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  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
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  JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

  
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  JoVE Bioengineering

  
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  JoVE Applied Physics

  
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  JoVE Behavior

  
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  JoVE Environment

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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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Model Organisms II

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Essentials of
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 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Quantifying Glomerular Permeability of Fluorescent Macromolecules Using 2-Photon Microscopy in Munich Wistar Rats

1Medicine/Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine


JoVE 50052

A technique utilizing high resolution intavital 2-photon microscopy to directly visualize and quantify gloemrular filtration in surface glomeruli. This method allows for direct determination of permeability characteristics of macromolecules in both normal and diseased states.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Intravital Imaging of the Mouse Thymus using 2-Photon Microscopy

1Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência


JoVE 3504

We have developed novel laboratory tools and protocols for intravital imaging acquisition of the thymus. Our technique should help in the identification of “niches” within the thymus where T cell development occurs.

 JoVE Biology

In Vivo 2-Photon Calcium Imaging in Layer 2/3 of Mice

1Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles


JoVE 681

To understand network dynamics of microcircuits in the neocortex, it is essential to simultaneously record the activity of a large number of neurons . In-vivo two-photon calcium imaging is the only method that allows one to record the activity of a dense neuronal population with single-cell resolution .

 JoVE Biology

A Method for 2-Photon Imaging of Blood Flow in the Neocortex through a Cranial Window

1Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles


JoVE 678

Cortical blood flow dynamics can be studied in vivo by imaging fluorescent dextran dyes injected into the tail vein of rodents with 2-photon microscopy. This video shows how to image blood flow dynamics in neocortex of mice through a glass-covered cranial window preparation.

 JoVE Biology

Dissection and 2-Photon Imaging of Peripheral Lymph Nodes in Mice

1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine (UCI), 2Department of Neurobiology and Behaviour, University of California, Irvine (UCI)


JoVE 265

Two-photon imaging has uncovered lymphocyte motility and cellular interactions within the lymph node under basal conditions and durring an immune response 1. Here, we demonstrate adoptive transfer of T cells, isolation of lymph nodes, and imaging motility of CD4+ T cells in the explanted lymph node.

 JoVE Biology

Generation of Bone Marrow Derived Murine Dendritic Cells for Use in 2-photon Imaging

1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine (UCI), 2Department of Neurobiology and Behaviour, University of California, Irvine (UCI)


JoVE 773

Antigen presentation in secondary lymphoid organs by dendritic cells is crucial for the initiation of the T cell mediated adaptive immune response. Here we demonstrate the culture of bone marrow derived murine dendritic cells, activation, and labeling for 2-photon imaging.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Direct Observation of Phagocytosis and NET-formation by Neutrophils in Infected Lungs using 2-photon Microscopy

1Institute for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, 2Department of Immunoregulation, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research


JoVE 2659

We show, how to use 2-photon microscopy for the observation of the dynamics of neutrophil granulocytes in infected lungs while they phagocytose pathogens or produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).

 JoVE Neuroscience

Fast Micro-iontophoresis of Glutamate and GABA: A Useful Tool to Investigate Synaptic Integration

1NRW Research Group 'Dendritic integration in the CNS', Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, 2Neuronal Networks Group, Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V. (DZNE)


JoVE 50701

In this article we introduce fast micro-iontophoresis of neurotransmitters as a technique to investigate integration of postsynaptic signals with high spatial and temporal precision.

 JoVE Biology

In vivo Clonal Tracking of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Marked by Five Fluorescent Proteins using Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy

1Light Microscopy Core Facility, NHLBI/NIH, 2Hematology Branch, NHLBI/NIH


JoVE 51669

Combinatorial 5 fluorescent proteins marking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells allows in vivo clonal tracking via confocal and two-photon microscopy, providing insights into bone marrow hematopoietic architecture during regeneration. This method allows non-invasive fate mapping of spectrally-coded HSPCs-derived cells in intact tissues for extensive periods of time following transplantation.

 JoVE Biology

Mouse Fetal Whole Intestine Culture System for Ex Vivo Manipulation of Signaling Pathways and Three-dimensional Live Imaging of Villus Development

1Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, 2Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Instituet Novum


JoVE 51817

Improved imaging technology is allowing three-dimensional imaging of organs during development. Here we describe a whole organ culture system that allows live imaging of the developing villi in the fetal mouse intestine.

 JoVE Bioengineering

3D Orbital Tracking in a Modified Two-photon Microscope: An Application to the Tracking of Intracellular Vesicles

1Biomedical Engineering, Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California, Irvine


JoVE 51794

In this video protocol we track - at high speed and in three dimensions - fluorescently labeled lysosomes within living cells, using the orbital tracking method in a modified two-photon microscope.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Method to Make a Craniotomy on the Ventral Skull of Neonate Rodents

1Department of Biology, The City University of New York, City College, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City University of New York, City College


JoVE 51350

A surgical method is described to expose the ventral skull in neonate rats. Using this approach it is possible to open a craniotomy to perform acute electrophysiology and two-photon microscopy experiments in the brainstem of anesthetized pups.

 JoVE Behavior

Two-photon Calcium Imaging in Mice Navigating a Virtual Reality Environment

1Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, 2Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, 3Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zurich


JoVE 50885

Here we describe the experimental procedures involved in two-photon imaging of mouse cortex during behavior in a virtual reality environment.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Imaging Cleared Intact Biological Systems at a Cellular Level by 3DISCO

1Neuroscience, Genentech, Inc., 2Department of Discovery Oncology, Genentech, Inc., 3Department of Pathology, Genentech, Inc.


JoVE 51382

To obtain high-resolution images of fluorescently labeled cells within large tissues, ideally, the biological samples should be imaged without sectioning. 3DISCO is a straightforward tissue clearing procedure based on sequential incubation with organic solvents. Upon clearing, the organs become transparent allowing an end-to-end laser scan of the specimen.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Polished and Reinforced Thinned-skull Window for Long-term Imaging of the Mouse Brain

1Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Pennsylvania State University, 4Section of Neurobiology, University of California, San Diego


JoVE 3742

We present a method to form an imaging window in the mouse skull that spans millimeters and is stable for months without inflammation of the brain. This method is well suited for longitudinal studies of blood flow, cellular dynamics, and cell/vascular structure using two-photon microscopy.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Harmonic Nanoparticles for Regenerative Research

1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 2Physics Department, GAP-Biophotonics, University of Geneva, 3Laboratoire d'Optique Biomédicale (LOB), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de l'Ingénieur, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, 5School of Medicine and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, 6Nikon AG Instruments


JoVE 51333

Protocol details are provided for in vitro labeling human embryonic stem cells with second harmonic generating nanoparticles. Methodologies for hESC investigation by multi-photon microscopy and their differentiation into cardiac clusters are also presented.

 JoVE Neuroscience

An Ex Vivo Laser-induced Spinal Cord Injury Model to Assess Mechanisms of Axonal Degeneration in Real-time

1KY Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Louisville, 2Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary


JoVE 52173

We present a protocol utilizing two-photon excitation time-lapse microscopy to simultaneously visualize the dynamics of axon and myelin injuries in real time. This proposed protocol permits studies of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can influence central myelinated axon fate after injury and contribute to permanent clinical disability.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Intravital Imaging of Axonal Interactions with Microglia and Macrophages in a Mouse Dorsal Column Crush Injury

1Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 52228

Two-photon intravital imaging can be used to investigate interactions among different cell types in the spinal cord in their native tissue environment in a bone marrow chimeric animal with a dorsal column traumatic spinal cord crush injury.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Transplantation into the Anterior Chamber of the Eye for Longitudinal, Non-invasive In vivo Imaging with Single-cell Resolution in Real-time

1Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 4Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 5The Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Karolinska Institutet


JoVE 50466

A new approach combining intraocular transplantation and confocal microscopy enables longitudinal, non-invasive real-time imaging with single-cell resolution within grafted tissues in vivo. We demonstrate how to transplant pancreatic islets into the anterior chamber of the mouse eye.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles

1Heart Research Center Goettingen, 2Clinic of Cardiology & Pulmonology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 3German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, 4BioMET, Center for Biomedical Engineering & Technology, University of Maryland School of Medicine


JoVE 51823

In cardiac myocytes, tubular membrane structures form intracellular networks. We describe optimized protocols for i) isolation of myocytes from mouse heart including quality control, ii) live cell staining for state-of-the-art fluorescence microscopy, and iii) direct image analysis to quantify the component complexity and the plasticity of intracellular membrane networks.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

A Novel High-resolution In vivo Imaging Technique to Study the Dynamic Response of Intracranial Structures to Tumor Growth and Therapeutics

1Brain Tumor Research Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto Medical Discovery Tower, 2Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital


JoVE 50363

We describe a novel in vivo imaging technique that couples fluorescent chimeric mice with intracranial windows and high-resolution 2-photon microscopy. This imaging platform aids studies of dynamic changes in brain tissue and microvasculature, at a single-cell level, following pathological insults and is adaptable to assess intracranial drug delivery and distribution.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Analysis of Cell Migration within a Three-dimensional Collagen Matrix

1Institute of Immunology & Experimental Oncology, Center for Biomedical Education and Research (ZBAF), Witten/Herdecke University


JoVE 51963

Cell migration is a biological phenomenon that is involved in a plethora of physiological, such as wound healing and immune responses, and pathophysiological processes, like cancer. The 3D-collagen matrix migration assay is a versatile tool to analyze the migratory properties of different cell types within in a 3D physiological-like environment.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Cerebral Blood Oxygenation Measurement Based on Oxygen-dependent Quenching of Phosphorescence

1Optics Division, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania, 3Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Departments of Radiology and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 4Departments of Neurosciences and Radiology, University of California


JoVE 1694

We present an experimental procedure for measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in cerebral vasculature based on oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence. Animal preparation and imaging procedures were outlined for both large field of view CCD-based imaging of pO2 in rats and 2-photon excitation based imaging of pO2 in mice.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Intravital Microscopy of the Spleen: Quantitative Analysis of Parasite Mobility and Blood Flow

1Department of poverty related diseases, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, 2Confocal Microscopy Unit, University of Barcelona- Scientific and Technological Centers, 3Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA)


JoVE 3609

We show the method for performing intravital microscopy of the spleen using GFP transgenic malaria parasites and the quantification of parasite mobility and blood flow within this organ.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Combination of Microstereolithography and Electrospinning to Produce Membranes Equipped with Niches for Corneal Regeneration

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, 3L. V. Prasad Eye Institute


JoVE 51826

We report a technique for the fabrication of micropockets within electrospun membranes in which to study cell behavior. Specifically, we describe a combination of microstereolithography and electrospinning for the production of PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) corneal biomaterial devices equipped with microfeatures.

 JoVE Biology

Intravital Microscopy for Imaging Subcellular Structures in Live Mice Expressing Fluorescent Proteins

1Intracellular Membrane Trafficking Unit, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University


JoVE 50558

Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool that enables imaging various biological processes in live animals. In this article, we present a detailed method for imaging the dynamics of subcellular structures, such as the secretory granules, in the salivary glands of live mice.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Simultaneous Long-term Recordings at Two Neuronal Processing Stages in Behaving Honeybees

1Department of Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology (Zoology II) Biozentrum, University of Würzburg


JoVE 51750

Simultaneous extracellular long term recordings from two different brain neuropiles or two different anatomical tracts were established in honeybees. These recordings allow the investigation of temporal aspects of neuronal processing across different brain areas at the single neuron as well as at the ensemble level in a behaving animal.

 JoVE Biology

A Faster, High Resolution, mtPA-GFP-based Mitochondrial Fusion Assay Acquiring Kinetic Data of Multiple Cells in Parallel Using Confocal Microscopy

1Department of Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience Research, Tufts School of Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics & Gerontology, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, 3Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center


JoVE 3991

Mitochondrial fusion was measured by tracking the equilibration of photoconverted matrix-targeted GFP across the mitochondrial network over time. Thus far, only one cell could be subjected to an hour long kinetic analysis at a time. We present a method that simultaneously measures multiple cells, thereby speeding up the data collection process.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Inducing Plasticity of Astrocytic Receptors by Manipulation of Neuronal Firing Rates

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 3Center for Glial-Neuronal Interactions, University of California Riverside


JoVE 51458

Here we describe an adaptation of protocols used to induce homeostatic plasticity in neurons for the study of plasticity of astrocytic G protein-coupled receptors. Recently used to examine changes in astrocytic group I mGluRs in juvenile mice, the method can be applied to measure scaling of various astrocytic GPCRs, in tissue from adult mice in situ and in vivo, and to gain a better appreciation of the sensitivity of astrocytic receptors to changes in neuronal activity.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Intravital Imaging of the Mouse Popliteal Lymph Node

1Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Pediatrics, Pathology and Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 3720

Recent advances in 2-photon microscopy have enabled real-time in situ imaging of live tissues in animal models, thereby enhancing our ability to investigate cellular behavior in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. Here, we outline the preparations required to perform intravital imaging of the mouse popliteal lymph node.

 JoVE Biology

Preparation of Gene Gun Bullets and Biolistic Transfection of Neurons in Slice Culture

1Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis


JoVE 675

We describe a method for preparing DNA coated gold bullets and demonstrate the use of such bullets to biolistically transfect neurons in cultured hippocampal slices.

 JoVE Biology

A Craniotomy Surgery Procedure for Chronic Brain Imaging

1Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles


JoVE 680

This video and protocol demonstrate how to implant a glass-covered cranial window in rodents. These preparations can be used for chronic in vivo two-photon imaging of the neocortex over time scales of months. It may also be used for other types of imaging, including optical intrinsic signal imaging.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Intact Histological Characterization of Brain-implanted Microdevices and Surrounding Tissue

1Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University


JoVE 50126

Here we present a histological method for capturing, labeling, optically clearing, and imaging the intact brain tissue interface around chronically implanted microdevices in rodent brain tissue. Results from the techniques comprising this method are useful for understanding the impact of various penetrating brain-implants on their surrounding tissue.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Rapid Approach to High-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging in Semi-Thick Brain Slices

1Department of Molecular & Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), 2Precisionary Instruments Inc., 3Departments of Molecular & Human Genetics and Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), 4Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital


JoVE 2807

Here we describe a rapid and simple method to image fluorescently labeled cells in semi-thick brain slices. By fixing, slicing, and optically clearing brain tissue we describe how standard epifluorescent or confocal imaging can be used to visualize individual cells and neuronal networks within intact nervous tissue.

 JoVE Biology

Optical Recording of Electrical Activity in Guinea-pig Enteric Networks using Voltage-sensitive Dyes

1Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania-School of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania-School of Medicine


JoVE 1631

This protocol illustrates how voltage-sensitive dyes enable optical recording of electrical activity from intact neural networks such as the plexuses of the guinea-pig enteric nervous system, with an adjustable resolution that ranges from single-cells to multi-ganglionic circuitry.

 JoVE Biology

Photoconversion of Purified Fluorescent Proteins and Dual-probe Optical Highlighting in Live Cells

1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 1995

This protocol describes a general approach to perform photoconversion of fluorescent proteins on a confocal laser scanning microscope. We describe procedures for the photoconversion of puried protein samples, as well as for dual-probe optical highlighting in live cells with mOrange2 and Dronpa.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Patterned Photostimulation with Digital Micromirror Devices to Investigate Dendritic Integration Across Branch Points

1Department of Neurology, Baltimore VA Medical Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine


JoVE 2003

Digital micromirror devices (DMD) can generate complex patterns in time and space with which to control neuronal excitability. Issues relevant to the design, construction, and operation of DMD systems are discussed. Such a system enabled the demonstration of non-linear integration across distal dendritic branch points.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Development of Cell-type specific anti-HIV gp120 aptamers for siRNA delivery

1Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 2Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 3Shared Resource-DNA/RNA Peptide, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope


JoVE 2954

Several 2’-Fluoro RNA aptamers against HIV-1Ba-L gp120 with nanomole affinity are isolated from a RNA library by in vitro SELEX procedure. A new dual inhibitory function anti-gp120 aptamer-siRNA chimera is created and shows considerable promise for systemic anti-HIV therapy.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Analysis of Targeted Viral Protein Nanoparticles Delivered to HER2+ Tumors

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles


JoVE 50396

This article details the procedures for optical imaging analysis of the tumor-targeted nanoparticle, HerDox. In particular, detailed use of the multimode imaging device for detecting tumor targeting and assessing tumor penetration is described here.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Monitoring Dendritic Cell Migration using 19F / 1H Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1Experimental and Clinical Research Center, A joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 2Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine


JoVE 50251

Tracking of cells using MRI has gained remarkable attention in the past years. This protocol describes the labeling of dendritic cells with fluorine (19F)-rich particles, the in vivo application of these cells, and monitoring the extent of their migration to the draining lymph node with 19F/1H MRI and 19F MRS.

 JoVE Biology

How to Culture, Record and Stimulate Neuronal Networks on Micro-electrode Arrays (MEAs)

1Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Laboratory for Neuroengineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory, University School of Medicine, 3Emory University School of Medicine


JoVE 2056

This protocol provides the necessary information for setting up, caring for, recording from and electrically stimulating cultures on MEAs. In vitro networks provide a means for asking physiologically relevant questions at the network and cellular levels leading to a better understanding of brain function and dysfunction.

 JoVE Biology

Cell Tracking Using Photoconvertible Proteins During Zebrafish Development

1Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine


JoVE 4350

Here, we present a method for the photoactivated switch of photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (PCFPs) in the living zebrafish embryo and further tracking of photoconverted protein at specific time points during development. This methodology allows monitoring of cell biological events underlying different developmental processes in a live vertebrate organism.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Analysis of Dendritic Spine Morphology in Cultured CNS Neurons

1Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine


JoVE 2794

Numerous recent studies have identified mutations in synaptic proteins associated with brain pathologies. Primary cultured cortical neurons offer great flexibility in examining the effects of these disease-associated proteins on dendritic spine morphology and motility.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Sequential Photo-bleaching to Delineate Single Schwann Cells at the Neuromuscular Junction

1Lehrstuhl für Biomolekulare Sensoren, Technische Universität München, 2Center for Integrated Protein Science (Munich) at the Institute of Neuroscience, Technische Universität München, 3TUM Institute for Advanced Study and German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Technische Universität München, 4Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Technische Universität München


JoVE 4460

Visualizing individual cells in densely packed tissues, such as terminal Schwann cells (SCs) at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), is challenging. "Sequential photo-bleaching" allows delineating single terminal SCs, for instance in the triangularis sterni muscle explant, a convenient nerve-muscle preparation, where sequential bleaching can be combined with time-lapse imaging and post-hoc immunostainings.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Intra-lymph Node Injection of Biodegradable Polymer Particles

1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park


JoVE 50984

Lymph nodes are the immunological tissues that orchestrate immune response and are a critical target for vaccines. Biomaterials have been employed to better target lymph nodes and to control delivery of antigens or adjuvants. This paper describes a technique combining these ideas to inject biocompatible polymer particles into lymph nodes.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Guide to In vivo Single-unit Recording from Optogenetically Identified Cortical Inhibitory Interneurons

1Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon


JoVE 51757

Here we describe our strategy for obtaining stable, well-isolated single-unit recordings from identified inhibitory interneurons in the anesthetized mouse cortex. Neurons expressing ChR2 are identified by their response to blue light. The method uses standard extracellular recording equipment, and serves as an inexpensive alternative to calcium imaging or visually-guided patching.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

A Human Fallopian Tube Model for Investigation of C. trachomatis Infections

1Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Lübeck, 2Institute of Anatomie, University of Lübeck, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, University of Lübeck, 4Medical Clinic III, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, University of Lübeck


JoVE 4036

We describe an ex vivo infection model for visualisation of direct interactions from bacterial pathogens with human fallopian tube cells. The whole organ tissue model was established to investigate C. trachomatis induced pathology to the female fallopian tube under "life-like" conditions.

 JoVE Biology

Dopamine Release at Individual Presynaptic Terminals Visualized with FFNs

1Departments of Neurology, Columbia University, 2Departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Columbia University, 3Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, 4eMolecules, Inc., 5Departments of Neurology and Physiology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, 6Division of Molecular Therapeutics, New York Psychiatric Institute


JoVE 1562

A new means to measure neurotransmission optically using fluorescent dopamine analogs.

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