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In JoVE (2)
- स्पाइनल कॉर्ड इलैक्ट्रोफिजियोलॉजी
- कोशिकी सक्शन इलेक्ट्रोड निर्माण: स्पाइनल कॉर्ड इलैक्ट्रोफिजियोलॉजी द्वितीय
Other Publications (13)
- Brain Research
- Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
- The EMBO Journal
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cell Metabolism
- Cell Metabolism
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- Human Molecular Genetics
- Cell Metabolism
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Articles by William Alaynick in JoVE
स्पाइनल कॉर्ड इलैक्ट्रोफिजियोलॉजी
Allyn Meyer1, Benjamin W. Gallarda1,2, Samuel Pfaff1, William Alaynick1
1The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Gene Expression Laboratory, 2Biology Graduate Program, University of California San Diego - UCSD
नवजात electrophysiologic अध्ययन के लिए माउस रीढ़ की हड्डी के अलगाव का एक प्रदर्शन.
कोशिकी सक्शन इलेक्ट्रोड निर्माण: स्पाइनल कॉर्ड इलैक्ट्रोफिजियोलॉजी द्वितीय
Suresh Garudadri, Benjamin Gallarda, Samuel Pfaff, William Alaynick
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies
निर्माण और एक कोशिकी चूषण नवजात कृंतक रीढ़ की हड्डी डोरियों के electrophysiological रिकॉर्डिंग को मापने के लिए इस्तेमाल किया इलेक्ट्रोड के उपयोग का एक प्रदर्शन
Other articles by William Alaynick on PubMed
Brain Research. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15374756
Dopamine-deficient (DD) mice become hypophagic and die of starvation by 3 to 4 weeks of age unless dopamine is restored by daily treatment with l-3-4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa). We demonstrate here that DD mice mount qualitatively normal counter-regulatory blood glucose responses to insulin and 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG). However, unlike control mice, DD mice fail to eat in response to acute glucoprivation induced by insulin or 2-DG. They also have a severely blunted response to central administration of peptide YY (PYY). Viral-mediated restoration of dopamine synthesis to the central caudate putamen (CPu) of DD mice rescues feeding and survival. However, this treatment fails to restore insulin- and 2-DG-induced feeding despite normalizing feeding in response to food deprivation and PYY. Since dopamine signaling in the CPu is not sufficient for glucoprivation-induced feeding, we propose that this feeding behavior may be mediated by dopamine in an anatomically distinct brain region.
Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16051664
Macrophage activation is an essential cellular process underlying innate immunity, enabling the body to combat bacteria and other pathogens. In addition to host defense, activated macrophages play a central role in atherogenesis, autoimmunity, and a variety of inflammatory diseases. As members of the Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) program, we employed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to provide a comprehensive assessment of changes in expression of the 49 members of the murine nuclear receptor superfamily. In this study, we have identified a network of 28 nuclear receptors associated with the activation of bone marrow-derived macrophages by lipopolysaccharide or the prototypic cytokine interferon gamma. More than half of this network is deployed in three intricate and highly scripted temporal phases that are unique for each activator. Thus, early receptors whose expression peaks within 4 h after lipopolysaccharide exposure, such as glucocorticoid receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and neuronal growth factor 1B, are found as late rising markers of the interferon gamma cascade, occurring 16 h or later. The discovery of precise serial expression patterns reveals that macrophage activation is the product of an underlying process that impacts the genome within minutes and identifies a collection of new therapeutic targets for controlling inflammation by disruption of presumptive regulatory cascades.
The EMBO Journal. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16121196
Ataxin-1 is a neurodegenerative disorder protein whose glutamine-repeat expanded form causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) in humans and exerts cytotoxicity in Drosophila and mouse. We report here that the cytotoxicity caused by ataxin-1 is modulated by association with a related protein, Brother of ataxin-1 (Boat). Boat and ataxin-1 share a conserved AXH (ataxin-1 and HMG-box protein 1) domain, which is essential for both proteins' interactions with the transcriptional corepressor SMRT and its Drosophila homolog, SMRTER. The Boat-ataxin-1 interaction is mediated through multiple regions in both proteins, including a newly identified NBA (N-terminal region of Boat and ataxin-1) domain. We investigated the physiological relevance of the Boat-ataxin-1 interaction in Drosophila and discovered that a mutant ataxin-1-mediated eye defect is suppressed by ataxin-1's association with Boat. Correspondingly, in transgenic SCA1 mouse, Boat expression is greatly reduced in Purkinje cells, the primary targets of SCA1. Our study thus establishes that Boat is an in vivo binding partner of ataxin-1 whose altered expression in Purkinje cells may contribute to their degeneration in SCA1 animals.
Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Delta Promotes Very Low-density Lipoprotein-derived Fatty Acid Catabolism in the Macrophage
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16467150
Significant attention has focused on the role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, recent advances have identified triglyceride-rich lipoproteins [e.g., very LDL (VLDL)] as independent risk predictors for this disease. We have previously demonstrated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta, but not PPARgamma, is the major nuclear VLDL sensor in the macrophage, which is a crucial component of the atherosclerotic lesion. Here, we show that, in addition to beta-oxidation and energy dissipation, activation of PPARdelta by VLDL particles induces key genes involved in carnitine biosynthesis and lipid mobilization mediated by a recently identified TG lipase, transport secretion protein 2 (also named desnutrin, iPLA2zeta, and adipose triglyceride lipase), resulting in increased fatty acid catabolism. Unexpectedly, deletion of PPARdelta results in derepression of target gene expression, a phenotype similar to that of ligand activation, suggesting that unliganded PPARdelta suppresses fatty acid utilization through active repression, which is reversed upon ligand binding. This unique transcriptional mechanism assures a tight control of the homeostasis of VLDL-derived fatty acid and provides a therapeutic target for other lipid-related disorders, including dyslipidemia and diabetes, in addition to coronary artery disease.
Cell Metabolism. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17488637
Orphan nuclear receptor ERRalpha (NR3B1) is recognized as a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, but it is not known whether ERRalpha and other ERR isoforms play a broader role in cardiac energetics and function. We used genome-wide location analysis and expression profiling to appraise the role of ERRalpha and gamma (NR3B3) in the adult heart. Our data indicate that the two receptors, acting as nonobligatory heterodimers, target a common set of promoters involved in the uptake of energy substrates, production and transport of ATP across the mitochondrial membranes, and intracellular fuel sensing, as well as Ca(2+) handling and contractile work. Motif-finding algorithms assisted by functional studies indicated that ERR target promoters are enriched for NRF-1, CREB, and STAT3 binding sites. Our study thus reveals that the ERRs orchestrate a comprehensive cardiac transcriptional program and further suggests that modulation of ERR activities could be used to manage cardiomyopathies.
Cell Metabolism. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17618853
At birth, the heart undergoes a critical metabolic switch from a predominant dependence on carbohydrates during fetal life to a greater dependence on postnatal oxidative metabolism. This remains the principle metabolic state throughout life, although pathologic conditions such as heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy reactivate components of the fetal genetic program to increase carbohydrate utilization. Disruption of the ERRgamma gene (Esrrg), which is expressed at high levels in the fetal and postnatal mouse heart, blocks this switch, resulting in lactatemia, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and death during the first week of life. Genomic ChIP-on-chip and expression analysis identifies ERRgamma as both a direct and an indirect regulator of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genetic network that coordinates the postnatal metabolic transition. These findings reveal an unexpected and essential molecular genetic component of the oxidative metabolic gene program in the heart and highlight ERRgamma in the study of cardiac hypertrophy and failure.
Mitochondrion. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18375192
Lipid metabolism is a continuum from emulsification and uptake of lipids in the intestine to cellular uptake and transport to compartments such as mitochondria. Whether fats are shuttled into lipid droplets in adipose tissue or oxidized in mitochondria and peroxisomes depends on metabolic substrate availability, energy balance and endocrine signaling of the organism. Several members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily are lipid-sensing factors that affect all aspects of lipid metabolism. The physiologic actions of glandular hormones (e.g. thyroid, mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid), vitamins (e.g. vitamins A and D) and reproductive hormones (e.g. progesterone, estrogen and testosterone) and their cognate receptors are well established. The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) and liver X receptors (LXRs), acting in concert with PPARgamma Coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), have been shown to regulate insulin sensitivity and lipid handling. These receptors are the focus of intense pharmacologic studies to expand the armamentarium of small molecule ligands to treat diabetes and the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and obesity). Recently, additional partners of PGC-1alpha have moved to the forefront of metabolic research, the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). Although no endogenous ligands for these receptors have been identified, phenotypic analyses of knockout mouse models demonstrate an important role for these molecules in substrate sensing and handling as well as mitochondrial function.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18403711
Execution of motor behaviors relies on circuitries effectively integrating immediate sensory feedback to efferent pathways controlling muscle activity. It remains unclear how, during neuromuscular circuit assembly, sensory and motor projections become incorporated into tightly coordinated, yet functionally separate pathways. We report that, within axial nerves, establishment of discrete afferent and efferent pathways depends on coordinate signaling between coextending sensory and motor projections. These heterotypic axon-axon interactions require motor axonal EphA3/EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinases activated by cognate sensory axonal ephrin-A ligands. Genetic elimination of trans-axonal ephrin-A --> EphA signaling in mice triggers drastic motor-sensory miswiring, culminating in functional efferents within proximal afferent pathways. Effective assembly of a key circuit underlying motor behaviors thus critically depends on trans-axonal signaling interactions resolving motor and sensory projections into discrete pathways.
Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19965931
Energy production by oxidative metabolism in kidney, stomach, and heart, is primarily expended in establishing ion gradients to drive renal electrolyte homeostasis, gastric acid secretion, and cardiac muscle contraction, respectively. In addition to orchestrating transcriptional control of oxidative metabolism, the orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma), coordinates expression of genes central to ion homeostasis in oxidative tissues. Renal, gastric, and cardiac tissues subjected to genomic analysis of expression in perinatal ERRgamma null mice revealed a characteristic dysregulation of genes involved in transport processes, exemplified by the voltage-gated potassium channel, Kcne2. Consistently, ERRgamma null animals die during the first 72 h of life with elevated serum potassium, reductions in key gastric acid production markers, and cardiac arrhythmia with prolonged QT intervals. In addition, we find altered expression of several genes associated with hypertension in ERRgamma null mice. These findings suggest a potential role for genetic polymorphisms at the ERRgamma locus and ERRgamma modulators in the etiology and treatment of renal, gastric, and cardiac dysfunction.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20536927
We review an objective and automated method for analyzing locomotor electrophysiology data with improved speed and accuracy. Manipulating central pattern generator (CPG) organization via mouse genetics has been a critical advance in the study of this circuit. Better quantitative measures of the locomotor data will further enhance our understanding of CPG development and function. Current analysis methods aim to measure locomotor cycle period, rhythmicity, and left-right and flexor-extensor phase; however, these methods have not been optimized to detect or quantify subtle changes in locomotor output. Because multiple experiments suggest that development of the CPG is robust and that the circuit is able to achieve organized behavior by several means, we sought to find a more objective and sensitive method for quantifying locomotor output. Recently, a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) has been applied to spinal cord ventral root recordings with promising results. The CWT provides greater resolution of cycle period, phase, and rhythmicity, and is proving to be a superior technique in assessing subtle changes in locomotion due to genetic perturbations of the underlying circuitry.
Esrrg Functions in Early Branch Generation of the Ureteric Bud and is Essential for Normal Development of the Renal Papilla
Human Molecular Genetics. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21138943
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUTs) are common disorders of human development affecting the renal parechyma, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and urethra; they show evidence of shared genetic aetiology, although the molecular basis of this remains unknown in the majority of cases. Breakpoint mapping of a de novo, apparently balanced, reciprocal translocation associated with bilateral renal agenesis has implicated the gene encoding the nuclear steroid hormone receptor ESRRG as a candidate gene for CAKUT. Here we show that the Esrrg protein is detected throughout early ureteric ducts as cytoplasmic/sub-membranous staining; with nuclear localization seen in developing nephrons. In 14.5-16.5 dpc (days post-conception) mouse embryos, Esrrg localizes to the subset of ductal tissue within the kidney, liver and lung. The renal ductal expression becomes localized to renal papilla by 18.5 dpc. Perturbation of function was performed in embryonic mouse kidney culture using pooled siRNA to induce knock-down and a specific small-molecule agonist to induce aberrant activation of Esrrg. Both resulted in severe abnormality of early branching events of the ureteric duct. Mouse embryos with a targeted inactivation of Esrrg on both alleles (Esrrg(-/-)) showed agenesis of the renal papilla but normal development of the cortex and remaining medulla. Taken together, these results suggest that Esrrg is required for early branching events of the ureteric duct that occur prior to the onset of nephrogenesis. These findings confirm ESRRG as a strong candidate gene for CAKUT.
Cell Metabolism. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21356518
How type I skeletal muscle inherently maintains high oxidative and vascular capacity in the absence of exercise is unclear. We show that nuclear receptor ERRγ is highly expressed in type I muscle and, when transgenically expressed in anaerobic type II muscles (ERRGO mice), dually induces metabolic and vascular transformation in the absence of exercise. ERRGO mice show increased expression of genes promoting fat metabolism, mitochondrial respiration, and type I fiber specification. Muscles in ERRGO mice also display an activated angiogenic program marked by myofibrillar induction and secretion of proangiogenic factors, neovascularization, and a 100% increase in running endurance. Surprisingly, the induction of type I muscle properties by ERRγ does not involve PGC-1α. Instead, ERRγ genetically activates the energy sensor AMPK in mediating the metabovascular changes in ERRGO mice. Therefore, ERRγ represents a previously unrecognized determinant that specifies intrinsic vascular and oxidative metabolic features that distinguish type I from type II muscle.