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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- DNA Repair
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
Articles by Zhiyong Mao in JoVE
Analysis of DNA Double-strand Break (DSB) Repair in Mammalian Cells
Andrei Seluanov, Zhiyong Mao, Vera Gorbunova
Department of Biology, University of Rochester
This article describes GFP-based fluorescence in vivo assays that separately quantify homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining in mammalian cells.
Other articles by Zhiyong Mao on PubMed
Nucleic Acids Research. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17913742
DNA is a precious molecule. It encodes vital information about cellular content and function. There are only two copies of each chromosome in the cell, and once the sequence is lost no replacement is possible. The irreplaceable nature of the DNA sets it apart from other cellular molecules, and makes it a critical target for age-related deterioration. To prevent DNA damage cells have evolved elaborate DNA repair machinery. Paradoxically, DNA repair can itself be subject to age-related changes and deterioration. In this review we will discuss the changes in efficiency of mismatch repair (MMR), base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) and double-strand break (DSB) repair systems during aging, and potential changes in DSB repair pathway usage that occur with age. Mutations in DNA repair genes and premature aging phenotypes they cause have been reviewed extensively elsewhere, therefore the focus of this review is on the comparison of DNA repair mechanisms in young versus old.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17670947
TRF2 (telomeric repeat binding factor 2) is an essential component of the telomeric cap, where it forms and stabilizes the T-loop junctions. TRF2 forms the T-loops by stimulating strand invasion of the 3' overhang into duplex DNA. TRF2 also has been shown to localize to nontelomeric DNA double-strand breaks, but its functional role in DNA repair has not been examined. Here, we present evidence that TRF2 is involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair of nontelomeric double-strand breaks. Depletion of TRF2 strongly inhibited HR and delayed the formation of Rad51 foci after gamma-irradiation, whereas overexpression of TRF2 stimulated HR. Depletion of TRF2 had no effect on nonhomologous end-joining, and overexpression of TRF2 inhibited nonhomologous end-joining. We propose, based on our results and on the ability of TRF2 to mediate strand invasion, that TRF2 plays an essential role in HR by facilitating the formation of early recombination intermediates.
DNA Repair. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18675941
The two major pathways for repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). HR leads to accurate repair, while NHEJ is intrinsically mutagenic. To understand human somatic mutation it is essential to know the relationship between these pathways in human cells. Here we provide a comparison of the kinetics and relative contributions of HR and NHEJ in normal human cells. We used chromosomally integrated fluorescent reporter substrates for real-time in vivo monitoring of the NHEJ and HR. By examining multiple integrated clones we show that the efficiency of NHEJ and HR is strongly influenced by chromosomal location. Furthermore, we show that NHEJ of compatible ends (NHEJ-C) and NHEJ of incompatible ends (NHEJ-I) are fast processes, which can be completed in approximately 30 min, while HR is much slower and takes 7h or longer to complete. In actively cycling cells NHEJ-C is twice as efficient as NHEJ-I, and NHEJ-I is three times more efficient than HR. Our results suggest that NHEJ is a faster and more efficient DSB repair pathway than HR.
DNA Repair by Nonhomologous End Joining and Homologous Recombination During Cell Cycle in Human Cells
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18769152
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous lesions that can lead to potentially oncogenic genomic rearrangements or cell death. The two major pathways for repair of DSBs are nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ is an intrinsically error-prone pathway while HR results in accurate repair. To understand the origin of genomic instability in human cells it is important to know the contribution of each DSB repair pathway. Studies of rodent cells and human cancer cell lines have shown that the choice between NHEJ or HR pathways depends on cell cycle stage. Surprisingly, cell cycle regulation of DSB repair has not been examined in normal human cells with intact cell cycle checkpoints. Here we measured the efficiency of NHEJ and HR at different cell cycle stages in hTERT-immortalized diploid human fibroblasts. We utilized cells with chromosomally-integrated fluorescent reporter cassettes, in which a unique DSB is introduced by a rare-cutting endonuclease. We show that NHEJ is active throughout the cell cycle, and its activity increases as cells progress from G1 to G2/M (G1 < S < G2/M). HR is nearly absent in G1, most active in the S phase, and declines in G2/M. Thus, in G2/M NHEJ is elevated, while HR is on decline. This is in contrast to a general belief that NHEJ is most active in G1, while HR is active in S, G2 and M. The overall efficiency of NHEJ was higher than HR at all cell cycle stages. We conclude that human somatic cells utilize error-prone NHEJ as the major DSB repair pathway at all cell cycle stages, while HR is used, primarily, in the S phase.
DNA Repair by Homologous Recombination, but Not by Nonhomologous End Joining, is Elevated in Breast Cancer Cells
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19568413
Aberrant double-stranded break (DSB) repair leads to genomic instability, which is a hallmark of malignant cells. Double-stranded breaks are repaired by two pathways: homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ). It is not known whether these repair pathways are affected in sporadic breast tumors. Here, we examined the efficiency of HR and NHEJ repair in a panel of sporadic breast cancer cell lines and tested whether the efficiency of HR or NHEJ correlates with radioresistance. Homologous recombination and NHEJ in breast cancer cells were analyzed using in vivo fluorescent assays. Unexpectedly, our analysis revealed that the efficiency of HR is significantly elevated in breast cancer cells compared with normal mammary epithelial cells. In contrast, the efficiency of NHEJ in breast cancer cells is not different from normal cells. Overall, breast cancer cells were more sensitive to radiation than normal cells, but the levels of resistance did not correlate with either HR or NHEJ efficiency. Thus, we demonstrate that sporadic breast cancers are not associated with a deficiency in DSB repair, but rather with upregulation of the HR pathway. Our finding of elevated HR in sporadic breast cancer cell lines suggests that therapies directed against the components of HR will be highly tumor-specific.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19858485
The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed "early contact inhibition." Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27(Kip1). In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16(Ink4a). Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16(Ink4a) and p27(Kip1) in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16(Ink4a), and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27(Kip1). We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat.
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21900744
Emerging evidence suggests that Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) functions as a longevity assurance gene by promoting genomic stability, regulating metabolic processes and attenuating inflammation. Here, we examine the effect of SIRT6 activation on cancer cells. We show that SIRT6 overexpression induces massive apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines but not in normal, non-transformed cells. This cell death requires the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase but not the deacetylase activity of SIRT6 and is mediated by the activation of both the p53 and p73 apoptotic signaling cascades in cancer cells by SIRT6. These results suggest that SIRT6 is an attractive target for pharmacological activation in cancer treatment.
Aging. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21946623
The sirtuin gene family comprises an evolutionarily ancient set of NAD+ dependent protein deacetylase and mono-ADP ribosyltransferase enzymes. Found in all domains of life, sirtuins regulate a diverse array of biological processes, including DNA repair, gene silencing, apoptosis and metabolism. Studies in multiple model organisms have indicated that sirtuins may also function to extend lifespan and attenuate age-related pathologies. To date, most of these studies have focused on the deacetylase activity of sirtuins, and relatively little is known about the other biochemical activity of sirtuins, mono-ADP ribosylation. We recently reported that the mammalian sirtuin, SIRT6, mono-ADP ribosylates PARP1 to promote DNA repair in response to oxidative stress. In this research perspective we review the role of SIRT6 in DNA repair and discuss the emerging implications for sirtuin directed mono-ADP ribosylation in aging and age-related diseases.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21680843
Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a mammalian homolog of the yeast Sir2 deacetylase. Mice deficient for SIRT6 exhibit genome instability. Here, we show that in mammalian cells subjected to oxidative stress SIRT6 is recruited to the sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stimulates DSB repair, through both nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination. Our results indicate that SIRT6 physically associates with poly[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) and mono-ADP-ribosylates PARP1 on lysine residue 521, thereby stimulating PARP1 poly-ADP-ribosylase activity and enhancing DSB repair under oxidative stress.