1Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 2Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine
This protocol describes repetitive hypoxic preconditioning, or brief exposures to systemic hypoxia that reduce infarct volumes and blood-brain barrier disruption following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. It also details dual quantification of infarct volume and blood-brain barrier disruption after stroke to assess the efficacy of neurovascular protection.
Published May 4, 2015. Keywords: Medicine, Hypoxia, preconditioning, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, stroke, neuroprotection, blood-brain barrier disruption
1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, 2Department of Anatomical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
The intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model is the most frequent used model among experimental ischemic stroke models. Here we will demonstrate the entire model in detail with the guide of Laser Doppler flowmetry, and its representative results.
Published May 8, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, Cerebral ischemia, mouse, middle cerebral artery occlusion, intraluminal suture, Laser Doppler
1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, 2Department of Anatomical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, 3Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, 4Department of Neurology, University of Florida
Several animal models of cerebral ischemia have been developed to simulate the human condition of stroke. This protocol describes the endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model for ischemic stroke in rats. In addition, important considerations, advantages, and shortcomings of this model are discussed.
Published February 16, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Anatomy, Physiology, Nervous System Diseases, Ischemic stroke, Endothelin-1, Cerebrovascular, brain, artery, stroke, occlusion, laser, doppley, flowmetry, rat, animal model
1Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester, 2Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Departments of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester
Middle cerebral artery (MCA) ligation is a technique to study focal cerebral ischemia in animal models. In this method, the middle cerebral artery is exposed by craniotomy and ligated by cauterization. This method gives highly reproducible infarct volumes and increased post-operative survival rates compared to other methods available.
Published July 25, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, brain, stroke, mouse, middle cerebral artery ligation
1Department of Neurology, Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University
We demonstrate in the video a method for producing a middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult mice using an intraluminal monofilament. We also show how to evaluate the extent of cerebral infarction by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining.
Published February 13, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, Neurology, Stroke, mice, ischemia
1Vascular Biology and Stroke Research Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, Shreveport
In this paper, we demonstrate a standard method for producing an embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion with homologous blood clots (fibrin-rich) in adult rat. This model closely mimics human ischemic stroke and is suitable for preclinical study of thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke.
Published September 17, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, ischemic stroke, model, embolus, middle cerebral artery occlusion, thrombolytic therapy
1Laboratory of Biochemical Neuroendocrinology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, 2CHUQ Research Centre, Laval University
The intraluminal middle cerebral occlusion model in mice is herein presented. The extent of cerebral infarct is evaluated by a neurologic score and cresyl violet staining, an alternative staining to TTC, offering the great advantage to test in parallel many interest markers.
Published November 6, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Neuroscience, Biochemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, transient ischemic stroke, middle cerebral artery occlusion, intraluminal model, neuroscore, cresyl violet staining, mice, imaging
1Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Centre for Molecular and Vascular Biology, Catholic University of Leuven
Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization and a major cause of mortality. A model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice is applied to investigate ventricular remodelling and cardiac dysfunction post-myocardial infarction. The technique of invasive hemodynamic measurements in mice is presented.
Published December 2, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Myocardial infarction, cardiac remodelling, infarct expansion, heart failure, cardiac function, invasive hemodynamic measurements
1Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine
The postnatal rat model for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a well-established model of human neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In this article, we describe the model of HIE in post-natal rat pups.
Published November 19, 2008. Keywords: Neuroscience, Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), 2 3 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), brain infarct
1Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Surgical induction of ischemic brain damage in the rat is a widely used model for stroke research. Here we demonstrate the induction of focal cerebral ischemia by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Visualization of the resulting infarct by histological staining and magnetic resonance imaging is also shown.
Published February 5, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Stroke, cerebral ischemia, middle cerebral artery occlusion, intraluminal filament, rat, magnetic resonance imaging, surgery, neuroscience, brain