Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
- Direct Delivery of MIF Morpholinos Into the Zebrafish Otocyst by Injection and Electroporation Affects Inner Ear Development
Other Publications (8)
- Nature Genetics
- Developmental Biology
- Journal of Cell Science
- Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
- Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- Developmental Biology
Articles by Yu-chi Shen in JoVE
Direct Delivery of MIF Morpholinos Into the Zebrafish Otocyst by Injection and Electroporation Affects Inner Ear Development
Katie E. Holmes1, Matthew J. Wyatt2, Yu-chi Shen2, Deborah A. Thompson2,3, Kate F. Barald2,4
1Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 3Present address: Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
A method to deliver morpholinos directly into the zebrafish otocyst at 24hpf has been developed. Using microinjection of morpholinos into the lumen of otic vesicle and electroporation to effect penetration, we were able to bypass the effect of morpholinos on the brain and obtain effects specific to the inner ear.
Other articles by Yu-chi Shen on PubMed
Nature Genetics. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11753388
The photoneuroendocrine system translates environmental light conditions into the circadian production of endocrine and neuroendocrine signals. Central to this process is the pineal organ, which has a conserved role in the cyclical synthesis and release of melatonin to influence sleep patterns and seasonal reproduction. In lower vertebrates, the pineal organ contains photoreceptors whose activity entrains an endogenous circadian clock and regulates transcription in pinealocytes. In mammals, pineal function is influenced by retinal photoreceptors that project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus-the site of the endogenous circadian clock. A multisynaptic pathway then relays information about circadian rhythmicity and photoperiod to the pineal organ. The gene cone rod homeobox (crx), a member of the orthodenticle homeobox (otx) family, is thought to regulate pineal circadian activity. In the mouse, targeted inactivation of Crx causes a reduction in pineal gene expression and attenuated entrainment to light/dark cycles. Here we show that crx and otx5 orthologs are expressed in both the pineal organ and the asymmetrically positioned parapineal of larval zebrafish. Circadian gene expression is unaffected by a reduction in Crx expression but is inhibited specifically by depletion of Otx5. Our results indicate that Otx5 rather than Crx regulates genes that show circadian expression in the zebrafish pineal complex.
Developmental Biology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15081370
The mammalian Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene is a divergent member of the Otx gene family known to be involved in differentiation and survival of retinal photoreceptors and photoentrainment of circadian rhythms. Zebrafish have two genes in the Otx5/crx orthology class, and we previously showed that crx can transactivate rhodopsin expression in vitro, and that otx5 (orthodenticle-related gene), but not crx, regulates expression of circadian genes in the pineal. Here, we show that zebrafish crx does not regulate expression of opsins and other photoreceptor-specific genes in the pineal. We further show that crx is expressed in proliferating retinal progenitors and may be involved in patterning the early optic primordium and in promoting the differentiation of retinal progenitors, including photoreceptors. These results suggest novel functions for zebrafish crx during retinal specification and differentiation.
Journal of Cell Science. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17158919
Molecular mechanisms that control inner ear morphogenesis from the placode to the three-dimensional functional organ are not well understood. We hypothesize that cell-cell adhesion, mediated by cadherin molecules, contributes significantly to various stages of inner ear formation. Cadherin-2 (Cdh2) function during otic vesicle morphogenesis was investigated by examining morpholino antisense oligonucleotide knockdown and glass onion (glo) (Cdh2 mutant) zebrafish embryos. Placode formation, vesicle cavitation and specification occurred normally, but morphogenesis of the otic vesicle was affected by Cdh2 deficiency: semicircular canals were reduced or absent. Phalloidin staining of the hair cell stereocillia demonstrated that cadherin-2 (cdh2) loss-of-function did not affect hair cell number, but acetylated tubulin labeling showed that hair cell kinocilia were shorter and irregularly shaped. Statoacoustic ganglion size was significantly reduced, which suggested that neuron differentiation or maturation was affected. Furthermore, cdh2 loss-of-function did not cause a general developmental delay, since differentiation of other tissues, including eye, proceeded normally. These findings demonstrate that Cdh2 selectively affects epithelial morphogenetic cell movements, particularly semicircular canal formation, during normal ear mophogenesis.
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17279575
We previously reported that cadherin-4 (also called R-cadherin) was expressed by the majority of the developing zebrafish cranial and lateral line ganglia. Cadherin-4 (Cdh4) function in the formation of these structures in zebrafish was studied using morpholino antisense technology. Differentiation of the cranial and lateral line ganglia and lateral line nerve and neuromasts of the cdh4 morphants was analyzed using multiple neural markers. We found that a subset of the morphant cranial and lateral line ganglia were disorganized, smaller, with reduced staining, and/or with altered shape compared to control embryos. Increased cell death in the morphant ganglia likely contributed to these defects. Moreover, cdh4 morphants had shorter lateral line nerves and a reduced number of neuromasts, which was likely caused by disrupted migration of the lateral line primordia. These results indicate that Cdh4 plays a role in the normal formation of the zebrafish lateral line system and a subset of the cranial ganglia.
The Transmembrane Inner Ear (tmie) Gene Contributes to Vestibular and Lateral Line Development and Function in the Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18330929
The inner ear is a complex organ containing sensory tissue, including hair cells, the development of which is not well understood. Our long-term goal is to discover genes critical for the correct formation and function of the inner ear and its sensory tissue. A novel gene, transmembrane inner ear (Tmie), was found to cause hearing-related disorders when defective in mice and humans. A homologous tmie gene in zebrafish was cloned and its expression characterized between 24 and 51 hours post-fertilization. Embryos injected with morpholinos (MO) directed against tmie exhibited circling swimming behavior (approximately 37%), phenocopying mice with Tmie mutations; semicircular canal formation was disrupted, hair cell numbers were reduced, and maturation of electrically active lateral line neuromasts was delayed. As in the mouse, tmie appears to be required for inner ear development and function in the zebrafish and for hair cell maturation in the vestibular and lateral line systems as well.
A Student Team in a University of Michigan Biomedical Engineering Design Course Constructs a Microfluidic Bioreactor for Studies of Zebrafish Development
Zebrafish. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19292670
The zebrafish is a valuable model for teaching developmental, molecular, and cell biology; aquatic sciences; comparative anatomy; physiology; and genetics. Here we demonstrate that zebrafish provide an excellent model system to teach engineering principles. A seven-member undergraduate team in a biomedical engineering class designed, built, and tested a zebrafish microfluidic bioreactor applying microfluidics, an emerging engineering technology, to study zebrafish development. During the semester, students learned engineering and biology experimental design, chip microfabrication, mathematical modeling, zebrafish husbandry, principles of developmental biology, fluid dynamics, microscopy, and basic molecular biology theory and techniques. The team worked to maximize each person's contribution and presented weekly written and oral reports. Two postdoctoral fellows, a graduate student, and three faculty instructors coordinated and directed the team in an optimal blending of engineering, molecular, and developmental biology skill sets. The students presented two posters, including one at the Zebrafish meetings in Madison, Wisconsin (June 2008).
Development (Cambridge, England). Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20181742
To elucidate the role of juvenile hormone (JH) in metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, the corpora allata cells, which produce JH, were killed using the cell death gene grim. These allatectomized (CAX) larvae were smaller at pupariation and died at head eversion. They showed premature ecdysone receptor B1 (EcR-B1) in the photoreceptors and in the optic lobe, downregulation of proliferation in the optic lobe, and separation of R7 from R8 in the medulla during the prepupal period. All of these effects of allatectomy were reversed by feeding third instar larvae on a diet containing the JH mimic (JHM) pyriproxifen or by application of JH III or JHM at the onset of wandering. Eye and optic lobe development in the Methoprene-tolerant (Met)-null mutant mimicked that of CAX prepupae, but the mutant formed viable adults, which had marked abnormalities in the organization of their optic lobe neuropils. Feeding Met(27) larvae on the JHM diet did not rescue the premature EcR-B1 expression or the downregulation of proliferation but did partially rescue the premature separation of R7, suggesting that other pathways besides Met might be involved in mediating the response to JH. Selective expression of Met RNAi in the photoreceptors caused their premature expression of EcR-B1 and the separation of R7 and R8, but driving Met RNAi in lamina neurons led only to the precocious appearance of EcR-B1 in the lamina. Thus, the lack of JH and its receptor Met causes a heterochronic shift in the development of the visual system that is likely to result from some cells 'misinterpreting' the ecdysteroid peaks that drive metamorphosis.
The Cytokine Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Acts As a Neurotrophin in the Developing Inner Ear of the Zebrafish, Danio Rerio
Developmental Biology. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22210003
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays versatile roles in the immune system. MIF is also widely expressed during embryonic development, particularly in the nervous system, although its roles in neural development are only beginning to be understood. Evidence from frogs, mice and zebrafish suggests that MIF has a major role as a neurotrophin in the early development of sensory systems, including the auditory system. Here we show that the zebrafish mif pathway is required for both sensory hair cell (HC) and sensory neuronal cell survival in the ear, for HC differentiation, semicircular canal formation, statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) development, and lateral line HC differentiation. This is consistent with our findings that MIF is expressed in the developing mammalian and avian auditory systems and promotes mouse and chick SAG neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival, demonstrating key instructional roles for MIF in vertebrate otic development.