assay. The extracts of leaves and scrokoelziside A are effective against beta-haemolytic streptococci but had no effect against other strains. The extract of roots and other compounds showed no activity against all bacterial strains at the test concentration.

Separation and Purification of Triterpene Saponins from Roots of Radix Phytolaccae by High-speed Countercurrent Chromatography Coupled with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection

Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, high-speed countercurrent chromatography was successfully applied for the first time to separation and purification of four triterpene saponins including esculentoside A, B, C and D from roots of Radix Phytolaccae. The separation was performed with an optimized two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-methanol-water (4:4:2, v/v) using the lower phase as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min,. From 150 mg of crude extract 46.3 mg of esculentoside A, 21.8 mg of esculentoside B, 7.3 mg of esculentoside C, and 13.6 mg of esculentoside D were obtained at purities of 96.7%, 99.2%, 96.5% and 97.8%, respectively, as determined by HPLC analysis. The structures of the four triterpene saponins were identified by ESI-MS,(1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

Semi-Preparative Isolation and Purification of Three Tauro-Conjugated Cholic Acids from Pulvis Fellis Suis by HSCCC Coupled with ELSD Detection

Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was applied to the separation and purification of three tauro-conjugated cholic acids of taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), taurohyodeoxycholic acid (THDCA) and taurohyocholic acid (THCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (4:4:2:0.3, v/v/v/v) was selected for the one-step separation where the lower phase was used as the mobile phase in the head to tail elution mode. The revolution speed of the separation column, flow rate of the mobile phase and separation temperature were 800 rpm, 1.5 ml/min and 25°C respectively. From 100 mg of the crude extract, 10.2 mg of TCDCA, 11.8 mg of THDCA and 5.3 mg of THCA were obtained with the purity of 94.6%, 96.5% and 95.4%, respectively. in one step separation The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the structures of the three tauro-conjugated cholic acids were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Pulvis Fellis Suis Extract in Mice with Ulcerative Colitis

Pulvis Fellis Suis is used in folk medicines to treat intestinal diseases, acute pharyngitis, whooping cough and asthma in China. Although several reports indicate that Pulvis Fellis Suis display diverse biological activities, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-infusorian effects, its effects on ulcerative colitis have not been previously explored.

Protective Effect of Taurohyodeoxycholic Acid from Pulvis Fellis Suis on Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

Ulcerative colitis is a nonspecific inflammatory disorder characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leucocyte infiltration and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of taurohyodeoxycholic acid (THDCA) isolated from Pulvis Fellis Suis on acute ulcerative colitis model induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. The efficacy of THDCA was studied by macroscopical and histological scoring systems as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Serum levels, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were assayed by enzyme-linked immunoassay. The expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in the colons was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Treatment with THDCA in doses of 25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day and sulfasalazine in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day used as reference for 7 consecutive days after the induction of colitis, significantly decreased colonic MPO activity, TNF-α, IL-6 serum levels and the expression of COX-2 in colon compared with TNBS induced ulcerative colitis model group. Moreover, THDCA attenuated the macroscopic colonic damage and the histopathological changes induced by TNBS. All the effects of these parameters were comparable to that of the standard sulfasalazine, especially at the highest dose level. The results suggested that THDCA from Pulvis Fellis Suis has a protective effect in TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis which might be due to its anti-inflammatory activities, and that it may have therapeutic value in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease.

A Traditional Chinese Herbal Preparation, Er-Zhi-Wan, Prevent Ovariectomy-induced Osteoporosis in Rats

Er-Zhi-Wan (EZW), a classic Chinese formulation, which contains Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) and Herba Ecliptae (HE). EZW is widely used to prevent and treat various kidney diseases for its actions of nourishing the kidney and strengthening tendon and bone. Although recent reports indicate that EZW restrains osteoclastic bone resorption, its effects on the protection against define OVX-induced bone loss in mature rats have not been systematically investigated.

Isoforsythiaside, an Antioxidant and Antibacterial Phenylethanoid Glycoside Isolated from Forsythia Suspensa

The isolation, structural elucidation, antioxidant effect and antibacterial activity of isoforsythiaside, a novel phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from Forsythia suspensa, were described. The antioxidant activity was estimated using the 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity method and the in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the microtitre plate method. The results showed that this compound had strong activities. Owing to these properties, the study can be further extended to exploit for the possible application of isoforsythiaside as the alternative antioxidants and antibacterial agents from natural origin.

Preparative Isolation and Purification of Alkaloids from Picrasma Quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. by High-speed Countercurrent Chromatography

By using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:2:2:2, v/v/v/v), a high-speed counter-current chromatography technique was successfully used for isolation and purification of three alkaloids from Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. for the first time. A total of 22.1 mg of 3-methylcanthin-2,6-dione, 4.9 mg of 4-methoxy-5-hydroxycanthin-6-one and 1.2 mg of 1-mthoxycarbonyl-β-carboline were obtained from 100 mg of crude extract of Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. in less than 5 h, with purities of 89.30%, 98.32% and 98.19%, respectively. The target compounds were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF THREE GLYCINE-CONJUGATED CHOLIC ACIDS FROM PULVIS FELLIS SUIS BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH ELSD DETECTION

Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was developed for preparative isolation and purification of three glycine-conjugated cholic acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycohyodeoxycholic acid (GHDCA) and glycohyocholic acid (GHCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system consisted of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (65:30:10:1.5, v/v/v/v) by eluting the lower phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. The revolution speed of the separation column, flow rate of the mobile phase and separation temperature were 800 rpm, 2 ml/min and 25 °C, respectively. In a single operation, 33 mg of GCDCA, 38 mg of GHDCA and 23 mg of GHCA were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract with the purity of 95.65%, 96.72% and 96.63%, respectively, in one step separation. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the structures of the three glycine-conjugated cholic acids were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

Connecting the Dots: Artificial Antigen Presenting Cell-mediated Modulation of Natural Killer T Cells

Natural killer T (NKT) cells constitute an important subset of T cells that can both directly and indirectly mediate antitumor immunity. However, we and others have reported that cancer patients have a reduction in both NKT cell number and function. NKT cells can be stimulated and expanded with α-GalCer and cytokines and these expanded NKT cells retain their phenotype, remain responsive to antigenic stimulation, and display cytotoxic function against tumor cell lines. These data strongly favor the use of ex vivo expanded NKT cells in adoptive immunotherapy. NKT cell based-immunotherapy has been limited by the use of autologous antigen-presenting cells, which can vary substantially in their quantity and quality. A standardized system that relies on artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) could produce the stimulating effects of dendritic cell (DC) without the pitfalls of allo- or xenogeneic cells. In this review, we discuss the progress that has been made using CD1d-based aAPC and how this acellular antigen presenting system can be used in the future to enhance our understanding of NKT cell biology and to develop NKT cell-specific adoptive immunotherapeutic strategies.

Comparison of the Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Gentiana Macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana Straminea Maxim., and Identification of Their Active Constituents

Tibetan medicine get used to use the flowers of Gentiana straminea Maxim. to cure inflammation of stomach and intestines, hepatitis, cholecystitis, etc. The flowers of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. have been traditionally treated as an anti-inflammatory agent to clear heat in Mongolian medicine. In traditional Chinese medicine, Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. have also been used under the name "Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix" and prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions.

The Possible Mechanisms of Picrasma Quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. in the Treatment of Colitis Induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid in Mice

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn.(PQB) is used in folk medicines for the treatment of colds, upper respiratory infection, acute tonsillitis, acute gastroenteritis, bacillary dysentery and a variety of acute infectious diseases in Asia. Although recent reports indicate that PQB has antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects, its effects on colitis and its inhibitory mechanisms have not been previously reported. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the effects and the mode of action of the extract of Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn.(PQB) on a model of colitis in mice induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We induced mice colitis using TNBS/ethanol, then different doses of Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn.(PQB) extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) and sulfasalazine (500mg/kg/day) were administered by gavage for 7 days after the induction of colitis. The mice body weight, colonic wet weight, colonic lengths, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, macroscopic and histological colon injury were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were assayed by enzyme-linked immunoassay. The protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colons were determined by immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: PQB administration effectively prevented mice diarrhea, decreasing of the body weights, shortening of colon length and increasing of colon wet weight. Macroscopic and histological examinations also indicated that it was protected against colonic edema, ulceration and MPO activity elevation. Furthermore, PQB inhibited the abnormal secretions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-8. Additionally, administration of PQB effectively inhibited COX-2 and iNOS protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PQB has an anti-inflammatory effect on TNBS-induced colitis due to the down-regulations of the productions and expressions of inflammatory mediators, and that it may be a potential inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) drug candidate.

Antihypertensive Effects of Extract from Picrasma Quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICA RELEVANCE: Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. (PQB) is a widely used herbal medicine used for gastroenteritis, snakebite, infection and hypertension in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible antihypertensive mechanisms on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of the extract from Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn.

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