1Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 2JoVE Content Production
Published October 1, 2014. Keywords: This Month in JoVE,
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, 2Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, CHUV University Hospital, 3Department of Vascular Surgery, Pellegrin Hospital, University of Bordeaux, 4Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, CHUV University Hospital
The mechanisms leading to the development of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and vein graft failure are still poorly understood. This study describes an ex vivo system to perfuse human veins under controlled flow and pressure. Furthermore the efficiency of external mesh reinforcement to limit the development of IH was evaluated.
Published October 1, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, vein, human, intimal hyperplasia, neointima, perfusion, mesh, pressure, ex vivo
1Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago
Recording Ca2+ currents at the presynaptic release face membrane is key to a precise understanding of Ca2+ entry and neurotransmitter release. We present an acute dissociation of the lamprey spinal cord that yields functional isolated reticulospinal axons, permitting recording directly from the release face membrane of individual presynaptic terminals.
Published October 1, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, reticulospinal synapse, reticulospinal axons, presynaptic terminal, presynaptic calcium, voltage-gated calcium channels, vesicle fusion, synaptic transmission, neurotransmitter release, spinal cord, lamprey, synaptic vesicles, acute dissociation
1Biomedical Engineering, Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California, Irvine
In this video protocol we track - at high speed and in three dimensions - fluorescently labeled lysosomes within living cells, using the orbital tracking method in a modified two-photon microscope.
Published October 1, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, fluorescence, single particle tracking, laser scanning microscope, two-photon, vesicle transport, live-cell imaging, optics
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, 2Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan
Competition in Streptococcus pneumoniae is mediated by bacteriocins, small antimicrobial peptides with inhibitory activity towards pneumococcus and other related species. Here we describe an optimized bacterial overlay assay that allows for the characterization of bacteriocin activity and inhibitory spectrum, bacteriocin-specific immunity, and detection of secreted quorum sensing peptides.
Published September 30, 2014. Keywords: Infectious Diseases, bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides, blp locus, bacterial competition, Streptococcus pneumoniae, overlay assay
JoVE Applied Physics
1Applied Water Physics, Wetsus - Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, 2IRCAM GmbH, 3Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz University of Technology
Horizontal and vertical electrohydrodynamic liquid bridges are simple and powerful tools for exploring the interaction of high intensity electric fields and polar dielectric liquids. The construction of basic apparatus and operational examples, including thermographic images, for three liquids (e.g., water, DMSO, and glycerol) is presented.
Published September 30, 2014. Keywords: Physics, floating water bridge, polar dielectric liquids, liquid bridge, electrohydrodynamics, thermography, dielectrophoresis, electrowetting, Sumoto effect, Armstrong effect
1Institute of Integrative Neuroanatomy, NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence, Charité Universitätmedizin
Cortical networks are controlled by a small, but diverse set of inhibitory interneurons. Functional investigation of interneurons therefore requires targeted recording and rigorous identification. Described here is a combined approach involving whole-cell recordings from single or synaptically-coupled pairs of neurons with intracellular labeling, post-hoc morphological and immunocytochemical analysis.
Published September 30, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, electrophysiology, acute slice, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, neuronal morphology, immunocytochemistry, parvalbumin, hippocampus, inhibition, GABAergic interneurons, synaptic transmission, IPSC, GABA-B receptor
1Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children's National Medical Center, 2Department of Integrative Systems Biology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences
Open field activity levels are used to assess locomotive and behavioral activity levels. This protocol provides a well-designed, standardized protocol to use in preclinical trials for neuromuscular disorders.
Published September 29, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, open field activity, functional testing, behavioral testing, skeletal muscle, congenital muscular dystrophy, muscular dystrophy
1The ithree Institute, University of Technology, Sydney
Spatiotemporal information about dynamic proteins inside live cells is crucial for understanding biology. A type of super-resolution microscopy called fast 3D-structured illumination microscopy (f3D-SIM) reveals unique information about the cytokinetic Z ring in bacteria: both its bead-like appearance and the rapid dynamics of FtsZ within the ring.
Published September 29, 2014. Keywords: Molecular Biology, super-resolution microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, OMX, 3D-SIM, Blaze, cell division, bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, FtsZ, Z ring constriction
1Penn Cardiovascular Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
In this protocol, we identified a novel population of melanocyte-like cells (also known as cardiac melanocytes) in the hearts of mice and humans that contribute to atrial arrhythmia triggers in mice.
Published September 29, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, melanocyte-like cells, heart, mouse, atrial myocytes, primary isolation