36 articles published in JoVE
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, 3Department of Otolaryngology, University of Michigan
Evaluated in syngeneic immunocompetent hosts, cancer stem cell (CSC) based dendritic cell (DC) vaccine demonstrated significantly higher antitumor immunity than traditional DC vaccines pulsed with heterogeneous bulk tumor cells.
Published January 6, 2014. Keywords: Cancer Biology, Cancer stem cell (CSC), Dendritic cells (DC), Vaccine, Cancer immunotherapy, antitumor immunity, aldehyde dehydrogenase
1Center for Advanced Models for Translational Sciences and Therapeutics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, University of Yamanashi
Recent development in gene targeting tools makes production of knockout (KO) rabbits possible. In the present work, we generated five Apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III KO rabbits using Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN). This work demonstrated that ZFN is a highly efficient method to produce KO rabbits.
Published November 18, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Apolipoprotein C-III, rabbits, knockout, zinc finger nuclease, cardiovascular diseases, lipid metabolism, ApoCIII
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, 2Department of Surgery/Transplant, University of Illinois at Chicago, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago
Microfluidic oxygen control confers more than just convenience and speed over hypoxic chambers for biological experiments. Especially when implemented via diffusion through a membrane, microfluidic oxygen can provide simultaneous liquid and gas phase modulations at the microscale-level. This technique enables dynamic multi-parametric experiments critical for studying islet pathophysiology.
Published November 17, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Islets of Langerhans, Microfluidics, Microfluidic Analytical Techniques, Microfluidic Analytical Techniques, oxygen, islet, hypoxia, intermittent hypoxia
1Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, University of Michigan
Zebrafish are an emerging system for modeling human disorders of the skeletal muscle. We describe a fast and efficient method to isolate skeletal muscle myofibers from embryonic and larval zebrafish. This method yields a high-density myofiber preparation suitable for study of single skeletal muscle fiber morphology, protein subcellular localization, and muscle physiology.
Published November 13, 2013. Keywords: Basic Protocol, Zebrafish, Neuromuscular Diseases, Muscular Diseases, Muscular Dystrophies, Primary Cell Culture, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), skeletal muscle, myofiber, live imaging
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Surgery, Section of Plastic Surgery, University of Michigan, 3Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, University of Michigan, 4Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan
Force measurements can be used to demonstrate changes in muscle function due to development, injury, disease, treatment or chemical toxicity. In this video, we demonstrate a method to measure force during a maximal contraction of zebrafish larval trunk muscle.
Published July 23, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Biophysics, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Muscle, contraction, force, zebrafish, larvae, muscle function, muscle health, force generation, animal model
1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan
High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), with its 4x1-ring montage, is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that combines both the neuromodulatory effects of conventional tDCS with increased focality. This article provides a systematic demonstration of the use of 4x1 HD-tDCS, and the considerations needed for safe and effective stimulation.
Published July 14, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Physiology, Anatomy, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Neurophysiology, Nervous System Diseases, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, Anesthesia and Analgesia, Investigative Techniques, Equipment and Supplies, Mental Disorders, Transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS, High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation, HD-tDCS, Electrical brain stimulation, Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Neuromodulation, non-invasive, brain, stimulation, clinical techniques
1Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan
We describe methods for the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of plasmonic photoconductive emitters, which offer two orders of magnitude higher terahertz power levels compared to conventional photoconductive emitters.
Published July 8, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Electrical Engineering, Computer Science, Materials Science, Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Instrumentation and Photography, Lasers and Masers, Optics, Solid-State Physics, Terahertz, Plasmonic, Time-Domain Spectroscopy, Photoconductive Emitter, electronics
1Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan
A protocol for cell cycle analysis of live Drosophila tissues using the Attune Acoustic Focusing Cytometer is described. This protocol simultaneously provides information about relative cell size, cell number, DNA content and cell type via lineage tracing or tissue specific expression of fluorescent proteins in vivo.
Published May 19, 2013. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Developmental Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Genetics, Flow Cytometry, Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, Metamorphosis, Biological, drosophila, Gal4/UAS, insect metamorphosis, animal model
1Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan
A simple method to establish primary murine colon tumor organoid is described. This method utilizes the feature that colon tumor cells survive and grow into organoids in media containing limited growth factors, whereas normal colon epithelial do not.
Published May 17, 2013. Keywords: Cancer Biology, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Genetics, Oncology, Surgery, Organoids, Tumor Cells, Cultured Colonic Neoplasms, Primary Cell Culture, Colon tumor, chelation, collagenase, matrigel, organoid, EGF, colon cancer, cancer, tumor, cell, isolation, immunohistochemistry, mouse, animal model
1Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan
In order to study the changes of nociceptive intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) in painful neuropathies (PN), we developed protocols that could directly examine three-dimensional morphological changes observed in nociceptive IENFs. Three-dimensional analysis of IENFs has the potential to evaluate the morphological changes of IENF in PN.
Published April 29, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Neurology, Pathology, Peripheral Nervous System Diseases, PNS, Polyneuropathies, Nervous System Diseases, intraepidermal nerve fibers, human skin biopsy, three-dimensional imaging, painful neuropathy, intraepidermal nerve fiber densities, IENFD, nerves, immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, imaging
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan
Aqueous two-phase systems were used to simultaneously pattern multiple populations of cells. This fast and easy method for cell patterning takes advantage of the phase separation of aqueous solutions of dextran and polyethylene glycol and the interfacial tension that exists between the two polymer solutions.
Published March 26, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cell Migration Assays, Culture Techniques, bioengineering (general), Patterning, Aqueous Two-Phase System, Co-Culture, cell, Dextran, Polyethylene glycol, media, PEG, DEX, colonies, cell culture
1Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Michigan
Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model organism for exploring the molecular basis of longevity regulation. This protocol will discuss the steps involved in generating a reproducible, population-based measurement of longevity as well as potential pitfalls and how to avoid them.
Published January 7, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Entomology, longevity, lifespan, aging, Drosophila melanogaster, fruit fly, Drosophila, mortality, animal model
1Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, University of Michigan
High throughput validation of multiple candidate biomarkers can be performed by sequential ELISA in order to minimize freeze/thaw cycles and use of precious plasma samples. Here, we demonstrate how to sequentially perform ELISAs for six different validated plasma biomarkers1-3 of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)4 on the same plasma sample.
Published October 31, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, ELISA, Sequential ELISA, Cytokine, Blood plasma, biomarkers, proteomics, graft-versus-host disease, Small sample, Quantification
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Here we describe a method to quantify infectious particles of murine norovirus (MNV), which is the only norovirus that efficiently replicates in cell culture. The plaque assay takes advantage of MNV’s tropism for murine macrophages and can be adapted for use with biological or environmental samples containing MNV.
Published August 22, 2012. Keywords: Virology, Immunology, Infection, Medicine, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, plaque assay, norovirus, murine norovirus, MNV, murine macrophages, RAW 264.7 cells
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine
Here we describe a low-cost, rapid, controlled and uniform fixation procedure using 4% paraformaldehyde perfused via the vascular system: through the heart of the rat to obtain the best possible preservation of the brain.
Published July 30, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Paraformaldehyde, fixation, physiological pressures, vascular system, brain, preservation
1Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2IMEC, Belgium
We present methods for fabrication of patterned microstructures of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and their use as master molds for production of polymer microstructures with organized nanoscale surface texture. The CNT forests are densified by condensation of solvent onto the substrate, which significantly increases their packing density and enables self-directed formation of 3D shapes.
Published July 2, 2012. Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Carbon nanotube, microstructure, fabrication, molding, transfer, polymer
1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, 2MidWest Eye Banks
Endothelial corneal transplantation is a surgical technique for treatment of posterior corneal diseases. Mechanical microkeratome dissection to prepare tissue results in thinner, more symmetric grafts with less endothelial cell loss and improved outcomes. Dissections can be performed at the eye bank prior to corneal transplantation surgery.
Published June 12, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Physiology, Cornea, transplantation, DSAEK, DSEK, endothelial keratoplasty, lamellar, graft, Moria, microkeratome, precut, Fuchs dystrophy
1Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School
We describe the first endurance training protocol for an important genetic model species, Drosophila melanogaster, and outline several assays to chart improvements in mobility following training.
Published March 26, 2012. Keywords: Physiology, Drosophila, endurance, exercise, training
1Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 4Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University
The electrode-tissue interface of neural recording electrodes can be characterized with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Application of voltage biasing changes the electrochemical properties of the electrode-tissue interface and can improve recording capability. Voltage biasing, EIS, CV, and neural recordings are complementary.
Published February 24, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, neuroprosthesis, electrode-tissue interface, rejuvenation, neural engineering, neuroscience, neural implant, electrode, brain-computer interface, electrochemistry
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3NeuroNexus Technologies
We provide useful information for surgeons who are learning the process of implanting chronic neural recording electrodes. Techniques for both penetrating and surface electrode systems are described in a rodent animal model.
Published February 24, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, chronic, silicon electrode, thin film surface electrode, microECoG, surgery, survival, electrophysiology
1Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, 2Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Molecular Bioscience, University of Kansas
Guidelines for computer based structural and functional characterization of protein using the I-TASSER pipeline is described. Starting from query protein sequence, 3D models are generated using multiple threading alignments and iterative structural assembly simulations. Functional inferences are thereafter drawn based on matches to proteins with known structure and functions.
Published November 3, 2011. Keywords: Biochemistry, On-line server, I-TASSER, protein structure prediction, function prediction
1LSA Biophysics, University of Michigan, 2LSA Biophysics, Department of Physics, University of Michigan
We illustrate the use of a constant force axial optical tweezers to explore the mechanical properties of short DNA molecules. By stretching DNA axially, we minimize steric hindrances and artifacts arising in conventional lateral manipulation, allowing us to study DNA molecules as short as ~100 nm.
Published October 13, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, Genetics, DNA stretching, DNA, Axial Optical Tweezers, Single-Molecule Biophysics, Biophysics
1Center for Arrhythmia Research. Internal Medicine, University of Michigan
This report provides a detailed description of the methodology and results of simultaneous endocardial and epicardial optical mapping of electrical excitation in the intact left atrium of a Langendorff-perfused sheep heart during stretch-induced atrial fibrillation.
Published July 29, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, atrial fibrillation, endocardial mapping, patterns of activation, posterior left atrium
1Conrad Jobst Vascular Research Laboratories, Section of Vascular Surgery, University of Michigan, 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan
The electrolytic induction of endothelial activation to the internal surface of the Inferior Vena Cava results in venous type thrombus formation due to endothelial activation and partial blood stasis, two components of Virchow's triad.
Published July 12, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, Endothelial dysfunction, Thrombosis, Electrolytic injury, Inflammation, Animal model
1Conrad Jobst Vascular Research Laboratories, Section of Vascular Surgery, University of Michigan
The mouse complete stasis model of inferior vena cava thrombosis yields quantifiable amounts of vein wall tissue and thrombus. It has proven useful for evaluating interactions between the vein wall and the occlusive thrombus and in assessing the progression from acute to chronic inflammation.
Published June 15, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, Animal model, mouse, venous thrombosis, stasis induced thrombosis, inflammation, venous disease
1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Michigan, 2Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan
Here we present a protocol for performing solid plate-based dietary restriction in C. elegans with killed bacteria.
Published May 28, 2011. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Dietary restriction, caloric restriction, C. elegans, longevity
1Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 2Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Charité, University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an established technique to modulate cortical excitability1,2. It has been used as an investigative tool in neuroscience due to its effects on cortical plasticity, easy operation, and safe profile. One area that tDCS has been showing encouraging results is pain alleviation 3-5.
Published May 23, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Transcranial direct current stimulation, pain, chronic pain, noninvasive brain stimulation, neuromodulation
1Human Genetics, University of Michigan
The C. elegans embryo is a powerful system for studying cell biology and development. We present a protocol for live imaging of C. elegans embryos utilizing DIC optics or fluorescence using readily available epifluorescent microscopes and open-source software.
Published March 24, 2011. Keywords: Basic Protocols, Cellular Biology, Caenorhabditis elegans, microscopy, development
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, 3Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, 4Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Health System
Aligned electrospun fibers direct the growth of neurons in vitro and are a potential component of nerve regeneration scaffolds. We describe a procedure for preparing electrospun fiber substrates and the serum-free culture of primary rat E15 sensory (DRG) and motor neurons. Visualization of neurons by immunocytochemistry is also included.
Published February 15, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Electrospinning, motor neurons, nanofibers, scaffold, primary cell culture, DRG
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, 3Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, 4Geriatrics Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare Center
Electrospinning techniques can create a variety of nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering or other applications. We describe here a procedure to optimize the parameters of the electrospinning solution and apparatus to obtain fibers with the desired morphology and alignment. Common problems and troubleshooting techniques are also presented.
Published January 21, 2011. Keywords: Bioengineering, electrospinning, nanofibers, scaffold, alignment
1Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 3Present address: Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
A method to deliver morpholinos directly into the zebrafish otocyst at 24hpf has been developed. Using microinjection of morpholinos into the lumen of otic vesicle and electroporation to effect penetration, we were able to bypass the effect of morpholinos on the brain and obtain effects specific to the inner ear.
Published January 7, 2011. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Zebrafish inner ear, microinjection, electroporation, morpholino
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan
Protocols for utilizing open system flow biofilms with drip flow reactors and rotating disk reactors are presented in detail.
Published December 27, 2010. Keywords: Immunology, biofilm, drip flow reactor, rotating disk reactor, open system biofilm
1Michigan Research Community, Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program, University of Michigan, 2Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, University of Michigan
We developed a sensitive technique to label newly synthesized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in individual cells in order to study mtDNA biogenesis. The technique combines the incorporation of EdU together with a tyramide signal amplification (TSA) protocol to visualize mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons.
Published November 15, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), labeling, tyramide signal amplification, mtDNA biogenesis, dorsal root ganglion neurons
1College of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, 2The Waggoner Center of Addiction and Alcohol Research, University of Texas at Austin, 3Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 4Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, 5Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin
Drug self-administration and ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are used as behavioral assessments in animal research, but rarely in combination. The purpose of this article is to describe the advantages of recording USVs during drug self-administration procedures to assess affective responses to drug experience.
Published July 22, 2010. Keywords: JoVE Neuroscience, ultrasound, behavior, self-administration, emotionality, anticipation, reward
1Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
A detailed protocol is described for imaging the real time formation of DNA repair complexes in Bacillus subtilis cells.
Published February 8, 2010. Keywords: Microbiology, mismatch repair, DNA repair, microscopy, DNA replication, Bacillus subtilis, GFP, SOS, FM4-64, fluorescence microscopy
1Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough
Here we describe a data collection and data analysis method for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a novel non-invasive brain imaging system used in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in studying child brain development. This method provides a universal standard of data acquisition and analysis vital to data interpretation and scientific discovery.
Published July 28, 2009. Keywords: Neuroscience, infant, child, Near Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS, optical tomography, cognitive neuroscience, psychology, brain, developmental cognitive neuroscience, analysis