In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (4)

Articles by Yolanda Ruiz-León in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Protocols for Problematic Plant, Oomycete, and Fungal Samples

1Biodiversity and Conservation Department, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, 2Research Support Unit, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, 3Mycology Department, Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, 4Division of Glycoscience, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)


JoVE 55031

Other articles by Yolanda Ruiz-León on PubMed

Serum is Required for Release of Alzheimer's Amyloid Precursor Protein in Neuroblastoma Cells

Neurochemistry International. Oct, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12106777

The beta-amyloid peptide, the major component of the senile plaques that characterize Alzheimer's disease, is generated from a set of alternatively spliced beta-amyloid precursor proteins (APPs), which are proteolytically cleaved by the action of a set of enzymes referred to generically as secretases. The major processing pathway involves the proteolytic cleavage of APP by alpha-secretase and results in the release of soluble non-amyloidogenic full-length amino terminal fragments (sAPP), which appear to be involved in neurotrophic events. A reduced production of these neuroprotective sAPP would contribute, together with deposition of the beta-amyloid peptide, to the neurodegenerative processes that lead to the cellular death in Alzheimer's disease. In the present work, we describe a dramatic reduction of sAPP content in medium conditioned by neuronal cells grown under low-serum conditions, when compared with the levels released in the presence of 10% serum. The inhibitory effect on sAPP release appears to be quite specific since that reduction occurs without major changes in cell proliferation, expression of APP-mRNA or intracellular APP levels. Under low-serum conditions, cells showed a more differentiated morphology and no apoptotic signs were observed. Since the alpha-secretase has been described as a membrane anchored protein, our results suggest that the serum contains an essential factor(s) involved in the alpha-secretase activity.

Regulation of Beta-amyloid Precursor Protein Expression by Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Involves Activation of Both the Ras and Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase Signalling Pathways

Journal of Neurochemistry. Feb, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14756823

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulates beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) promoter activity by a Ras-dependent mechanism in TrkB-expressing SH-SY5Y cells. To determine the signalling pathways involved in the BDNF-induced response, we have analysed the ability of TrkB mutated forms to mediate promoter stimulation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor causes a significant induction of promoter activity and mutation K540R in the active site of TrkB completely abolishes the neurotrophin-induced response. A substitution of the Y484 residue by phenylalanine, which blocks binding of Shc, reduces the activation of APP promoter by BDNF by approximately 50% whereas mutation Y785P, which blocks binding of phospholipase C gamma, does not affect the response. In addition, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-specific inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 reduced BDNF-induced activation. In agreement with a participation of both Ras/MAPK- and PI3K/Akt-mediated mechanisms, transient expression of constitutive active forms of Ras, PI3K and other components of both signalling pathways led to a significant increase of APP promoter activity. Furthermore, the stimulation of the APP promoter by BDNF was completely precluded by expression of dominant-negative forms of Ras and PI3K effectors. Taken together, our results suggest that simultaneous activation of at least two signalling pathways, Ras/MAPK and PI3K/Akt, is necessary to mediate a full activation of the APP promoter by BDNF.

The Effect of Glucocorticoids on ERK-1/2 Phosphorylation During Maturation of Lamb Oocytes and Their Subsequent Fertilization and Cleavage Ability in Vitro

Reproductive Toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.). Apr, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19892010

High levels of glucocorticoids may alter reproduction, but little is known about their direct actions on oocyte maturation, fertilization and subsequent development. Earlier work suggested negative effects of cortisol or dexamethasone on oocyte maturation but differences were noted between animal models. Both glucocorticoids reduce the p34(cdc2)-cyclin B1 complex but it is unknown if other signaling pathways important for meiosis progression are affected. In this study, using sheep oocytes as a model system, we assessed in vitro the effects of increasing concentration of glucocorticoids (0-250 microM) on oocyte maturation and underlying changes in the MAP kinase pathway, and the ability of oocytes to undergo fertilization and embryo development. Cortisol decreased oocyte maturation but only at the highest concentration, whereas dexamethasone had no effect. Fertilization and cleavage were not affected. On the other hand, both cortisol and dexamethasone inhibited ERK-1/2 activation in a concentration-dependent manner. It thus seems that oocytes can overcome deleterious effects of glucocorticoids during maturation despite the decrease in ERK-1/2 activity, but repercussions in vivo should be further explored.

The Effect of Glucocorticoids on Mouse Oocyte in Vitro Maturation and Subsequent Fertilization and Embryo Development

Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19733225

Increased glucocorticoid levels, due to medical therapy or stress-related, may affect reproduction via the hypothalamus-pituitary-axis or directly at the oocyte level. We examined the effects of natural (corticosterone) or synthetic (dexamethasone) glucocorticoids on mouse oocyte maturation and underlying changes in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation patterns. Fertilization and progression up to the blastocyst stage were also evaluated. Oocytes were exposed to corticosterone or dexamethasone (0, 0.25, 2.5, 25 or 250microM) for 17h during in vitro maturation. After maturation, ERK-1/2 activation in oocytes was assessed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in vitro. Corticosterone exposure during oocyte maturation significantly decreased progression to metaphase II, fertilization and embryo development at the highest concentration. Corticosterone caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of ERK-1/2 activation, with the highest concentration resulting in considerable inhibition of oocyte ERK-1/2 phosphorylation and no blastocyst development. In contrast, dexamethasone had no effect on maturation, fertilization and cleavage, and no effect was seen on ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Based on these in vitro findings, high glucocorticoid levels may have consequences for subsequent development, although a short exposure to physiologic or stress-related glucocorticoid levels may not represent a hazard to meiosis progression of the oocyte.

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