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Abdominal Cavity: The region in the abdomen extending from the thoracic Diaphragm to the plane of the superior pelvic aperture (pelvic inlet). The abdominal cavity contains the Peritoneum and abdominal Viscera, as well as the extraperitoneal space which includes the Retroperitoneal space.
 JoVE Medicine

Generation of Organ-conditioned Media and Applications for Studying Organ-specific Influences on Breast Cancer Metastatic Behavior

1London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 2Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, 3Department of Biochemistry, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, 4Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, 5Lawson Health Research Institute


JoVE 54037

 JoVE Medicine

Bile Duct Ligation in Mice: Induction of Inflammatory Liver Injury and Fibrosis by Obstructive Cholestasis

1Institute of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Experimental Gene Therapy and Clinical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, 2Institute for Laboratory Animal Science and Experimental Surgery, RWTH Aachen University, 3Department of Medicine III, RWTH Aachen University


JoVE 52438

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Abdominal Exam I: Inspection and Auscultation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Alexander Goldfarb, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA

Gastrointestinal disease accounts for millions of office visits and hospital admissions annually. Physical examination of the abdomen is a crucial tool in diagnosing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; in addition, it can help identify pathological processes in cardiovascular, urinary, and other systems. As physical examination in general, the examination of the abdominal region is important for establishing physician-patient contact, for reaching the preliminary diagnosis and selecting subsequent laboratory and imaging tests, and determining the urgency of care. As with the other parts of a physical examination, visual inspection and auscultation of the abdomen are done in a systematic fashion so that no potential findings are missed. Special attention should be paid to potential problems already identified by the patient's history. Here we assume that the patient has already been identified, and has had history taken, symptoms discussed, and areas of potential concern identified. In this video we will not review the patient's history; instead, we will go directly to the physical examination. Before we get to the examination, let's briefly review s

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Abdominal Exam II: Percussion

JoVE Science Education

Source: Alexander Goldfarb, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA

Medical percussion is based on the difference in pitch between the sounds elicited by tapping on the body wall. The auditory response to tapping depends on the ease with which the body wall vibrates, and is influenced by underlying organs, strength of the stroke, and the state of the body wall. There are three main medical percussion sounds: resonance (heard over lungs), tympany (heard over the air-filled bowel loops), and dullness (heard over fluid or solid organs). The contrast between dullness vs. tympany or resonance allows for determination of the size and margins of organs and masses, as well as identification of fluid accumulation and areas of consolidation. Percussion remains an intricate part of the physical diagnosis since it was first introduced more than 200 years ago, and is especially useful in examination of the lungs and abdomen. As a part of an abdominal examination, percussion follows visual inspection and auscultation. The examiner should first percuss over each of the nine abdominal regions (epigastric region, right hypochondriac region, left hypochondriac region, umbilical region, right lumbar region, left lumbar region, hypogastric region, right inguinal region, and left

 JoVE Medicine

Heterotopic Renal Autotransplantation in a Porcine Model: A Step-by-Step Protocol

1Multi Organ Transplant Program, Department of Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, 2Division of Nephrology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 3Programa de Doctorat en Medicina, La Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 4Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto General Hospital, 5Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, 6Departments of Surgery (Urology) & Physiology, Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children


JoVE 53765

 JoVE Medicine

Murine Kidney Transplant Technique

1Colorado Center for Transplantation Care, Research and Education, University of Colorado, Denver, 2Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Medical Center and University of Colorado, Denver, 4Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, University of Colorado-Denver, 5Renal Section, Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center


JoVE 52848

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Cecal Ligation and Puncture-induced Sepsis as a Model To Study Autophagy in Mice

1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 2Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3First Department of Critical Care Medicine and Pulmonary Services, University of Athens Medical School, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece


JoVE 51066

 JoVE Medicine

Transarterial Administration of Oncolytic Viruses for Locoregional Therapy of Orthotopic HCC in Rats

1II. Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar der TU München, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar der TU München, 3Division of Clinical Oncology, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, 4Center for Preclinical Research, Klinikum rechts der Isar der TU München, 5Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der TU München


JoVE 53757

 JoVE Medicine

Method of Isolated Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in a Rat Model: Lessons Learned from Developing a Rat EVLP Program

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3The Collaboration for Organ Perfusion, Protection, Engineering and Regeneration (COPPER) Laboratory, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 5Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Ohio State University, 6Advanced Lung Disease Program, Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Programs, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 7Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center


JoVE 52309

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Instrumentation of Near-term Fetal Sheep for Multivariate Chronic Non-anesthetized Recordings

1Département de sciences cliniques, CHUV, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, QC, 2Département d'obstetriques et de gynécologie, CHU Ste-Justine Research Centre, Université de Montréal, 3Département de neurosciences, CHU Ste-Justine Centre de recherche, Université de Montréal, 4Centre de recherche en reproduction animale (CRRA), Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, QC


JoVE 52581

 JoVE Medicine

Initiation of Metastatic Breast Carcinoma by Targeting of the Ductal Epithelium with Adenovirus-Cre: A Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

1Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis Program, Wistar Institute, 2Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Genetics, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, 4Division of Endocrine and Oncologic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 5Rena Rowan Breast Center, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, 6Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 51171

 JoVE Medicine

Flexible Colonoscopy in Mice to Evaluate the Severity of Colitis and Colorectal Tumors Using a Validated Endoscopic Scoring System

1Division of Gastroenterology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, 2Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, 3Digestive Health Research Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland


JoVE 50843

 JoVE Medicine

Surgical Models of Gastroesophageal Reflux with Mice

1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Ningxia Medical University General Hospital, 2Cancer Research Program, North Carolina Central University, 3Department of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 4Department of Medicine, Center for Esophageal Disease and Swallowing, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


JoVE 53012

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