Rapid and Efficient Generation of Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Multititre Plate Format
Protocols for neuronal differentiation of pluripotent human stem cells (hPSCs) are often time-consuming and require substantial cell culture skills. Here, we have adapted a small molecule-based differentiation procedure to a multititre plate format, allowing simple, rapid, and efficient generation of human neurons in a controlled manner.
Ice-Cap: A Method for Growing Arabidopsis and Tomato Plants in 96-well Plates for High-Throughput Genotyping
The Ice-Cap method allows one to grow plants in 96-well plates and non-destructively harvest root tissue from each seedling. DNA extracted from this root tissue can be used for genotyping reactions. We have found that Ice-Cap works well for Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, and rice seedlings.
In this protocol we present a method to measure Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan in 96 well microtiter plates.
A 96 Well Microtiter Plate-based Method for Monitoring Formation and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Candida albicans Biofilms
We describe a simple, rapid and robust method for the formation of Candida albicans biofilms using 96 well microtiter plates and its utility in antifungal susceptibility testing of cells within biofilms.
1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Research Medicine, Veterans Administration TVHS
We describe the use of a mouse ES cell based assay to identify critical time windows for Wnt/β-catenin and BMP signal activation during cardiogenic induction. The method provides a standardized platform that reliably quantifies cardiogenic efficiency, and it is applicable to the study of other cell lineages.
High throughput validation of multiple candidate biomarkers can be performed by sequential ELISA in order to minimize freeze/thaw cycles and use of precious plasma samples. Here, we demonstrate how to sequentially perform ELISAs for six different validated plasma biomarkers1-3 of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)4 on the same plasma sample.
1Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh Drug Discovery Institute, 2Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, 4Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh
We report the development of a system for automated imaging and analysis of zebrafish transgenic embryos in multiwell plates. This demonstrates the ability to measure dose dependent effects of a small molecule, BCI, on Fibroblast Growth Factor reporter gene expression and provide technology for establishing high-throughput zebrafish chemical screens.
Cell-based Calcium Assay for Medium to High Throughput Screening of TRP Channel Functions using FlexStation 3
This video provides a detailed protocol for studying the pharmacological profile of human TRPA1 channels using FlexStation 3. The protocol covers details of cell preparation, dye loading and operation of the microplate reader, FlexStation 3.
This procedure shows how to use the Gene Pulser MXcell electroporation system to rapidly and easily identify the best electroporation conditions for mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or other primary cells. Considerations for troubleshooting are also discussed in the associated video.
A Real-time Electrical Impedance Based Technique to Measure Invasion of Endothelial Cell Monolayer by Cancer Cells
This article describes an in vitro technique for monitoring cancer cells invading through a monolayer of endothelial cells. The data is acquired in real-time as a function of changes in impedance on the surface of electrodes at the well bottom.
Optimized Analysis of DNA Methylation and Gene Expression from Small, Anatomically-defined Areas of the Brain
A streamlined workflow to study DNA methylation and gene expression changes upon early-life stress is shown. Starting from maternal separation of newborn mice and isolation of discrete brain tissues, we represent a protocol to simultaneously isolate DNA and RNA from brain tissue punches for subsequent bisulfite sequencing and RT-PCR analysis.
Evaluation of Polymeric Gene Delivery Nanoparticles by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and High-throughput Flow Cytometry
1Biomedical Engineering Department, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Translational Tissue Engineering Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
A protocol for nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and high-throughput flow cytometry to evaluate polymeric gene delivery nanoparticles is described. NTA is utilized to characterize the nanoparticle particle size distribution and the plasmid per particle distribution. High-throughput flow cytometry enables quantitative transfection efficacy evaluation for a library of gene delivery biomaterials.
Demonstration of quantification of dsDNA using Molecular Probes PicoGreen dye and Hitachi F-7000 Fluorescence Spectrophotometer equipped with a microplate reader accessory.
A simple, rapid method for determining the saccharification potential of large numbers of plant biomass samples is described. The automated platform for this analysis involves the preparation of the plant biomass for analysis in 96 well plates and the subsequent performance of pretreatment, hydrolysis and quantification of the sugars released.
Quantitative Fitness Analysis (QFA) is a complementary series of experimental and computational methods for estimating microbial culture fitnesses. QFA estimates the effect of genetic mutations, drugs or other applied treatments on microbe growth. Experiments scaling from focussed analysis of single cultures to thousands of parallel cultures can be designed.
1UMR CNRS 5557 Ecologie Microbienne, Université Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, 2Département Biosciences, INSA de Lyon, Université de Lyon, 3INSERM U758, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université de Lyon, 4Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Ingénierie Environnementale, INSA de Lyon, Université de Lyon
The design of a synthetic operon encoding both the secretory apparatus and the structural monomers of curli fibers is described. Overproduction of these amyloids and adherent polymers allows a measurable gain of adherence of the E. coli chassis1. Easy ways to visualize and quantify adherence are explained.
1Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University (Medical Sciences), 2Gifted and Talented Students Office, Educational Development Center, Tabriz University (Medical Sciences), 3School of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Tabriz University (Medical Sciences)
The MTT assay is an easy and reproducible colorimetric assay for evaluation of cell viability based on reduction of yellow MTT and production of water insoluble purple formazan. Here, the viability of MCF-7 cells upon treatment of nanogenomedicine has been evaluated.
When working with media and reagents used to culture microorganisms, aseptic technique must be practiced to ensure contamination is minimized. A variety of plating methods are routinely used to isolate, propagate, or enumerate bacteria and phage, all of which incorporate procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials.
An efficient procedure to assess the oligomerization propensity of single-pass transmembrane domains (TMDs) is described. Chimeric proteins consisting of the TMD fused to ToxR are expressed in an E. coli reporter strain. TMD-induced oligomerization causes dimerization of ToxR, activation of transcription and production of the reporter protein, -galactosidase.
1Immunology Graduate Program, Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, 3Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, 4Institute of Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University
A new DC independent method for induction and expansion of antigen-specific T cells is described. HLA A2-Ig based artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) are loaded with HLA-A2 restricted peptides to efficiently expand CTL of diverse antigen specificity. This technology holds great potential for CTL-based adoptive immunotherapy.
We have developed a high-density microarray platform consisting of 3D nano-biofilms of C. albicans called CaBChip. The susceptibility profile of drugs tested on a CaBChip is comparable to the conventional 96-well plate model, suggesting that the fungal chip is ideally suited for true high-throughput screening of antifungal drugs.
Solubilization and Bio-conjugation of Quantum Dots and Bacterial Toxicity Assays by Growth Curve and Plate Count
Nanoparticles such as semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can be used to create photoactivatable agents for anti-microbial or anti-cancer applications. This technique shows how to water-solubilize cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs, conjugate them to an antibiotic, and perform a bacterial inhibition assay based upon growth curves and plate count.
An efficient genome-wide single gene mutation method has been established using Streptococcus sanguinis as a model organism. This method has achieved via high throughput recombinant PCRs and transformations.
Large Scale Non-targeted Metabolomic Profiling of Serum by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS)
Non-targeted metabolite profiling by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) is a powerful technique to investigate metabolism. This article outlines a typical workflow utilized for non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum including sample organization and preparation, data acquisition, data analysis, quality control, and metabolite identification.
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex for First and Second Line Drugs by Broth Dilution in a Microtiter Plate Format
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is challenging but critical for patient care. This microtiter plate format offers testing of 12 antimycobacterial drugs and provides minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, which will aid in appropriate treatment.
A novel directed evolution method specific to the field of thermostability engineering was developed and consequently validated for bacteriolytic enzymes. After only one round of random mutagenesis, an evolved bacteriolytic enzyme, PlyC 29C3, displayed greater than twice the residual activity when compared to the wild-type protein after elevated temperature incubation.
Herein is described a robotic approach to high-throughput crystallization of membrane proteins in lipidic mesophases for use in structure determination using macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Three robots capable of handling the viscous and sticky protein-laden mesophase integral to the method are introduced.
An assay to quantitatively measure Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β-induced invasion in 3-dimensional collagen gels is described. This assay takes advantage of the MCF10A series of cell lines, which represent different stages of breast cancer development. This method can be adopted to be used with other cell lines and might be used to investigate other potential activators or inhibitors of invasion.
Identifying Targets of Human microRNAs with the LightSwitch Luciferase Assay System using 3'UTR-reporter Constructs and a microRNA Mimic in Adherent Cells
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and have been shown to play a role in numerous biological processes. To better understand miRNA-UTR interactions, we have created a genome-wide collection of 3 UTR luciferase reporters paired with a novel luciferase gene and assay reagent, the LightSwitch system.
1Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center - FHCRC, 2Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, 3Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 4Genome BC Proteomics Centre, University of Victoria, 5Plasma Proteome Institute
Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies (SISCAPA) couples affinity enrichment of peptides with stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) to provide quantitative measurement of peptides as surrogates for their respective proteins. Here we describe the protocol using magnetic particles in a partially automated format.
We describe a protocol using C. elegans and RNAi feeding libraries that allows automated measurement of multiple parameters such as fluorescence, size and opacity of individual worms in a population. We give one example of a screen to identify genes involved in anti-fungal innate immunity in C. elegans.
The mesothelial clearance assay described here takes advantage of fluorescently labeled cells and time-lapse video microscopy to visualize and quantitatively measure the interactions of ovarian cancer multicellular spheroids and mesothelial cell monolayers. This assay models the early steps of ovarian cancer metastasis.
In this video, we demonstrate an alternative method for detection and titering of viruses using an enzymatic antigen detection technique known as an immunoperoxidase assay. Here, we will show you how to collect your viral samples, prepare the cells for testing, and finally the immunoperoxidase assay using serial dilutions to determine the viral titer.
The method described here utilizes direct injection of entomopathogenic bacteria into the hemocoel of Manduca sexta insect larvae. M. sexta is a commercially available and well-studied insect. Thus, this method represents a simple approach to analyzing host-bacterial interactions from the perspective of one or both partners.
GENPLAT (GLBRC Enzyme Platform) is an automated platform for discovery and optimization of enzyme cocktails for biomass degradation. It can be adapted to multiple feedstocks and mixtures of enzymes containing multiple components.
1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs TVHS, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Zebrafish has emerged as a powerful in vivo platform for phenotype-based drug screens and chemical genetic analysis. Here, we demonstrate a simple, practical method for large-scale screening of small molecules using zebrafish embryos.
1Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunotherapy, Blood Research Institute, 2Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 3Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Blood Research Institute, 4City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratory, 5Division of Hematology-Oncology/BMT, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin, 6Division of Hematology and Oncology, Dept Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin
This method describes the use of Infrared dye based imaging system for detection of H1N1 in bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected mice at a high sensitivity. This methodology can be performed in a 96- or 384-well plate, requires <10 μl volume of test material and has the potential for concurrent screening of multiple pathogens.
Quantitative measurement of cleaved PARP-1 in fixed adherent or suspension cells by high-throughput In-Cell ELISA for using infra-red Li-Cor imaging system.
The activity of the inducible lysine decarboxylase is monitored by reacting the substrate L-lysine and the product cadaverine with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulfonic acid to form adducts that have differential solubility in toluene.
We present our optimized high-throughput nucleofection protocol as an efficient way of transfecting primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells with either plasmid DNA or siRNA without causing cell maturation. We further provide evidence for successful siRNA silencing of targeted gene RIG-I at both the mRNA and protein levels.
The 3-D structure of a molecule provides a unique understanding of how the molecule functions. The principal method for structure determination at near-atomic resolution is X-ray crystallography. Here, we demonstrate the current methods for obtaining three-dimensional crystals of any given macromolecule that are suitable for structure determination by X-ray crystallography.
1Center for Human Genetic Research and Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
We present robust biochemical and microscopic methods for studying Caenorhabditis elegans lipid stores. A rapid, simple, fixing-staining procedure for fluorescent lipid droplet imaging leverages the spectral properties of the lipophilic dye Nile red. We then present biochemical measurement of triglycerides and phospholipids using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
A Parasite Rescue and Transformation Assay for Antileishmanial Screening Against Intracellular Leishmania donovani Amastigotes in THP1 Human Acute Monocytic Leukemia Cell Line
A parasite-rescue and transformation assay with THP1 cells infected in vitro with Leishmania donovani has been optimized for anti-leishmanial drug screening. The assay involves differentiation of THP1 cells, infection with promastigotes, treatment with test drugs, controlled lysis of the infected macrophages, rescue of amastigotes, transformation to promastigotes and monitoring promastigote growth and proliferation with a fluorometric assay.
High Throughput MicroRNA Profiling: Optimized Multiplex qRT-PCR at Nanoliter Scale on the Fluidigm Dynamic ArrayTM IFCs
1The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, 2Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 3Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, 4Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California San Francisco, 5Fluidigm Corporation, Fluidigm Corporation, 6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, 7UCSF - Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco
Here we describe an optimized multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) protocol in combination with a microfluidic platform as a cost and time effective high-throughput screening tool for microRNA (miRNA) expression levels, especially when working with limited amounts of sample.
1BioSciences Division, Guild Associates, Inc., 2Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Texas at Austin, 3Department of Craniofacial Biology, Medical University of South Carolina
A simple method for the identification of priority bacterial pathogens is to use genetically engineered reporter phage. These reporter phage, which are specific to their particular host species, are capable of rapidly transducing a bioluminescent signal response to host cells. Herein, we describe the use of reporter phage for the detection of Yersinia pestis.
We describe a method for the affinity-tagged purification of recombinant proteins using liquid-handling robotics. This method is generally applicable to the small-scale purification of soluble His-tagged proteins in a high-throughput format.
Ex Vivo Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Assay for the Evaluation of pH-responsive Endosomolytic Agents for Cytosolic Delivery of Biomacromolecular Drugs
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science & Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 3Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Vanderbilt University, 4Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 5Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University
A hemolysis assay can be used as a rapid, high-throughput screen of drug delivery systems' cytocompatibility and endosomolytic activity for intracellular cargo delivery. The assay measures the disruption of erythrocyte membranes as a function of environmental pH.
The classical pathway is activated by antibody and culminates in target cell lysis. The CH50 assay provides a measure of the complement activity of a serum sample. This video demonstrates the steps involved in determining the CH50 of a serum sample, the calculations and interpreting of results.
A real-time screening procedure for identifying drugs that interact with G protein-gated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels is described. The assay utilizes membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dyes to measure GIRK channel activity. This technique is adaptable for use on a number of cell lines.
In order to study the changes of nociceptive intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) in painful neuropathies (PN), we developed protocols that could directly examine three-dimensional morphological changes observed in nociceptive IENFs. Three-dimensional analysis of IENFs has the potential to evaluate the morphological changes of IENF in PN.