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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
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Articles by Wojciech Niedzwiedz in JoVE
डीएनए प्रतिकृति के विज़ुअलाइज़ेशन हड्डीवाला मॉडल प्रणाली DT40 में डीएनए फाइबर तकनीक का उपयोग
Rebekka A.V. Schwab1, Wojciech Niedzwiedz1,2
1Department of Molecular Oncology, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, 2Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw
DT40, एक मॉडल हड्डीवाला आनुवंशिक प्रणाली, प्रोटीन समारोह का विश्लेषण करने के लिए एक शक्तिशाली उपकरण प्रदान करता है. यहाँ हम एक सरल तरीका है कि पैरामीटर है कि एक अणु के स्तर पर DT40 कोशिकाओं में एस चरण के दौरान डीएनए संश्लेषण को प्रभावित करने के गुणात्मक विश्लेषण की अनुमति देता है का वर्णन.
Other articles by Wojciech Niedzwiedz on PubMed
Molecular Cell. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15327776
The Fanconi anemia (FA) protein FANCC is essential for chromosome stability in vertebrate cells, a feature underscored by the extreme sensitivity of FANCC-deficient cells to agents that crosslink DNA. However, it is not known how this FA protein facilitates the repair of both endogenously acquired and mutagen-induced DNA damage. Here, we use the model vertebrate cell line DT40 to address this question. We discover that apart from functioning in homologous recombination, FANCC also promotes the mutational repair of endogenously generated abasic sites. Moreover in these vertebrate cells, the efficient repair of crosslinks requires the combined functions of FANCC, translesion synthesis, and homologous recombination. These studies reveal that the FA proteins cooperate with key mutagenesis and repair processes that enable replication of damaged DNA.
Cancer Cell. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15710323
The autosomal recessive disease Fanconi anemia (FA) causes bone marrow failure and a hugely increased propensity to develop cancer. Cells from FA patients are prone to chromosome breakage, indicating that FA gene products are required to ensure genomic integrity. Most of the identified FA proteins are components of a nuclear complex whose principal function is to activate FANCD2 by monoubiquitination. Monoubiquitinated FANCD2 accumulates at sites of genome damage, where it probably functions to facilitate DNA repair. A recent paper in Molecular Cell (Nijmanet al., 2005) reports the identification of an enzyme that is responsible for regulating the FA pathway by deactivating FANCD2.
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16116434
The helicase-associated endonuclease for fork-structured DNA (Hef) is an archaeabacterial protein that processes blocked replication forks. Here we have isolated the vertebrate Hef ortholog and investigated its molecular function. Disruption of this gene in chicken DT40 cells results in genomic instability and sensitivity to DNA cross-links. The similarity of this phenotype to that of cells lacking the Fanconi anemia-related (FA) tumor-suppressor genes led us to investigate whether Hef functions in this pathway. Indeed, we found a genetic interaction between the FANCC and Hef genes. In addition, Hef is a component of the FA nuclear protein complex that facilitates its DNA damage-inducible chromatin localization and the monoubiquitination of the FA protein FANCD2. Notably, Hef interacts directly with DNA structures that are intermediates in DNA replication. This discovery sheds light on the origins, regulation and molecular function of the FA tumor-suppressor pathway in the maintenance of genome stability.
Molecular Cell. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18082605
Monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and PCNA promotes DNA repair. It causes chromatin accumulation of FANCD2 and facilitates PCNA's recruitment of translesion polymerases to stalled replication. USP1, a protease that removes monoubiquitin from FANCD2 and PCNA, was thought to reverse the DNA damage response of these substrates. We disrupted USP1 in chicken cells to dissect its role in a stable genetic system. USP1 ablation increases FANCD2 and PCNA monoubiquitination but unexpectedly results in DNA crosslinker sensitivity. This defective DNA repair is associated with constitutively chromatin-bound, monoubiquitinated FANCD2. In contrast, persistent PCNA monoubiquitination has negligible impact on DNA repair or mutagenesis. USP1 was previously shown to autocleave after DNA damage. In DT40, USP1 autocleavage is not stimulated by DNA damage, and expressing a noncleavable mutant in the USP1 knockout strain partially rescues crosslinker sensitivity. We conclude that efficient DNA crosslink repair requires FANCD2 deubiquitination, whereas FANCD2 monoubiquitination is not dependent on USP1 autocleavage.
The Walker B Motif in Avian FANCM is Required to Limit Sister Chromatid Exchanges but is Dispensable for DNA Crosslink Repair
Nucleic Acids Research. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19465393
FANCM, the most highly conserved component of the Fanconi Anaemia (FA) pathway can resolve recombination intermediates and remodel synthetic replication forks. However, it is not known if these activities are relevant to how this conserved protein activates the FA pathway and promotes DNA crosslink repair. Here we use chicken DT40 cells to systematically dissect the function of the helicase and nuclease domains of FANCM. Our studies reveal that these domains contribute distinct roles in the tolerance of crosslinker, UV light and camptothecin-induced DNA damage. Although the complete helicase domain is critical for crosslink repair, a predicted inactivating mutation of the Walker B box domain has no impact on FA pathway associated functions. However, this mutation does result in elevated sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Furthermore, our genetic dissection indicates that FANCM functions with the Blm helicase to suppress spontaneous SCE events. Overall our results lead us to reappraise the role of helicase domain associated activities of FANCM with respect to the activation of the FA pathway, crosslink repair and in the resolution of recombination intermediates.
The EMBO Journal. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20057355
Fanconi anaemia is a chromosomal instability disorder associated with cancer predisposition and bone marrow failure. Among the 13 identified FA gene products only one, the DNA translocase FANCM, has homologues in lower organisms, suggesting a conserved function in DNA metabolism. However, a precise role for FANCM in DNA repair remains elusive. Here, we show a novel function for FANCM that is distinct from its role in the FA pathway: promoting replication fork restart and simultaneously limiting the accumulation of RPA-ssDNA. We show that in DT40 cells this process is controlled by ATR and PLK1, and that in the absence of FANCM, stalled replication forks are unable to resume DNA synthesis and genome duplication is ensured by excess origin firing. Unexpectedly, we also uncover an early role for FANCM in ATR-mediated checkpoint signalling by promoting chromatin retention of TopBP1. Failure to retain TopBP1 on chromatin impacts on the ability of ATR to phosphorylate downstream molecular targets, including Chk1 and SMC1. Our data therefore indicate a fundamental role for FANCM in the maintenance of genome integrity during S phase.
Human Molecular Genetics. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22279085
FANCM is the most highly conserved protein within the Fanconi anaemia (FA) tumour suppressor pathway. However, although FANCM contains a helicase domain with translocase activity, this is not required for its role in activating the FA pathway. Instead, we show here that FANCM translocaseactivity is essential for promoting replication fork stability. We demonstrate that cells expressing translocase-defective FANCM show altered global replication dynamics due to increased accumulation of stalled forks that subsequently degenerate into DNA double-strand breaks, leading to ATM activation, CTBP-interacting protein (CTIP)-dependent end resection and homologous recombination repair. Accordingly, abrogation of ATM or CTIP function in FANCM-deficient cells results in decreased cell survival. We also found that FANCM translocase activity protects cells from accumulating 53BP1-OPT domains, which mark lesions resulting from problems arising during replication. Taken together, these data show that FANCM plays an essential role in maintaining chromosomal integrity by promoting the recovery of stalled replication forks and hence preventing tumourigenesis.