- GenProMarkers, Inc.1 published article
- Hood College1 published article
- Johns Hopkins University40 published articles
- National Institutes of Health38 published articles
- NCI-Frederick2 published articles
- Neuronascent, Inc.1 published article
- The J. Craig Venter Institute2 published articles
- Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences5 published articles
- University of Maryland12 published articles
- University of Maryland, Baltimore5 published articles
- University of Maryland, Baltimore County1 published article
- University of Maryland, College Park1 published article
National Institutes of Health
38 articles published in JoVE
In Vivo Two-photon Imaging Of Experience-dependent Molecular Changes In Cortical Neurons
1Unit on Neural Circuits and Adaptive Behaviors, Genes Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, 2Department of Neuroscience, Brown University - National Institutes of Health Graduate Partnership Program, 3Section on Synaptic Pharmacology, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 4Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme, Champalimaud Center for the Unknown
Experience-dependent molecular changes in neurons are essential for the brain's ability to adapt in response to behavioral challenges. An in vivo two-photon imaging method is described here that allows the tracking of such molecular changes in individual cortical neurons through genetically encoded reporters.
Progenitor-derived Oligodendrocyte Culture System from Human Fetal Brain
1Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 2Laboratory of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health
Primary, human fetal brain-derived, multipotential progenitor cells proliferate in vitro while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into neurons and astrocytes. This work shows that neural progenitors can be induced to differentiate through stages of the oligodendrocytic lineage by conditioning with select growth factors.
Ex vivo Culturing of Whole, Developing Drosophila Brains
1National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
This article describes a method by which one can mimic in vivo development of the Drosophila mushroom body in an ex vivo culture system.
Visualization and Genetic Manipulation of Dendrites and Spines in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus using In utero Electroporation
1Division of Molecular Neurobiology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, 2Confocal and Image Analysis Laboratory, National Institute for Medical Research, 3Physiopathologie de la plasticité neuronale, Neurocentre Magendie, Université de Bordeaux
This article describes in detail a protocol to electroporate in utero the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus at E14.5 in mice. We also show that this is a valuable method to study dendrites and spines in these two cerebral regions.
Oct4GiP Reporter Assay to Study Genes that Regulate Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Maintenance and Self-renewal
Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
We describe a fluorescence reporter assay to quickly identify and characterize genes that regulate mouse embryonic stem cell maintenance and self-renewal.
Retrograde Loading of Nerves, Tracts, and Spinal Roots with Fluorescent Dyes
Developmental Neurobiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health
We describe a simple and low cost technique for introducing high concentration of fluorescent and calcium-sensitive dyes into neurons or any neuronal tract using a polyethylene suction pipette.
Dissection of Adult Mouse Utricle and Adenovirus-mediated Supporting-cell Infection
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 3National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health
Mechanosensory hair cells are the receptor cells of the inner ear. The best-characterized in vitro model system of mature mammalian hair cells utilizes organ cultures of utricles from adult mice. We present the dissection of the adult mouse utricle, and we demonstrate adenovirus-mediated infection of supporting cells in cultured utricles.
A TIRF Microscopy Technique for Real-time, Simultaneous Imaging of the TCR and its Associated Signaling Proteins
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health
The compartmentalization of proteins either within the plasma membrane or into intracellular locations is one regulatory mechanism that can greatly influence signaling outcomes; hence, to understand signaling it is important to study the spatial and temporal behavior of the proteins involved. We describe here a TIRF microscopy based system to study signal transduction in T cells, but is broadly applicable.
Imaging of HIV-1 Envelope-induced Virological Synapse and Signaling on Synthetic Lipid Bilayers
1Department of Pathology, New York University Langone School of Medicine, 2Program in Molecular Pathogenesis, Marty and Helen Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine and Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, 3Laboratory of Molecular Immunogenetics, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4Veteran Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System
This article describes a method to visualize formation of an HIV-1 envelope-induced virological synapse on glass supported planar bilayers by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. The method can also be combined with immunofluorescence staining to detect activation and redistribution of signaling molecules that occur during HIV-1 envelope-induced virological synapse formation.
Combination Radiotherapy in an Orthotopic Mouse Brain Tumor Model
Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute
The purpose of this article is to describe the use of an orthotopic glioblastoma model for chemoradiation studies. This article will go though cell processing, implanting, and radiotherapy of the mouse using an intracranial model.
Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging
1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 2The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, 3National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5William Fremd High School, 6University of Virginia, 7Duke University, 8Yale University, 9University of Notre Dame, 10Washington University in St. Louis, 11Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology
The protocol describes a high-throughput approach to determining structures of membrane proteins using cryo-electron tomography and 3D image processing. It covers the details of specimen preparation, data collection, data processing and interpretation, and concludes with the production of a representative target for the approach, the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein. These computational procedures are designed in a way that enables researchers and students to work remotely and contribute to data processing and structural analysis.
Visualization of Mitochondrial Respiratory Function using Cytochrome C Oxidase / Succinate Dehydrogenase (COX/SDH) Double-labeling Histochemistry
1Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 2National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
The cytochrome c oxidase/sodium dehydrogenase (COX/SDH) double-labeling method allows for direct visualization of mitochondrial respiratory enzyme deficiencies in fresh-frozen tissue sections. This is a straightforward histochemical technique and is useful in investigating mitochondrial diseases, aging, and aging-related disorders.
Imaging G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR)-mediated Signaling Events that Control Chemotaxis of Dictyostelium Discoideum
Chemotaxis Signal Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health
Here, we describe detailed live cell imaging methods for investigating chemotaxis. We present fluorescence microscopic methods to monitor spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling events in migrating cells. Measurement of signaling events permits us to further understand how a GPCR-signaling network achieves gradient sensing of chemoattractants and controls directional migration of eukaryotic cells.
Time-lapse Microscopy of Early Embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 2NIDDK-National Institutes of Health
This article describes a technique for the visualization of the early events of embryogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
A Mouse Model of the Cornea Pocket Assay for Angiogenesis Study
National Eye Institute
The cornea is unique in that it lacks vascular tissues. However, robust blood vessel growth and survival can be induced in the cornea by potent angiogenic factors. Therefore, the cornea can provide with us a valuable tool for angiogenic studies. This protocol demonstrates how to perform the mouse model of cornea pocket assay and how to assess the angiogenesis induced by angiogenic factors using this model.
Competitive Genomic Screens of Barcoded Yeast Libraries
1Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 2Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, 3Donnelly Sequencing Centre, University of Toronto, 4Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, 5Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto
We have developed comprehensive, unbiased genome-wide screens to understand gene-drug and gene-environment interactions. Methods for screening these mutant collections are presented.
An In Vitro System to Study Tumor Dormancy and the Switch to Metastatic Growth
1Department of Biology, University of Haifa, 2Transgenic Oncogenesis and Genomics Section, Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute
A modified 3-D in vitro system is presented in which growth characteristics of several tumor cell lines in reconstituted basement membrane correlate with the dormant or proliferative behavior of the tumor cells at a metastatic secondary site in vivo.
Multi-electrode Array Recordings of Neuronal Avalanches in Organotypic Cultures
Section on Critical Brain Dynamics, National Institute of Mental Health
A robust way to study neuronal avalanches, i.e. scale-invariant spatio-temporal activity bursts, indicative of critical state dynamics in cortex. Avalanches emerge spontaneously in developing superficial layers of cultured cortex which allows for long-term measurements of the activity with planar integrated multi-electrode arrays (MEA) under precisely controlled conditions.
Vibrodissociation of Neurons from Rodent Brain Slices to Study Synaptic Transmission and Image Presynaptic Terminals
1Section on Synaptic Pharmacology/Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2Department of Electronics Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 3Section on Transmitter Signaling/Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
This report demonstrates a technique for mechanical isolation of individual viable neurons retaining attached presynaptic boutons. Vibrodissociated neurons have the advantages of rapid production, excellent pharmacological control and improved space-clamp without influence from neighboring cells. This method can be used for imaging of synaptic elements and patch-clamp recording.
Whole-mount Immunohistochemical Analysis for Embryonic Limb Skin Vasculature: a Model System to Study Vascular Branching Morphogenesis in Embryo
Laboratory of Stem Cell and Neuro-Vascular Biology, Genetics and Developmental Biology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health
We introduce a whole-mount immunohistochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy with multiple labelling for analyzing intricate vascular network formation in mouse embryonic limb skin.
Cannulation of the Mouse Submandibular Salivary Gland via the Wharton's Duct
1Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, 2National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
A protocol for the cannulation of the mouse submandibular salivary gland via the Wharton's duct is described. For this experiment, the trypan blue solution is used as a dyer to demonstrate how this technique effectively delivers infusions into the targeted gland, and to suggest the reliability of this new approach as a potential clinical drug/cell therapy for the regeneration of salivary glands.
An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival
1National Eye Institute, NIH, 2Ophthalmology Department, The Second Hospital of Harbin Medical University
This protocol shows how to retrogradely label retinal ganglion cells, and how to subsequently make an optic nerve crush injury in order to analyze retinal ganglion cell survival and apoptosis. It is an experimental disease model for different types of optic neuropathy, including glaucoma.
Particle Agglutination Method for Poliovirus Identification
1Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 2New Product Design Department, Fujirebio Inc.
A recently developed novel particle agglutination (PA) assay utilizing virus receptor molecule allowed a rapid and easy identification of poliovirus (PV). In this article, we will show the procedure for the PA assay for PV identification.
Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) of Fluorescence Tagged Proteins in Dendritic Spines of Cultured Hippocampal Neurons
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda
FRAP has been used to quantify the mobility of Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP)-tagged proteins in cultured cells. We examined the mobile/immobile fractions of the GFP by analyzing the fluorescence recovery percentage after photobleaching. In this study, FRAP was performed at spines of hippocampal neurons.
Computer-assisted Large-scale Visualization and Quantification of Pancreatic Islet Mass, Size Distribution and Architecture
1Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 2Laboratory of Biological Modeling, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 3Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, 4Diabetes Division, University of Massachusetts
Novel computer-assisted methods of large-scale procurement and analysis of immunohistochemically stained pancreatic specimens are described: (1) Virtual Slice capture of the entire section; (2) Mass analysis of large-scale data; (3) Reconstruction of 2D Virtual Slices; (4) 3D islet mapping; and (5) Mathematical analysis.
Accurate and Simple Measurement of the Pro-inflammatory Cytokine IL-1β using a Whole Blood Stimulation Assay
1Translational Immunology Section, Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, 2Translational Autoinflammatory Disease Section, Office of the Clinical Director, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
We describe a simple immunoassay to measure the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1 beta production, in patients presenting with autoinflammatory phenotypes. By activating cells in whole blood cultures with pathogen-associated molecular patterns, specifically with lipopolysaccharide, cytokine secretion can be conveniently evaluated in whole blood supernatants.
A Novel Technique of Rescuing Capsulorhexis Radial Tear-out using a Cystotome
1Department of Ophthalmology, Hairmyres Hospital, NHS Lanarkshire, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, 3National Institute of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Ophthalmology, South Devon Healthcare NHS Trust
Capsulorhexis is an important step in phacoemulsification surgery. A surgeon creates a continous curvilinear tear on the anterior lens capsule by controlling the tearing vector forces. A peripherally extended tear is a serious complication. This video demonstrates a novel technique of rescuing capsular radial tear out using a cystotome.
Protocol for Production of a Genetic Cross of the Rodent Malaria Parasites
1National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 2School of Life Science, Xiamen University
Genetic crosses of rodent malaria parasites are performed by feeding two genetically distinct parasites to mosquitoes. Recombinant progeny are cloned from mouse blood after allowing mosquitoes to bite infected mice. This video shows how to produce genetic crosses of Plasmodium yoelii and is applicable to other rodent malaria parasites.
Non-invasive Imaging of Leukocyte Homing and Migration in vivo
1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis, 2National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NINDS, NIH - National Institute of Health
Here, we describe a non-invasive two-photon (2P) microscopy approach to study leukocyte homing in the mouse footpad. We discuss the technical aspects of our tissue imaging preparation and walk the reader through a typical experiment from initial set up to execution and data collection.
Experimental Models for Study of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Physiology and Pathophysiology
National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health
We provide a reproducible method for culturing confluent monolayers of human fetal retinal pigment epithelial cells (hfRPE) cells that exhibit morphology, physiology, polarity, and protein and gene expression patterns of adult native tissue. This work has been extended to an animal model of several eye diseases.
DiOLISTIC Labeling of Neurons from Rodent and Non-human Primate Brain Slices
1Section on Neuronal Structure, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, NIAAA, NIH, 2Department Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, 3Oregon National Primate Research Center, Division of Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University
We demonstrate the use of the gene gun to introduce fluorescent dyes, such as DiI, into neurons in brain slices from rodents and non-human primates of different ages. In this particular case, we use adult mice (3-6 months old) and adult cynomologus monkeys (9-15 years old). This technique, originally described by the laboratory of Dr. Lichtman (Gan et al., 2000), is well suited for the study of dendritic branching and dendritic spine morphology and can be combined with traditional immunostaining, if detergents are kept at a low concentration.
Genetic Studies of Human DNA Repair Proteins Using Yeast as a Model System
Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, NIH
Genetic studies in yeast can be employed to investigate the molecular and cellular functions of human genes in cellular DNA metabolism. Methods are described for the genetic characterization of the human WRN gene product defective in the premature aging disorder Werner syndrome in functionally conserved pathways using yeast as a tractable model system.
Intranuclear Microinjection of DNA into Dissociated Adult Mammalian Neurons
Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Direct intranuclear injection of cDNA is an effective transfection technique for post-mitotic cells. This method provides high levels of heterologous protein expression from single or multiple cDNA constructs and enables protein function to be studied in a physiologically relevant environment with a variety of single cell assays.
Assembly, Loading, and Alignment of an Analytical Ultracentrifuge Sample Cell
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Dynamics of Macromolecular Assembly, Laboratory of Bioengineering and Physical Science
The analytical ultracentrifuge (AUC) sample cell holds sample and reference buffer and during experiments and is exposed to high vacuum and rotor speeds up to 60,000 rpm. This video will demonstrate the rigorous attention to detail necessary for assembly, loading and alignment of this very important component of an AUC experiment.
Antibody Profiling by Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS)
Neurobiology and Pain Therapeutics Section, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health
The technical aspects of performing LIPS (Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems) are described. The overall approach involves expressing chimeric genes encoding antigens fused to Renilla luciferase (Ruc) in mammalian cells. Crude Ruc-antigen extracts are then prepared and, without purification, employed in immunoprecipitation assays to quantify antibodies.
Preparation and Culture of Rat Lens Epithelial Explants for Studying Terminal Differentiation
Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology, National Eye Institute (NEI), National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Explants of the central region of rat lens epithelia differentiate synchronously when cultured in the presence of FGF-2. Immunofluorescence microscopy of such cultures can provides novel information about gene expression and signaling events associated with terminal differentiation.
Gross and Fine Dissection of Inner Ear Sensory Epithelia in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
1Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 2Neuroscience and Cognitive Science Program, University of Maryland
The inner ear sensory epithelium of adult zebrafish is a good model system for understanding the mechanisms of hair cell regeneration in adult vertebrates. This protocol demonstrates the fine dissection of the epithelia, through which we can get tissue samples for studying the regenerative events at cellular and subcellular levels.
Methods for Patch Clamp Capacitance Recordings from the Calyx
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health
We demonstrate the basic techniques for presynaptic patch clamp recording at the calyx of Held, a mammalian central nervous system nerve terminal.