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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (13)
- Journal of Pineal Research
- Journal of Pineal Research
- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
- Molecular Cell
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- PloS One
- Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
- American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
- Journal of Pineal Research
- Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII
- Pediatric Pulmonology
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Articles by Zheping Huang in JoVE
एक प्रायोगिक प्रणाली के अध्ययन भ्रूण फेफड़ों की कोशिकाओं में mechanotransduction
Yulian Wang, Zheping Huang, Pritha S. Nayak, Juan Sanchez-Esteban
Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Alpert Medical School of Brown University
यांत्रिक बलों फेफड़ों के विकास और फेफड़ों की चोट में एक महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाते हैं. यहाँ, हम एक कृंतक भ्रूण फेफड़ों प्रकार द्वितीय उपकला कोशिकाओं और fibroblasts को अलग करने और उन्हें यांत्रिक एक का उपयोग कर उत्तेजना को बेनकाब विधि का वर्णन
Other articles by Zheping Huang on PubMed
Journal of Pineal Research. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15978062
Nocturnal melatonin production is reportedly controlled by the rhythms of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT, or arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase). While analyzing the melatonin synthetic pathways of Long Evans cinnamon (LEC) rats mutant for PINA, a pineal night-specific ATPase defective in Wilson disease, we discovered that NAT activity and protein levels are greatly reduced in LEC rats, and that the highly conserved histidine 28 is mutated to tyrosine. To study the effect of H28Y, we isolated a new strain of rat termed LPN that is mutant for NAT but wildtype for both PINA and coat color. Compared with control rats, the LPN rats displayed low NAT protein levels and enzyme activities. These results suggest that the H28Y mutation in NAT is the cause of reduced NAT levels in vivo. The identical H28Y mutation was also found in Sprague-Dawley rats from Zivic-Miller, suggesting it may be a common mutation in rodents. When analyzed in bacterial cells and HEK293 cells, the mutation resulted in reduction of both NAT protein stability and catalytic activity, confirming that the in vivo NAT phenotype in LPN rats was due to the H28Y mutation. Further analysis of the NAT-H28Y will focus on the mechanisms of the increased degradation both in vitro and in vivo, which will facilitate our understanding of how melatonin synthesis is controlled at the molecular level.
Posttranslational Regulation of TPH1 is Responsible for the Nightly Surge of 5-HT Output in the Rat Pineal Gland
Journal of Pineal Research. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18705647
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic signaling at night. In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night; (b) stimulation of cAMP signaling elevates 5-HT output in vivo; (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night. Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability. These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19538980
Arsenic compounds are classified as toxicants and human carcinogens. Environmental exposure to arsenic imposes a big health issue worldwide. Arsenic elicits its toxic efforts through many mechanisms, including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nrf2 is the primary transcription factor that controls expression of a main cellular antioxidant response, which is required for neutralizing ROS and thus defending cells from exogenous insults. Previously, we demonstrated a protective role of Nrf2 against arsenic-induced toxicity using a cell culture model. In this report, we present evidence that Nrf2 protects against liver and bladder injury in response to six weeks of arsenic exposure in a mouse model. Nrf2(-/-) mice displayed more severe pathological changes in the liver and bladder, compared to Nrf2(+/+) mice. Furthermore, Nrf2(-/-) mice were more sensitive to arsenic-induced DNA hypomethylation, oxidative DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death. These results indicate a protective role of Nrf2 against arsenic toxicity in vivo. Hence, this work demonstrates the feasibility of using dietary compounds that target activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway to alleviate arsenic-induced damage.
Direct Interaction Between Nrf2 and P21(Cip1/WAF1) Upregulates the Nrf2-mediated Antioxidant Response
Molecular Cell. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19560419
In response to oxidative stress, Nrf2 and p21(Cip1/WAF1) are both upregulated to protect cells from oxidative damage. Nrf2 is constantly ubiquitinated by a Keap1 dimer that interacts with a weak-binding (29)DLG motif and a strong-binding (79)ETGE motif in Nrf2, resulting in degradation of Nrf2. Modification of the redox-sensitive cysteine residues on Keap1 disrupts the Keap1-(29)DLG binding, leading to diminished Nrf2 ubiquitination and activation of the antioxidant response. However, the underlying mechanism by which p21 protects cells from oxidative damage remains unclear. Here we present molecular and genetic evidence suggesting that the antioxidant function of p21 is mediated through activation of Nrf2 by stabilizing the Nrf2 protein. The (154)KRR motif in p21 directly interacts with the (29)DLG and (79)ETGE motifs in Nrf2 and thus competes with Keap1 for Nrf2 binding, compromising ubiquitination of Nrf2. Furthermore, the physiological significance of our findings was demonstrated in vivo using p21-deficient mice.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19573594
The transcription factor Nrf2 has emerged as a master regulator of the endogenous antioxidant response, which is critical in defending cells against environmental insults and in maintaining intracellular redox balance. However, whether Nrf2 has any role in neuronal cell differentiation is largely unknown. In this report, we have examined the effects of Nrf2 on cell differentiation using a neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y. Retinoic acid (RA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, two well-studied inducers of neuronal differentiation, are able to induce Nrf2 and its target gene NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RA-induced Nrf2 up-regulation is accompanied by neurite outgrowth and an induction of two neuronal differentiation markers, neurofilament-M and microtubule-associated protein 2. Overexpression of Nrf2 in SH-SY5Y cells promotes neuronal differentiation, whereas inhibition of endogenous Nrf2 expression inhibited neuronal differentiation. More remarkably, the positive role of Nrf2 in neuronal differentiation was verified ex vivo in primary neuron culture. Primary neurons isolated from Nrf2-null mice showed a retarded progress in differentiation, compared to those from wild-type mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate a novel role for Nrf2 in promoting neuronal cell differentiation, which will open new perspectives for therapeutic uses of Nrf2 activators in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.
Phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Multiple Sites by MAP Kinases Has a Limited Contribution in Modulating the Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19668370
The bZIP transcription factor Nrf2 has emerged as a pivotal regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis by controlling the expression of many endogenous antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes. Upon oxidative stress, Nrf2 is induced at protein levels through redox-sensitive modifications on cysteine residues of Keap1, a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets Nrf2 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. The mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have previously been proposed to regulate Nrf2 in response to oxidative stress. However, the exact role of MAPKs and the underlying molecular mechanism remain poorly defined. Here we report the first evidence that Nrf2 is phosphorylated in vivo by MAPKs. We have identified multiple serine/threonine residues as major targets of MAPK-mediated phosphorylation. Combined alanine substitution on those residues leads to a moderate decrease in the transcriptional activity of Nrf2, most likely due to a slight reduction in its nuclear accumulation. More importantly, Nrf2 protein stability, primarily controlled by Keap1, is not altered by Nrf2 phosphorylation in vivo. These data indicate that direct phosphorylation of Nrf2 by MAPKs has limited contribution in modulating Nrf2 activity. We suggest that MAPKs regulate the Nrf2 signaling pathway mainly through indirect mechanisms.
Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20024626
Melatonin is a hormone secreted from the pineal gland specifically at night and contributes to a wide array of physiological functions in mammals. Melatonin is one of the most well understood output of the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Melatonin synthesis is controlled distally via the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and proximally regulated by norepinephrine released in response to the circadian clock signals. To understand melatonin synthesis in vivo, we have performed microdialysis analysis of the pineal gland, which monitors melatonin as well as the precursor (serotonin) and intermediate (N-acetylserotonin) of melatonin synthesis in freely moving animals in realtime at high resolution. Our data revealed a number of novel features of melatonin production undetected using conventional techniques, which include (1) large inter-individual variations of melatonin onset timing; (2) circadian regulation of serotonin synthesis and secretion in the pineal gland; and (3) a revised view on the rate-limiting step of melatonin formation in vivo. This article will summarize the main findings from our laboratory regarding melatonin formation in mammals.
Diabetes. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20103708
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of renal failure, which is accompanied by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nrf2 is the primary transcription factor that controls the antioxidant response essential for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. Here, we report our findings demonstrating a protective role of Nrf2 against diabetic nephropathy.
American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20172952
Mechanical forces are critical for fetal lung development. Using surfactant protein C (SP-C) as a marker, we previously showed that stretch-induced fetal type II cell differentiation is mediated via the ERK pathway. Caveolin-1, a major component of the plasma membrane microdomains, is important as a signaling protein in blood vessels exposed to shear stress. Its potential role in mechanotransduction during fetal lung development is unknown. Caveolin-1 is a marker of type I epithelial cell phenotype. In this study, using immunocytochemistry, Western blotting, and immunogold electron microscopy, we first demonstrated the presence of caveolin-1 in embryonic day 19 (E19) rat fetal type II epithelial cells. By detergent-free purification of lipid raft-rich membrane fractions and fluorescence immunocytochemistry, we found that mechanical stretch translocates caveolin-1 from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm. Disruption of the lipid rafts with cholesterol-chelating agents further increased stretch-induced ERK activation and SP-C gene expression compared with stretch samples without disruptors. Similar results were obtained when caveolin-1 gene was knocked down by small interference RNA. In contrast, adenovirus overexpression of the wild-type caveolin-1 or delivery of caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide inside the cells decreased stretch-induced ERK phosphorylation and SP-C mRNA expression. In conclusion, our data suggest that caveolin-1 is present in E19 fetal type II epithelial cells. Caveolin-1 is translocated from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm by mechanical stretch and functions as an inhibitory protein in stretch-induced type II cell differentiation via the ERK pathway.
Journal of Pineal Research. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20210853
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) catalyzes the conversion of serotonin to N-acetylserotonin, which is the immediate precursor for formation of melatonin. Although it is known that AANAT is degraded via the proteasomal proteolysis, detailed mechanisms are not defined. In this paper, we tested the in vivo role of proteasome inhibition on AANAT activity and melatonin release and examined the amino acid residues in AANAT that contribute to the proteasome degradation. We have shown that inhibition of proteasome activities in vivo in the intact pineal gland fails to prevent the light-induced suppression of melatonin secretion. Furthermore, in cell lines stably expressing AANAT, inhibition of proteasomal proteolysis, which resulted in a large accumulation of AANAT protein, similarly failed to increase AANAT enzyme activity proportional to the amount of proteins accumulated. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis of AANAT revealed that the AANAT degradation is independent of lysine and the two surface cysteine residues. Deletion analysis of N-terminus identified the second amino acid leucine (L2) as the key residue that contributes to the proteasomal proteolysis of AANAT protein. These results suggest that rat AANAT protein is degraded via the N-end rule pathway of proteasomal proteolysis and the leucine at the N-terminus appears to be the key residue recognized by N-end rule pathway.
Evaluation of the Immunogenicity of a Single Chain Chimeric Peptide Composed of HCGβ and OLHα for Inhibition of the Growth of HCGβ-expressing Cancer Cells
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20809357
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a membrane-associated protein highly expressed in several types of human cancer cells. The expression in the cancer cells indicates that hCG may be a potential target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to develop a novel immunogenic molecule, which can efficiently induce the neutralizing antibody against hCG and which is also suitable for mass production. The immunogenicity of the recombinant single chain chimeric protein of hCGβ-oLHα expressed by yeast was examined. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of the anti-hCGβ-oLHα antibody on the growth of hCG-positive cancer cells were determined. It was found that hCGβ-oLHα yielded high titers of anti-hCG rabbit antibody that could effectively neutralize the bioactivity of hCG. The rabbit anti-hCGβ-oLHα IgG inhibited the proliferation of hCG-expressing human colorectal cancer cells (LS-174, HCT-116, HCT-15 and KM-12) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, an intact anti-tumor vaccine was prepared by conjugating hCGβ-oLHα with tetanus toxoid (TT) and this was used to immunize Balb/c mice bearing hCG-expressing SP2/0 tumor cells. The progression of tumors in these immunized mice was remarkably inhibited. These results suggest that hCGβ-oLHα is a new promising immunogenic molecule for the development of an anti-hCG-based cancer vaccine.
IL-10 Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokines Released by Fetal Mouse Lung Fibroblasts Exposed to Mechanical Stretch
Pediatric Pulmonology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21337733
Mechanical ventilation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, the molecular mechanisms by which excessive stretch induces lung inflammation are not well characterized.
Differential Expression of MMP-2 and -9 and Their Inhibitors in Fetal Lung Cells Exposed to Mechanical Stretch: Regulation by IL-10
Lung. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21701831
Abnormal remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, the contribution of lung parenchymal cells to ECM remodeling after mechanical injury is not well defined. The objective of these studies was to investigate in vitro the release of MMP-2 and -9 and their respective inhibitors TIMP-2 and -1, and to explore potential regulation by IL-10.