A Reversible, Non-invasive Method for Airway Resistance Measurements and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Sampling in Mice
1Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), 2Millenium Premier Group, 3Department of Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM)
Repeated measurements of rodent respiratory physiology and sampling of airway inflammatory cells are desirable, but generally not feasible. Here we describe a repeatable method for orally intubating mice that permits repeated measurements of airway hyperreactivity and sampling of airway inflammatory cells.
1Meakins-Christie Laboratories, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 2SCIREQ Scientific Respiratory Equipment Inc.
The present protocol provides a detailed step-by-step description of the procedures required to execute measurements of respiratory system mechanics as well as the assessment of airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine in mice using the forced oscillation technique (flexiVent; SCIREQ Inc, Montreal, Qc, Canada).
Optical Frequency Domain Imaging of Ex vivo Pulmonary Resection Specimens: Obtaining One to One Image to Histopathology Correlation
1Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 2Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, 5Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Harvard Medical School
A method to image ex vivo pulmonary resection specimens with optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) and obtain precise correlation to histology is described, which is essential to developing specific OFDI interpretation criteria for pulmonary pathology. This method is applicable to other tissue types and imaging techniques to obtain precise imaging to histology correlation for accurate image interpretation and assessment. Imaging criteria established with this technique would then be applicable to image assessment in future in vivo studies.
The lung is perfused by both the systemic bronchial artery and pulmonary arteries. In most lung pathologies, it is the smaller systemic vasculature that shows robust neovascularization. Cessation of pulmonary blood flow promotes brisk bronchial angiogenesis. We provide surgical details of inducing left pulmonary artery ischemia that promotes bronchial neovascularization.
Department of Medicine, St. Luke's Roosevelt Medical Center
Transgenic mice or viral vectors have been used to increase protein expression within the lung. However, these techniques are time-consuming, technically challenging and have off-target effects that can confound results. Our protein transfection protocol uses a lipid based transfection reagent and an ultrafine microsprayer to uniformly deliver active protein to lung cells.
Normothermic Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Mouse Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
A powerful model for perioperative and critical care related acute kidney injury is presented. Using whole body hypoperfusion induced by cardiac arrest it is possible to nearly replicate the histologic and functional changes of clinical AKI.
Bronchial thermoplasty is a non-drug procedure for severe persistent asthma that delivers thermal energy to the airway wall in a precisely controlled manner to reduce excessive airway smooth muscle. Reducing airway smooth muscle decreases the ability of the airways to constrict, thereby reducing the frequency of asthma attacks.
We describe a strategy to monitor maturation and migration of pulmonary dendritic cells in response to ovalbumin in the setting of ovalbumin induced allergic airway inflammation. This strategy can be modified to assess migration of pulmonary dendritic cells in settings of infection.
Experimental mouse models of allergic asthma offer new possibilities for studying disease pathogenesis and developing new therapeutics. These models are well suited to measuring factors governing the allergic immune response, airway inflammation, and pulmonary pathophysiology.
We describe guidelines to perform a safe and efficient elective fiberoptic intubation in pediatric patients while maintaining spontaneous ventilation.
This paper describes different methods of growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on cultured human airway epithelial cells. These protocols can be adapted to study different aspects of biofilm formation, including visualization of the biofilm, staining of the biofilm, measuring the colony forming units (CFU) of the biofilm, and studying biofilm cytotoxicity.
Flow Cytometric Isolation of Primary Murine Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells for Functional and Molecular Studies
1Research Group Immune Regulation, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, 2Research Group Infection Immunology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Otto-von-Guericke University, 3Department of Experimental Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research
We describe the rapid isolation of primary murine type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII) by flow cytometric negative selection. These AECII show high viability and purity and are suitable for a wide range of functional and molecular studies regarding their role in respiratory conditions such as autoimmune or infectious diseases.
1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Program in Respiratory Biology and Lung Disease, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health Sciences University
This paper describes a striaghforward and efficient method of intubating mice for pulmonary function measurements or pulmonary instillation, that allows the mice to recover and be studied at later times. The procedure involves an inexpensive fiberoptic light source that directly illuminates the trachea.
Transgenic mice have been extremely useful in ascribing physiological function to genes. As such, research in general, and functional studies of airway, in particular, have undergone a remarkable shift toward murine models. Here we provide protocols for in vitro trachea constriction studies to evaluate smooth muscle function in murine airway.
We describe a technique to maintain oxygenation and ventilation using an endotracheal tube inserted nasally to the level of the naso-pharynx while sealing the mouth and nares for successful positive pressure ventilation.
Here we demonstrate our protocol for isolation of basal and submucosal gland duct cells from mouse tracheas. We also demonstrate the method of injecting stem cells into the dorsal mouse fat pad to create an in vivo model of submucosal gland regeneration.
Heterotopic and Orthotopic Tracheal Transplantation in Mice used as Models to Study the Development of Obliterative Airway Disease
This video shows and compares two experimental models to study the development of obliterative airway disease (OAD) in mice, the heterotopic and orthotopic tracheal transplantation model.
Obliterative bronchiolitis is the key impediment to the long-term survival of lung transplant recipients and the lack of a robust preclinical model precludes examining obliterative bronchiolitis immunopathogenesis. Unlike other solid organ transplants, vascularized mouse lung transplantation has only recently been developed. Here we show our independently developed obliterative bronchiolitis model after murine orthotopic single-lung transplantation.
Establishing a Liquid-covered Culture of Polarized Human Airway Epithelial Calu-3 Cells to Study Host Cell Response to Respiratory Pathogens In vitro
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Schistosoma mansoni eggs are potent stimulators of the T helper type 2 (Th2) immune response, characteristic of parasite infection, asthma and allergic inflammation. This protocol utilizes S. mansoni egg injection to generate a CD4 Th2 cytokine-induced inflammatory response in the lung, characterized by lung granuloma formation around the egg, eosinophilia and macrophage alternative activation.
We have developed a decellularized lung extracellular matrix and novel biomimetic bioreactor that can be used to generate functional lung tissue. By seeding cells into the matrix and culturing in the bioreactor, we generate tissue that demonstrates effective gas exchange when transplanted in vivo for short periods of time.
Characterization of the Isolated, Ventilated, and Instrumented Mouse Lung Perfused with Pulsatile Flow
The following protocol outlines the process of isolating, ventilating and instrumenting mouse lungs to measure steady or pulsatile pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in order to quantify the effects of blood flow, airflow, airway changes and vascular changes on right ventricular afterload.
Basic Surgical Techniques in the Göttingen Minipig: Intubation, Bladder Catheterization, Femoral Vessel Catheterization, and Transcardial Perfusion
1Department of Neurosurgery, Aarhus University Hospital, 2Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aarhus University, 3Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Centre, Aarhus University Hospital
The use of domestic and miniature pigs in science has increased significantly in recent years. By demonstrating how to perform intubation, transurethral bladder catheterization, femoral artery and vein catheterization, as well as transcardial perfusion, we aim to further increase the value of Göttingen minipigs in biomedical research.
1Epigenomic Medicine, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, The Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct, 2Epigenetics in Human Health and Disease, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, The Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct, 3Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, 4Department of Allergy and Immunology, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, 5Department of Pediatrics, The University of Melbourne
Quantitation of DNA double-strand breaks on the basis of γH2AX foci has become an invaluable tool, particularly in radiation biology, for the evaluation of tissue radiosensitivity and effects of radiation modifying compounds. Here we demonstrate the use of an immunofluorescence assay for quantitation of γH2AX foci in tissue samples.
We describe a valuable diagnostic assay that could potentially be used to decide the withdrawal of immunosuppression after transplant without elevated risk of graft rejection. The assay uses the principles of Delayed Type Hypersensitivity and provides accurate assessment of both donor specific effector and regulatory immune responses mounted by recipients.
This method allows characterization of extended bacterial co-culture with EpiAirways, primary human respiratory epithelial tissue grown at the air-liquid interface, a biologically relevant in vitro model. The approach can be used with any microbe that is amenable to long-term co-culture.
Isolation of Mouse Respiratory Epithelial Cells and Exposure to Experimental Cigarette Smoke at Air Liquid Interface
Pulmonary epithelial cells can be isolated from the respiratory tract of mice and cultured at air-liquid interface as a model of differentiated respiratory epithelium. A protocol is described for isolating, culturing and exposing these cells to mainstream cigarette smoke, in order to study molecular responses to this environmental toxin.
The stiffness of the extracellular matrix strongly influences multiple behaviors of adherent cells. Matrix stiffness varies spatially throughout a tissue, and undergoes modification in various disease conditions. Here we develop methods to characterize spatial variations in stiffness in normal and fibrotic mouse lung tissue using atomic force microscopy microindentation.
Use of Artificial Sputum Medium to Test Antibiotic Efficacy Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Conditions More Relevant to the Cystic Fibrosis Lung
Current diagnostic antimicrobial susceptibility testing relies on the planktonic growth of isolates in nutrient rich, aerobic conditions. Here, we employ an alternative artificial sputum medium to study antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms under both aerobic and microaerophilic conditions more representative of the cystic fibrosis lung.
The ECIS/Taxis system is an automated, real-time assay that measures cellular chemotaxis. In this assay, cells move beneath a layer of agarose to arrive at a target electrode. Cellular movement is measured by the onset of resistance to AC current 0.
Unfixed frozen tissue samples embedded in Optimal Cutting Temperature medium (OCT) can be used to study natural distribution and glycosylation of secreted mucus. In this approach tissue processing is minimal and the natural presentation of glycolipids, mucins and glycan-epitopes is preserved. Tissue sections can be analyzed by immunohistochemistry using fluorescence or chromogenic detection.
Live Cell Response to Mechanical Stimulation Studied by Integrated Optical and Atomic Force Microscopy
1Department of Systems Biology and Translational Medicine, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Texas A&M Health Science Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University
This paper aims to instruct the reader in the operation of an integrated atomic force-optical imaging microscope for mechanical stimulation of live cells in culture. A step-by-step protocol is presented. A representative data set that shows live cell response to mechanical stimulation is presented.
This video shows how to surgically obstruct the guinea pig's endolymphatic duct to produce endolymphatic hydrops.
Here we describe a detailed method for growing primary human bronchial epithelial cells from explants of human bronchial airway tissue including differentiated growth on an air-liquid interface. This method provides an abundant source of primary cells for investigating the role of the airway epithelium in human lung health and disease.
1Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 2Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial chloride channel, has been reported to interact with various proteins and regulate important cellular processes; among them the CFTR PDZ motif-mediated interactions have been well documented. This protocol describes methods we developed to assemble a PDZ-dependent CFTR macromolecular signaling complex in vitro.
1Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 3Sheba Cancer Research Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, 4Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital
The fallopian tube (FT) is emerging as an alternative site of origin for serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC). This protocol describes a novel method for the isolation and ex vivo culture of fallopian tube epithelial cells. This system recapitulates the in vivo epithelium and allows the study of SOC pathogenesis.
This paper describes the methodology to determine the chemotactic response of leukocytes to specific ligands and identify interactions between the cell surface receptors and cytosolic proteins using live cell imaging techniques.
A Novel Surgical Approach for Intratracheal Administration of Bioactive Agents in a Fetal Mouse Model
1Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 2Department of Woman and Child, KU Leuven, 3Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 4Division of Nuclear Medicine, KU Leuven, 5Biomedical NMR Unit/ MoSAIC, KU Leuven
We developed a novel surgical approach for intratracheal administration of bioactive agents into the mouse fetus. The delivery route is more efficient in targeting the fetal mouse lungs than the commonly used intra-amniotic injection. This procedure has to date not been described in a mouse model.
1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 2College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of California, Riverside, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Loma Linda University School of Medicine
Clinically relevant animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are needed to extend our knowledge of hemorrhagic stroke and to examine novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, we describe and evaluate two ICH models that implement unilateral injections of either autologous whole blood or bacterial collagenase into the basal ganglia (corpus striatum) of mice.
Direct Observation of Phagocytosis and NET-formation by Neutrophils in Infected Lungs using 2-photon Microscopy
We show, how to use 2-photon microscopy for the observation of the dynamics of neutrophil granulocytes in infected lungs while they phagocytose pathogens or produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).
Non-surgical Intratracheal Instillation of Mice with Analysis of Lungs and Lung Draining Lymph Nodes by Flow Cytometry
1Department of Immunology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Division of Cell Biology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, 4Department of Immunology, National Jewish Health
We illustrate non-surgical delivery of test materials into the lungs of anesthetized mice via the trachea. This method permits lung exposure to bacterial and viral pathogens, cytokines, antibodies, beads, chemicals, or dyes. We further describe harvesting and processing of lungs and lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs) for flow cytometry.
A highly purified preparation of mouse lung dendritic cells is described. Specific emphasis is given to the isolation of conventional dendritic cell subset.
1Respiratory Infection Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, 2Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen, University Hospital Trust, 3Comprehensive Local Research Network, 4NIHR Biomedical Research Centre in Microbial Diseases, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust, 5Institute of Lung Health, Respiratory Biomedical Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust & University of Leicester, 6Department of Clinical Infection Microbiology & Immunology, Institute of Infection & Global Health, University of Liverpool
Experimental human pneumococcal carriage offers a natural model of carriage and a potential model for use in vaccine development. This technique is valuable yet complex and involves clinical risk by introducing a pathogen into a human. We have developed a detailed protocol.
The accompanying video describes a procedure for percutaneous placement of the WATCHMAN Left Atrial Appendage (LAA) Device. The WATCHMAN is a nitinol device designed to be permanently implanted at, or slightly distal to, the opening of the left atrial appendage (LAA) to trap blood clots before they exit the LAA, preventing thromboembolic stroke.
We describe a protocol to identify key roles of host signaling molecules in lytic replication of a model herpesvirus, gamma herpesvirus 68 (γHV68). Utilizing genetically modified mouse strains and embryonic fibroblasts for γHV68 lytic replication, the protocol permits both phenotypic characterization and molecular interrogation of virus-host interactions in viral lytic replication.
A method to intranasally administer drugs to awake mice for the purpose of targeting the brain is described. This method allows for repeat dosing over long periods using intranasal administration of drug without anesthesia, and nose-to-brain delivery with minimal systemic exposure.
1School of Medical Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, 2Translational Neuroscience Facility and Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAVs) vectors are becoming increasingly valuable for in vivo studies in animals. We describe how rAAVs can be produced in the laboratory and how these vectors can be titered to give an accurate reading of the number of infectious particles produced.
This whole mount in situ hybridization protocol discusses critical steps that ensure reproducible high quality results for gene expression studies in E8.5-E11.5 day old mouse embryos.
1Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Children’s Hospital Boston
Here, we describe a cardiac surgical procedure to implant engineered tissue in the atrioventricular (AV)-groove of an adult Lewis rat.
Significant breakthroughs in stem cell identification are continuously being made. To translate these discoveries, however, novel methods for cellular delivery must be devised. Here I report that the airways provide a safe route for stem cell transplantation to the lungs.