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October, 2006
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Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (Dsm-iv)
 JoVE Behavior

Testing Sensory and Multisensory Function in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

1Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 3Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 52677

We describe how to implement a battery of behavioral tasks to examine the processing and integration of sensory stimuli in children with ASD. The goal is to characterize individual differences in temporal processing of simple auditory and visual stimuli and relate these to higher order perceptual skills like speech perception.

 JoVE Medicine

Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL): Investigating Language Comprehension in Typically Developing Toddlers and Young Children with Autism

1Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut

JoVE 4331

A reliable home-based way to assess the language comprehension of very young typically developing children, as well as those with autism, is described. The method analyzes children's eye gaze while viewing side-by-side images but hearing an audio that matches only one image. Stimuli are designed with young participants in mind.

 JoVE Medicine

Eye Tracking Young Children with Autism

1School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 2Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

JoVE 3675

Eye tracking has long been used to study gaze patterns in typically-developing individuals, but recent technological advancements have made its use with clinical populations, including autism, more feasible. While eye-tracking young children with autism can offer insight into early symptom manifestations, it involves methodological challenges. Suggestions for best practices are provided.

 JoVE Behavior

Inchworming: A Novel Motor Stereotypy in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J Mouse Model of Autism

1Departments of Paediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Trinity College

JoVE 50791

Inchworming is a highly repetitive synchronous digging motion displayed by BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice when placed in a testing cage with sufficient sawdust bedding. The procedure is a modification of the juvenile social interaction protocol and is used here to assess repetitive motor stereotypies relevant to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

 JoVE Neuroscience

TMS: Using the Theta-Burst Protocol to Explore Mechanism of Plasticity in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome and Autism

1Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

JoVE 2272

In this article, we examine the effects of Theta-Burst TMS stimulation on cortical plasticity in individuals suffering from Fragile X syndrome and individuals on the autistic spectrum.

 JoVE Biology

Osmotic Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans: Synaptic Function of Two Genes, Orthologues of Human NRXN1 and NLGN1, as Candidates for Autism

1Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Córdoba, 2Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC)

JoVE 1616

Neurexins and neuroligins are membrane-neuron adhesion proteins which perform essential roles in synaptic differentiation and transmission. Neuroligin deficient mutants of C. elegans are defective in detecting osmotic strength, but when they also contain a mutation in the gene coding neurexin, they recover the wild type phenotype.

 JoVE Medicine

A Strategy to Identify de Novo Mutations in Common Disorders such as Autism and Schizophrenia

1Centre of Excellence in Neuromics, CHUM Research Center and the Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, 2Center of Excellence in Neuromics, CHU Sainte Justine and CHUM Notre-Dame Research Centers, Universite de Montreal, 3Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal

JoVE 2534

Molecular genetic strategy for finding de novo mutations causing common disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.

 JoVE Medicine

Probing the Brain in Autism Using fMRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

1Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham

JoVE 3178

Neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging have become increasingly useful in characterizing the cognitive and neural deficits in autism. An examination of brain connectivity in autism at a network level along with adaptations for scanning children with developmental disabilities is presented.

 JoVE Behavior

A Treatment Package without Escape Extinction to Address Food Selectivity

1Department of Psychology and the Center for Children and Families, Florida International University

JoVE 52898

Feeding difficulties are a common problem for children with developmental disorders, including autism, and behavioral interventions often include escape extinction. Recent research has begun to evaluate treatments that do not include escape extinction. This manuscript describes a multicomponent treatment package that does not use escape extinction to treat feeding difficulties.

 JoVE Medicine

EEG Mu Rhythm in Typical and Atypical Development

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, 2Department of Educational Psychology, University of Washington

JoVE 51412

Assessment of the EEG mu rhythm provides a unique methodology for examining brain activity and when combined with behaviorally based assays, can be a powerful tool for elucidating aspects of social cognition, such as imitation, in clinical populations.

 JoVE Behavior

Marble Burying and Nestlet Shredding as Tests of Repetitive, Compulsive-like Behaviors in Mice

1Research and Development Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center and Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine

JoVE 50978

Disease, head injury, genetic modifications, and treatment of mice with drugs can have profound effects on behavior. Utilizing well-characterized and validated approaches such as marble burying and nestlet shredding, compulsive-like behaviors can be documented accurately in mice as models of human obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Combining Computer Game-Based Behavioural Experiments With High-Density EEG and Infrared Gaze Tracking

1Department of Human Development, Cornell University, 2Social Sciences Division, University of Chicago, 3National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India

JoVE 2320

Procedures for recording high-density EEG and gaze data during computer game-based cognitive tasks are described. Using a video game to present cognitive tasks enhances ecological validity without sacrificing experimental control.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Straightforward Assay for Quantification of Social Avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 2Department of Biology, York College/CUNY, 3Department of Biology, Western Ontario University

JoVE 52011

Here, we present a protocol to quantify the avoidance of stressed individuals. This paradigm is powerful yet user-friendly and can be used to assess the influence of genes and environment on one kind of social interaction in Drosophila melanogaster.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Immunohistochemical Visualization of Hippocampal Neuron Activity After Spatial Learning in a Mouse Model of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

1Centre for Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, 2CNR Neuroscience Institute, Pisa, Italy

JoVE 52919

We describe an immunohistochemistry protocol to study the profile of hippocampal neuron activation following exposure to a spatial learning task in a mouse model characterized by cognitive deficits of neurodevelopmental origin. This protocol can be applied to both genetic or pharmacological mouse models characterized by cognitive deficits.

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies

1Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, 2Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco

JoVE 52740

GABAergic cortical interneuron progenitors disperse, develop and synaptically integrate into a host cortex after transplantation. These cells can be easily transduced before transplantation for in vivo studies of genetically modified GABAergic precursors. Here, we show viral labeling techniques to target specific interneuron subgroups using existing Cre lines and Cre-dependent reporters.

 JoVE Behavior

Testing for Odor Discrimination and Habituation in Mice

1Institute of Biomedical Studies, Baylor University, 2Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University

JoVE 52615

This manuscript describes a protocol to examine the olfactory system of rodents. The olfactory habituation/dishabituation test will allow investigators to determine whether a mouse habituates to a repeatedly presented odor and whether the mouse demonstrates dishabituation when presented a novel odor.

 JoVE Behavior

Practical Methodology of Cognitive Tasks Within a Navigational Assessment

1Speech-Language Pathology Program, Laurentian University, 2Psychology Department, Laurentian University

JoVE 52286

Children who have complex communication needs can benefit from the use of a speech-generating device (SGD). Cognitive skills were identified as having an impact on the ability to navigate between levels of SGDs. This protocol describes the steps needed for Speech-language Pathologists to assess cognitive skills and navigational abilities.

 JoVE Behavior

Quantifying Social Motivation in Mice Using Operant Conditioning

1Department of Graduate Psychology, Azusa Pacific University

JoVE 53009

This article describes a new protocol for the quantitative measurement of social motivation in mice using operant conditioning for a social reward. The protocol is useful for the measurement of social motivation in mouse models of autism and other disorders of social behavior.

 JoVE Biology

Using an Automated 3D-tracking System to Record Individual and Shoals of Adult Zebrafish

1R&D, xyZfish

JoVE 50681

The use of a 3D automatic video system that can track individual and groups of zebrafish is described. As application example we explore the effects of the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 on shoals of zebrafish.

 JoVE Biology

Investigating Protein-protein Interactions in Live Cells Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer

1Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour

JoVE 51438

Interactions between proteins are fundamental to all cellular processes. Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, the interaction between a pair of proteins can be monitored in live cells and in real time. Furthermore, the effects of potentially pathogenic mutations can be assessed.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors

1UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London

JoVE 52115

The molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the formation of inhibitory GABAergic synapses during ontogeny are largely unknown. To study these processes,we have developed a co-culture model system which incorporates embryonic medium spiny GABAergic neurons cultured together with stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing functional GABAA receptors.

 JoVE Behavior

Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children

1Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychiatry Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Academic Division of Neonatology, Institute for Women's Health, University College London

JoVE 51705

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating the cortical sources of scalp measured electrical activity for cognitive neuroscience experiments. This article describes how high density EEG is acquired and how recordings are processed for cortical source estimation in children from the age of 2 years at the London Baby Lab.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Assessment of Social Interaction Behaviors

1Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 2Toronto Centre for Phenogenomics, Mount Sinai Hospital, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 4Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto

JoVE 2473

Here we describe a detailed protocol for examination of sociability in mice by using Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty test. We describe the advantages and possible applications for this procedure, including critical details important for correct interpretation of the results.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Metabolomic Analysis of Rat Brain by High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Tissue Extracts

1Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale, UMR 7339 CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, Aix-Marseille Université, 2Centre de Recherches en Oncologie Biologique et Oncopharmacologie, UMR 911 INSERM, Faculté de Médecine, Aix-Marseille Université

JoVE 51829

The neurochemistry of mammalian brain is changed in many neurological and systemic diseases. Characteristic profiles of cerebral metabolites can be efficiently obtained based on crude extracts of brain tissue. To this end, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is employed, enabling detailed quantitative analysis of metabolite concentrations (metabolomics).

 JoVE Biology

Functional Characterization of Na+/H+ Exchangers of Intracellular Compartments Using Proton-killing Selection to Express Them at the Plasma Membrane

1Université Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire de Physiomédecine Moléculaire, CNRS UMR7370, and Laboratories of Excellence Ion Channel Science and Therapeutics

JoVE 52453

The first part of this article shows how to select mutant cell lines expressing vesicular Na+/H+ exchangers at their plasma membrane. The second part provides protocols based on intracellular pH measurements and fast ion uptake, which are used to determine the ion selectivity and the kinetic parameters of these exchangers.

 JoVE Medicine

A Neuroscientific Approach to the Examination of Concussions in Student-Athletes

1Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, 2Department of Physical Therapy Education, Elon University, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Duquesne University, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Elon University

JoVE 52046

There is great variability in an individual’s risk for concussion and their corresponding recovery. A multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation is warranted; including baseline testing of athletes before participation in sport and timely evaluation post injury. The goal of this protocol is to provide an appropriate multifaceted approach to examine concussions.

 JoVE Medicine

Network Analysis of the Default Mode Network Using Functional Connectivity MRI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Neurology Care Line, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, 3Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, 4Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles

JoVE 51442

The Default Mode Network (DMN) in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) is analyzed in the resting state of the brain using seed-based functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI).

 JoVE Neuroscience

Analysis of Dendritic Spine Morphology in Cultured CNS Neurons

1Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

JoVE 2794

Numerous recent studies have identified mutations in synaptic proteins associated with brain pathologies. Primary cultured cortical neurons offer great flexibility in examining the effects of these disease-associated proteins on dendritic spine morphology and motility.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Targeted Training of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Aged and Parkinsonian Rats

1Department of Surgery-Division of Otolaryngology, University of Wisconsin, 2Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Wisconsin

JoVE 2835

Voice disorders are debilitating in aging and Parkinson disease. The ultrasonic vocalizations of rats, also affected by these conditions, can be used to study these voice disorders, their neural substrates, and the nature of functional recovery with behavioral intervention.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolating Nasal Olfactory Stem Cells from Rodents or Humans

1NICN, Aix Marseille University, 2LNPM, Aix Marseille University, 3ENT Department, Aix Marseille University, 4Gene expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 5Laboratory of Speech and Language, Aix Marseille University, 6Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Aix Marseille University

JoVE 2762

We describe here a method for biopsying olfactory mucosa from rat and human nasal cavities. These biopsies can be used for either identifying molecular anomalies in brain diseases or isolating multipotent adult stem cells that can be utilized for cell transplantation in animal models of brain trauma/disease.

 JoVE Behavior

Behavioral Phenotyping of Murine Disease Models with the Integrated Behavioral Station (INBEST)

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University, 3Neuroscience Program, McMaster University

JoVE 51524

Prolonged and comprehensive monitoring of mice in a home-cage environment provides a deeper understanding of aberrant behavior in murine models of brain diseases. This paper describes the Integrated Behavioral Station (INBEST) as the key component of contemporary behavioral analysis.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Mosaic Analysis of Gene Function in Postnatal Mouse Brain Development by Using Virus-based Cre Recombination

1Neuroscience Graduate Program, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, 3Department of Cell and Neurobiology, Neuroscience Graduate Program, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California

JoVE 2823

An in vivo method to test gene function in postnatal brain is described. Recombinant AAVs expressing Cre and/or a fluorescent protein are injected into neonatal mouse brain. Mosaic gene inactivation and sparse neuronal labeling are achieved, allowing rapid analysis of gene function in processes critical to neural circuit development.

 JoVE Biology

Intravenous Injections in Neonatal Mice

1Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, 2Center for Gene Therapy, Nationwide Children's Hospital Research Institute, Ohio State University

JoVE 52037

Animal models of pediatric disease can experience early onset and aggressive disease progression. Clinically relevant therapy delivery to young mouse models can be technically difficult. This protocol describes a non-invasive intravenous injection method for newborn mice within the first two postnatal days of life.

 JoVE Behavior

Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice

1Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 2Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 3Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences

JoVE 50871

This article presents a protocol for a contextual and cued fear conditioning test using a video analyzing system to assess fear learning and memory in mice.

 JoVE Behavior

Irrelevant Stimuli and Action Control: Analyzing the Influence of Ignored Stimuli via the Distractor-Response Binding Paradigm

1Cognitive Psychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Trier University, 2Clinical Psychophysiology Unit, Institute of Psychobiology, Trier University

JoVE 51571

The distractor-response binding paradigm is described. It can be used to shed light on the influence irrelevant stimuli, competing with targets for a response, can have on human action. Both response retrieval effects and distractor inhibition effects can be analyzed within the paradigm.

 JoVE Behavior

The Attentional Set Shifting Task: A Measure of Cognitive Flexibility in Mice

1Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Audie L. Murphy VA Hospital, South Texas Veteran's Health Care System

JoVE 51944

The goal of this protocol is to perform a behavioral assay such as the attentional set shifting task (AST) to assess prefrontal cortex-mediated cognitive flexibility in mice.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Combining Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and fMRI to Examine the Default Mode Network

1Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

JoVE 2271

In this article, we examine the methodology and considerations relevant to the combination of TMS and fMRI to examine the effects of brain stimulation on the default network.

 JoVE Biology

Transgenic Rodent Assay for Quantifying Male Germ Cell Mutant Frequency

1Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Environmental Health Centre

JoVE 51576

De novo mutations in the male germline may contribute to adverse health outcomes in subsequent generations. Here we describe a protocol for the use of a transgenic rodent model for quantifying mutations in male germ cells induced by environmental agents.

 JoVE Neuroscience

An Inexpensive, Scalable Behavioral Assay for Measuring Ethanol Sedation Sensitivity and Rapid Tolerance in Drosophila

1Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2VCU Alcohol Research Center, Virginia Commonwealth University

JoVE 52676

Straightforward assays for measuring ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in Drosophila facilitate the use of this model organism for investigating these important ethanol-related behaviors. Here, a relatively simple, scalable assay for measuring ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in flies is described.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Habituation and Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle in Rodents

1Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario

JoVE 3446

Habituation and prepulse inhibition of startle are operational measures of sensory gating. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia, and some other mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. We here describe a standard protocol to assess short-term and long-term habituation as well as prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses in rats and mice.

 JoVE Biology

Isolation and Physiological Analysis of Mouse Cardiomyocytes

1Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 51109

Individual cardiomyocytes from wild type and mutant mice can be isolated from the heart in order to study their contractility and calcium transients. This allows characterization of the contribution of cellular dysfunction to heart dysfunction from any cause.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Paired Whole Cell Recordings in Organotypic Hippocampal Slices

1Department of Physiology and Centre for Brain Research, University of Auckland, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University

JoVE 51958

Pair recordings are simultaneous whole cell patch clamp recordings from two synaptically connected neurons, enabling precise electrophysiological and pharmacological characterization of the synapses between individual neurons. Here we describe the detailed methodology and requirements for establishing this technique in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in any laboratory equipped for electrophysiology.

 Science Education: Essentials of Experimental Psychology

The Factorial Experiment

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University

A factorial design is a common type of experiment where there are two or more independent variables. This video demonstrates a 2 x 2 factorial design used to explore how self-awareness and self-esteem may influence the ability to decipher nonverbal signals. This video leads students through the basics of a factorial design including, the nature of a factorial design and what distinguishes it from other designs, the benefits of factorial design, the importance and nature of interactions, main effect and interaction hypotheses, and how to conduct a factorial experiment.

 JoVE Behavior

Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Quantification of Social Behavior in Adult Rats

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge

JoVE 52407

The goal of the protocol presented here is to describe procedures to expose rats to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal brain development and to quantify resulting alterations in social behavior during adulthood.

 JoVE Behavior

Protocol for Studying Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Naturally Cycling Female Rats

1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School

JoVE 52202

Gonadal hormones such as estrogen modulate memory formation in a number of experimental paradigms including fear extinction memory. This protocol describes a set of methods for investigating the influence of gonadal hormones specifically during extinction in naturally cycling females, including estrous cycle monitoring and exogenous estrogen administration.

 JoVE Biology

Imaging Local Ca2+ Signals in Cultured Mammalian Cells

1Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, 2Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine

JoVE 52516

Here we present techniques for imaging local IP3-mediated Ca2+ events using fluorescence microscopy in intact mammalian cells loaded with Ca2+ indicators together with an algorithm that automates identification and analysis of these events.

 JoVE Biology

Assessment of Selective mRNA Translation in Mammalian Cells by Polysome Profiling

1Apoptosis Research Centre, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, 3Apoptosis Research Centre, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa

JoVE 52295

The ability of cells to adapt to stress is crucial for their survival. Regulation of mRNA translation is one such adaptation strategy, providing for rapid regulation of the proteome. Here, we provide a standardized polysome profiling protocol to identify specific mRNAs that are selectively translated under stress conditions.

 JoVE Medicine

How to Measure Cortical Folding from MR Images: a Step-by-Step Tutorial to Compute Local Gyrification Index

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Geneva School of Medicine, 2Signal Processing Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, 4Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 3417

Measuring gyrification (cortical folding) at any age represents a window into early brain development. Hence, we previously developed an algorithm to measure local gyrification at thousands of points over the hemisphere1. In this paper, we detail the computation of this local gyrification index.

 JoVE Neuroscience

GABA-activated Single-channel and Tonic Currents in Rat Brain Slices

1Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Sweden

JoVE 2858

We use the patch-clamp technique to measure GABA-activated single-channel currents (GABAA channels, GABAA receptors) and the synaptic and tonic currents they generate in neurons. Activation of the channels decreases neuronal excitability in health and disease 1,2,3,4.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Ex utero Electroporation and Whole Hemisphere Explants: A Simple Experimental Method for Studies of Early Cortical Development

1Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University

JoVE 50271

This protocol describes an improved explant procedure that involves ex utero electroporation, dissection and culture of entire cerebral hemispheres from the embryonic mouse. The preparation facilitates pharmacological studies and assays of gene function during early cortical development.

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