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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (19)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The EMBO Journal
- Organic Letters
- The EMBO Journal
- Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society
- Chembiochem : a European Journal of Chemical Biology
- Organic Letters
- Nature Neuroscience
- Advances in Protein Chemistry
- Structure (London, England : 1993)
- Organic Letters
- Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
- Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society
- Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
- Molecular Cell
- BMB Reports
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Articles by William Barton in JoVE
Imagem interações proteína-proteína In vivo
Tom Seegar, William Barton
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University
Este protocolo descreve como imagem de interações proteína-proteína através de um ensaio de proximidade FRET-based.
Other articles by William Barton on PubMed
Expanding Pyrimidine Diphosphosugar Libraries Via Structure-based Nucleotidylyltransferase Engineering
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12374866
In vitro "glycorandomization" is a chemoenzymatic approach for generating diverse libraries of glycosylated biomolecules based on natural product scaffolds. This technology makes use of engineered variants of specific enzymes affecting metabolite glycosylation, particularly nucleotidylyltransferases and glycosyltransferases. To expand the repertoire of UDP/dTDP sugars readily available for glycorandomization, we now report a structure-based engineering approach to increase the diversity of alpha-d-hexopyranosyl phosphates accepted by Salmonella enterica LT2 alpha-d-glucopyranosyl phosphate thymidylyltransferase (E(p)). This article highlights the design rationale, determined substrate specificity, and structural elucidation of three "designed" mutations, illustrating both the success and unexpected outcomes from this type of approach. In addition, a single amino acid substitution in the substrate-binding pocket (L89T) was found to significantly increase the set of alpha-d-hexopyranosyl phosphates accepted by E(p) to include alpha-d-allo-, alpha-d-altro-, and alpha-d-talopyranosyl phosphate. In aggregate, our results provide valuable blueprints for altering nucleotidylyltransferase specificity by design, which is the first step toward in vitro glycorandomization.
The EMBO Journal. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12485986
Bacteria have developed complex strategies to detoxify and repair damage caused by reactive oxygen species. These compounds, produced during bacterial aerobic respiration as well as by the host immune system cells as a defense mechanism against the pathogenic microorganisms, have the ability to damage nucleic acids, proteins and phospholipid membranes. Here we describe the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ohr, a member of a recently discovered family of organic hydroperoxide resistance proteins. Ohr is a tightly folded homodimer, with a novel alpha/beta fold, and contains two active sites located at the monomer interface on opposite sides of the molecule. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrate that Ohr functions directly as a hydroperoxide reductase, converting both inorganic and organic hydroperoxides to less toxic metabolites. Site-directed mutagenesis confirms that the two conserved cysteines in each active site are essential for catalytic activity. We propose that the Ohr catalytic mechanism is similar to that of the structurally unrelated peroxiredoxins, directly utilizing highly reactive cysteine thiol groups to elicit hydroperoxide reduction.
Organic Letters. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12633109
[reaction: see text] In an effort to expand the scope of natural product in vitro glycorandomization (IVG), the substrate specificity of NovM was investigated. A test of four aglycon analogues and over 40 nucleotide sugars revealed NovM has a surprisingly stringent substrate specificity and provided only three new "unnatural" natural products. On the basis of the determined substrate specificity, an alternative to the sugar nucleotide biosynthetic dogma and a cautionary note for the general applicability of IVG are introduced.
The EMBO Journal. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12839991
The myelin-derived proteins Nogo, MAG and OMgp limit axonal regeneration after injury of the spinal cord and brain. These cell-surface proteins signal through multi-subunit neuronal receptors that contain a common ligand-binding glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored subunit termed the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR). By deletion analysis, we show that the binding of soluble fragments of Nogo, MAG and NgR to cell-surface NgR requires the entire leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region of NgR, but not other portions of the protein. Despite sharing extensive sequence similarity with NgR, two related proteins, NgR2 and NgR3, which we have identified, do not bind Nogo, MAG, OMgp or NgR. To investigate NgR specificity and multi-ligand binding, we determined the crystal structure of the biologically active ligand-binding soluble ectodomain of NgR. The molecule is banana shaped with elongation and curvature arising from eight LRRs flanked by an N-terminal cap and a small C-terminal subdomain. The NgR structure analysis, as well as a comparison of NgR surface residues not conserved in NgR2 and NgR3, identifies potential protein interaction sites important in the assembly of a functional signaling complex.
Neuron. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12925274
The semaphorins are a large group of extracellular proteins involved in a variety of processes during development, including neuronal migration and axon guidance. Their distinctive feature is a conserved 500 amino acid semaphorin domain, a ligand-receptor interaction module also present in plexins and scatter-factor receptors. We report the crystal structure of a secreted 65 kDa form of Semaphorin-3A (Sema3A), containing the full semaphorin domain. Unexpectedly, the semaphorin fold is a variation of the beta propeller topology. Analysis of the Sema3A structure and structure-based mutagenesis data identify the neuropilin binding site and suggest a potential plexin interaction site. Based on the structure, we present a model for the initiation of semaphorin signaling and discuss potential similarities with the signaling mechanisms of other beta propeller cell surface receptors, such as integrins and the LDL receptor.
Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14627744
The osmotically inducible protein OsmC, like its better-characterized homolog, the organic hydroperoxide protein Ohr, is involved in defense against oxidative stress caused by exposure to organic hydroperoxides. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli OsmC reported here reveals that the protein is a tightly folded domain-swapped dimer with two active sites located at the monomer interface on opposite sides of the molecule. We demonstrate that OsmC preferentially metabolizes organic hydroperoxides over inorganic hydrogen peroxide. On the basis of structural and enzymatic similarities, we propose that the OsmC catalytic mechanism is analogous to that of the Ohr proteins and of the structurally unrelated peroxiredoxins, directly using highly reactive cysteine thiol groups to elicit hydroperoxide reduction.
Chembiochem : a European Journal of Chemical Biology. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14695508
Synthesis of 1-Aza-8-thiabicyclo[4.2.1]nona-2,4-diene 8,8-dioxide and Its Conversion to a Strained Spirocycle Via Photoinduced SO2-N Bond Cleavage
Organic Letters. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15070325
A route to the doubly unsaturated bridgehead sultam 12 has been developed. When irradiated at 350 nm, this conjugated diene is isomerized via a two-photon process to the structurally novel spiro heterocycle 17 constituted of cyclobutene, thietane dioxide, and pyrrolidine rings. A probable mechanism for the generation of 17 and select reactions thereof are reported. [reaction: see text]
Nature Neuroscience. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15107857
The interactions between Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands regulate cell migration and axon pathfinding. The EphA receptors are generally thought to become activated by ephrin-A ligands, whereas the EphB receptors interact with ephrin-B ligands. Here we show that two of the most widely studied of these molecules, EphB2 and ephrin-A5, which have never been described to interact with each other, do in fact bind one another with high affinity. Exposure of EphB2-expressing cells to ephrin-A5 leads to receptor clustering, autophosphorylation and initiation of downstream signaling. Ephrin-A5 induces EphB2-mediated growth cone collapse and neurite retraction in a model system. We further show, using X-ray crystallography, that the ephrin-A5-EphB2 complex is a heterodimer and is architecturally distinct from the tetrameric EphB2-ephrin-B2 structure. The structural data reveal the molecular basis for EphB2-ephrin-A5 signaling and provide a framework for understanding the complexities of functional interactions and crosstalk between A- and B-subclass Eph receptors and ephrins.
Advances in Protein Chemistry. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15500859
Structure of the Angiopoietin-2 Receptor Binding Domain and Identification of Surfaces Involved in Tie2 Recognition
Structure (London, England : 1993). May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15893672
The angiopoietins comprise a small class of secreted glycoproteins that play crucial roles in the maturation and maintenance of the mammalian vascular and lymphatic systems. They exert their effects through a member of the tyrosine kinase receptor family, Tie2. Angiopoietin/Tie2 signaling is unique among tyrosine kinase receptor-ligand systems in that distinct angiopoietin ligands, although highly homologous, can function as agonists or antagonists in a context-dependent manner. In an effort to understand this molecular dichotomy, we have crystallized and determined the 2.4 A crystal structure of the Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) receptor binding region. The structure reveals a fibrinogen fold with a unique C-terminal P domain. Conservation analysis and structure-based mutagenesis identify a groove on the Ang2 molecular surface that mediates receptor recognition.
Biochemistry. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16101278
Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands are involved in various aspects of cell-cell communication during development, including axonal pathfinding in the nervous system and cell-cell interactions of the vascular endothelial cells. Recent structural studies revealed unique molecular features, not previously seen in any other receptor-ligand families, and explained many of the biochemical and signaling properties of Ephs and ephrins. However, unresolved questions remain regarding the potential oligomerization and clustering of these important signaling molecules. In this study, the biophysical properties and receptor-binding preferences of the extracellular domain of ephrin-B1 were investigated and its crystal structure was determined at 2.65 A resolution. Ephrin-B1 is a monomer both in solution and in the crystals, while it was previously shown that the closely related ephrin-B2 forms homodimers. The main structural difference between ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 is the conformation of the receptor-binding G-H loop and the partially disordered N-terminal tetramerization region of ephrin-B1. The G-H loop is structurally rigid in ephrin-B2 and adopts the same conformation in both the receptor-bound and unbound ligand, where it mediates receptor-independent homodimerization. In the ephrin-B1 structure, on the other hand, the G-H loop is not involved in any homotypic interactions and adopts a new, distinct conformation. The implications of the ephrin-B1 structure, in context of available ephrin-B1 mutagenesis data, for the mechanism of Eph-ephrin recognition and signaling initiation are discussed.
Palladium-catalyzed Cross-coupling of B-benzyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane to Furnish Methylene-linked Biaryls
Organic Letters. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16235936
[reaction: see text] Benzylboranes are noticeably uncommon partners within Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions. B-Benzyl-9-BBN was successfully coupled to a range of aryl/heteroaryl bromides, chlorides, and triflates to give pharmacologically important methylene-linked biaryl structures. Activated, deactivated, and sterically hindered substrates were successfully coupled in high yield using Pd(PPh(3))(4) or Pd(OAc)(2) with SPhos as the catalyst system.
Adam Meets Eph: an ADAM Substrate Recognition Module Acts As a Molecular Switch for Ephrin Cleavage in Trans
Cell. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16239146
The Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands are mediators of cell-cell communication. Cleavage of ephrin-A2 by the ADAM10 membrane metalloprotease enables contact repulsion between Eph- and ephrin-expressing cells. How ADAM10 interacts with ephrins in a regulated manner to cleave only Eph bound ephrin molecules remains unclear. The structure of ADAM10 disintegrin and cysteine-rich domains and the functional studies presented here define an essential substrate-recognition module for functional interaction of ADAM10 with the ephrin-A5/EphA3 complex. While ADAM10 constitutively associates with EphA3, the formation of a functional EphA3/ephrin-A5 complex creates a new molecular recognition motif for the ADAM10 cysteine-rich domain that positions the proteinase domain for effective ephrin-A5 cleavage. Surprisingly, the cleavage occurs in trans, with ADAM10 and its substrate being on the membranes of opposing cells. Our data suggest a simple mechanism for regulating ADAM10-mediated ephrin proteolysis, which ensures that only Eph bound ephrins are recognized and cleaved.
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16732286
The Tie receptor tyrosine kinases and their angiopoietin (Ang) ligands play central roles in developmental and tumor-induced angiogenesis. Here we present the crystal structures of the Tie2 ligand-binding region alone and in complex with Ang2. In contrast to prediction, Tie2 contains not two but three immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, which fold together with the three epidermal growth factor domains into a compact, arrowhead-shaped structure. Ang2 binds at the tip of the arrowhead utilizing a lock-and-key mode of ligand recognition-unique for a receptor kinase-where two complementary surfaces interact with each other with no domain rearrangements and little conformational change in either molecule. Ang2-Tie2 recognition is similar to antibody-protein antigen recognition, including the location of the ligand-binding site within the Ig fold. Analysis of the structures and structure-based mutagenesis provide insight into the mechanism of receptor activation and support the hypothesis that all angiopoietins interact with Tie2 in a structurally similar manner.
Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16823037
The advent of the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction phasing method has significantly accelerated crystal structure determination and has become the norm in protein crystallography. This method allows researchers to take advantage of the anomalous signal from diverse atoms, but the dominant method for derivative preparation is selenomethionine substitution. Several generally applicable, high-efficiency labeling protocols have been developed for use in the bacterial, yeast, and baculovirus/insect cell expression systems but not for mammalian tissue culture. As a large number of proteins of biomedical importance can only be produced in yields sufficient for X-ray diffraction experiments in mammalian expression systems, it becomes all the more important to develop such protocols. We therefore evaluated several variables that play roles in determining incorporation levels and report here a simple protocol for selenomethionine modification of proteins in mammalian cells routinely yielding >90% labeling efficiency.
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17082994
: This study reports on the QEEG observations recorded from a yogi during tongue piercing in which he demonstrated voluntary pain control. The QEEG was recorded with a Lexicor 1620 from 19 sites with appropriate controls for impedence and artifacts. A neurologist read the data for abnormalities and the QEEG was analyzed by mapping, single and multiple hertz bins, coherence, and statistical comparisons with a normative database. The session included a meditation baseline and tongue piercing. During the meditative baseline period the yogi's QEEG maps suggesting that he was able to lower his brain activity to a resting state. This state showed a predominance of slow wave potentials (delta) during piercing and suggested that the yogi induced a state that may be similar to those found when individuals are under analgesia. Further research should be conducted with a group of individuals who demonstrate exceptional self-regulation to determine the underlying mechanisms, and whether the skills can be used to teach others how to manage pain.
Molecular Cell. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20227369
The Tie family of endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinases is essential for cell proliferation, migration, and survival during angiogenesis. Despite considerable similarity, experiments with Tie1- or Tie2-deficient mice highlight distinct functions for these receptors in vivo. The Tie2 receptor is further unique with respect to its structurally homologous ligands. Angiopoietin-2 and -3 can function as agonists or antagonists; angiopoietin-1 and -4 are constitutive agonists. To address the role of Tie1 in angiopoietin-mediated Tie2 signaling and determine the basis for the behavior of the individual angiopoietins, we used an in vivo FRET-based proximity assay to monitor Tie1 and -2 localization and association. We provide evidence for Tie1-Tie2 complex formation on the cell surface and identify molecular surface areas essential for receptor-receptor recognition. We further demonstrate that the Tie1-Tie2 interactions are dynamic, inhibitory, and differentially modulated by angiopoietin-1 and -2. Based on the available data, we propose a unified model for angiopoietin-induced Tie2 signaling.
Large Scale Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Autotaxin/lysophospholipase D from Mammalian Cells
BMB Reports. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20797316
We utilized a mammalian expression system to purify and characterize autotaxin (ATX)/lysophospholipase D, an enzyme present in the blood responsible for biosynthesis of lysophosphatidic acid. The human ATX cDNA encoding amino acids 29-915 was cloned downstream of a secretion signal of CD5. At the carboxyl terminus was a thrombin cleavage site followed by the constant domain (Fc) of IgG to facilitate protein purification. The ATX-Fc fusion protein was expressed in HEK293 cells and isolated from conditioned medium of a stable clone by affinity chromatography with Protein A sepharose followed by cleavage with thrombin. The untagged ATX protein was further purified to essential homogeneity by gel filtration chromatography with a yield of approximately 5 mg/liter medium. The purified ATX protein was enzymatically active and biologically functional, offering a useful tool for further biological and structural studies of this important enzyme.