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In JoVE (1)
- Modellering Neurala Immun Signalering av episodiska och kronisk migrän Använda Spridning Depression In Vitro
Other Publications (2)
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Articles by Yelena Y. Grinberg in JoVE
Modellering Neurala Immun Signalering av episodiska och kronisk migrän Använda Spridning Depression In Vitro
Aya D. Pusic*1, Yelena Y. Grinberg*1, Heidi M. Mitchell2, Richard P. Kraig1
1Department of Neurology and Committee on Neurobiology, The University of Chicago Medical Center, 2Department of Neurology, The University of Chicago Medical Center
Migrän och dess omvandling till kronisk migrän är enorma sjukvård bördor i behov av förbättrade behandlingsalternativ. Vi strävar efter att definiera hur neurala immun signalering modulerar känsligheten för migrän, modellerade
Other articles by Yelena Y. Grinberg on PubMed
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21541289
Spreading depression (SD) is thought to cause migraine aura, and perhaps migraine, and includes a transient loss of synaptic activity preceded and followed by increased neuronal excitability. Activated microglia influence neuronal activity and play an important role in homeostatic synaptic scaling via release of cytokines. Furthermore, enhanced neuronal function activates microglia to not only secrete cytokines but also to increase the motility of their branches, with somata remaining stationary. While SD also increases the release of cytokines from microglia, the effects on microglial movement from its synaptic activity fluctuations are unknown. Accordingly, we used time-lapse imaging of rat hippocampal slice cultures to probe for microglial movement associated with SD. We observed that in uninjured brain whole microglial cells moved. The movements were well described by the type of Lévy flight known to be associated with an optimal search pattern. Hours after SD, when synaptic activity rose, microglial cell movement was significantly increased. To test how synaptic activity influenced microglial movement, we enhanced neuronal activity with chemical long-term potentiation or LPS and abolished it with TTX. We found that microglial movement was significantly decreased by enhanced neuronal activity and significantly increased by activity blockade. Finally, application of glutamate and ATP to mimic restoration of synaptic activity in the presence of TTX stopped microglial movement that was otherwise seen with TTX. Thus, synaptic activity retains microglial cells in place and an absence of synaptic activity sends them off to influence wider expanses of brain. Perhaps increased microglial movements after SD are a long-lasting, and thus maladaptive, response in which these cells increase neuronal activity via contact or paracrine signaling, which results in increased susceptibility of larger brain areas to SD. If true, then targeting mechanisms that retard activity-dependent microglial Lévy flights may be a novel means to reduce susceptibility to migraine.
Experimental Neurology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22281105
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that affects many organs including the brain. Neurological complications occur during preeclampsia, the most serious of which is seizure known as eclampsia. Although preeclampsia can precede the eclamptic seizure, it often occurs during normal pregnancy, suggesting that processes associated with normal pregnancy can promote neuronal excitability. Here we investigated whether circulating inflammatory mediators that are elevated late in gestation when seizure also occurs are hyperexcitable to neuronal tissue. Evoked field potentials were measured in hippocampal slices in which control horse serum that slices are normally grown in, was replaced with serum from nonpregnant or late-pregnant Wistar rats for 48h. We found that serum from pregnant, but not nonpregnant rats, caused hyperexcitability to hippocampal neurons and seizure activity that was abrogated by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling. Additionally, application of TNFα mimicked this increased excitability. Pregnant serum also caused morphological changes in microglia characteristic of activation, and increased TNFα mRNA expression that was not seen with exposure to nonpregnant serum. However, TNFα protein was not found to be elevated in pregnant serum itself, suggesting that other circulating factors during pregnancy caused activation of hippocampal slice cells to produce a TNFα-mediated increase in neuronal excitability. Lastly, although pregnant serum caused neuroinflammation and hyperexcitability of hippocampal slices, it did not increase blood-brain barrier permeability, nor were pregnant rats from which the serum was taken undergoing seizure. Thus, the BBB has an important role in protecting the brain from circulating neuroinflammatory mediators that are hyperexcitable to the brain during pregnancy. These studies provide novel insight into the underlying cause of eclampsia without elevated blood pressure and the protective role of the BBB that prevents exposure of the brain to hyperexcitable factors.