A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (Dsm-iv
1Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 3Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University
We describe how to implement a battery of behavioral tasks to examine the processing and integration of sensory stimuli in children with ASD. The goal is to characterize individual differences in temporal processing of simple auditory and visual stimuli and relate these to higher order perceptual skills like speech perception.
Published April 22, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, Temporal processing, multisensory integration, psychophysics, computer based assessments, sensory deficits, autism spectrum disorder
1Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut
A reliable home-based way to assess the language comprehension of very young typically developing children, as well as those with autism, is described. The method analyzes children's eye gaze while viewing side-by-side images but hearing an audio that matches only one image. Stimuli are designed with young participants in mind.
Published December 14, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Neuroscience, Psychology, Behavior, Intermodal preferential looking, language comprehension, children with autism, child development, autism
1School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 2Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Eye tracking has long been used to study gaze patterns in typically-developing individuals, but recent technological advancements have made its use with clinical populations, including autism, more feasible. While eye-tracking young children with autism can offer insight into early symptom manifestations, it involves methodological challenges. Suggestions for best practices are provided.
Published March 27, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, eye tracking, autism, neurodevelopmental disorders, toddlers, perception, attention, social cognition
1Departments of Paediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Trinity College
Inchworming is a highly repetitive synchronous digging motion displayed by BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice when placed in a testing cage with sufficient sawdust bedding. The procedure is a modification of the juvenile social interaction protocol and is used here to assess repetitive motor stereotypies relevant to Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Published July 5, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, mice, inbred C57BL, social behavior, animal models, autism, BTBR, motor stereotypy, repetitive
1Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
In this article, we examine the effects of Theta-Burst TMS stimulation on cortical plasticity in individuals suffering from Fragile X syndrome and individuals on the autistic spectrum.
Published December 28, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Theta-Burst Stimulation, Neural Plasticity, Fragile X, Autism
1Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Córdoba, 2Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC)
Neurexins and neuroligins are membrane-neuron adhesion proteins which perform essential roles in synaptic differentiation and transmission. Neuroligin deficient mutants of C. elegans are defective in detecting osmotic strength, but when they also contain a mutation in the gene coding neurexin, they recover the wild type phenotype.
Published December 11, 2009. Keywords: Neuroscience, Microbiology, synapse, osmotic sensitivity, Caenorhabditis elegans, neurexin, neuroligin, autism, neuroscience
1Centre of Excellence in Neuromics, CHUM Research Center and the Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, 2Center of Excellence in Neuromics, CHU Sainte Justine and CHUM Notre-Dame Research Centers, Universite de Montreal, 3Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal
Molecular genetic strategy for finding de novo mutations causing common disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.
Published June 15, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, de novo mutation, complex diseases, schizophrenia, autism, rare variations, DNA sequencing
1Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging have become increasingly useful in characterizing the cognitive and neural deficits in autism. An examination of brain connectivity in autism at a network level along with adaptations for scanning children with developmental disabilities is presented.
Published September 12, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), MRI, Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), Functional Connectivity, Neuroscience, Developmental disorders, Autism, Fractional Anisotropy
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, 2Department of Educational Psychology, University of Washington
Assessment of the EEG mu rhythm provides a unique methodology for examining brain activity and when combined with behaviorally based assays, can be a powerful tool for elucidating aspects of social cognition, such as imitation, in clinical populations.
Published April 9, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Electroencephalography (EEG), mu rhythm, imitation, autism spectrum disorder, social cognition, mirror neuron system
1Research and Development Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center and Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine
Disease, head injury, genetic modifications, and treatment of mice with drugs can have profound effects on behavior. Utilizing well-characterized and validated approaches such as marble burying and nestlet shredding, compulsive-like behaviors can be documented accurately in mice as models of human obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder.
Published December 24, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, compulsive-like behaviors, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), marble burying, nestlet shredding, TPH2 KO mice
1Department of Human Development, Cornell University, 2Social Sciences Division, University of Chicago, 3National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India
Procedures for recording high-density EEG and gaze data during computer game-based cognitive tasks are described. Using a video game to present cognitive tasks enhances ecological validity without sacrificing experimental control.
Published December 16, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, High-density EEG, ERP, ICA, gaze tracking, computer game, ecological validity
1Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 2Department of Biology, York College/CUNY, 3Department of Biology, Western Ontario University
Here, we present a protocol to quantify the avoidance of stressed individuals. This paradigm is powerful yet user-friendly and can be used to assess the influence of genes and environment on one kind of social interaction in Drosophila melanogaster.
Published December 13, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, social behavior, social avoidance, Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila, Stress Odorant - dSO, T-maze apparatus, neurogenetics
1Centre for Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, 2CNR Neuroscience Institute, Pisa, Italy
We describe an immunohistochemistry protocol to study the profile of hippocampal neuron activation following exposure to a spatial learning task in a mouse model characterized by cognitive deficits of neurodevelopmental origin. This protocol can be applied to both genetic or pharmacological mouse models characterized by cognitive deficits.
Published May 12, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Immunohistochemistry, Morris water maze, ERK, hippocampus, cognition, memory, autism
JoVE Developmental Biology
1Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, 2Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco
GABAergic cortical interneuron progenitors disperse, develop and synaptically integrate into a host cortex after transplantation. These cells can be easily transduced before transplantation for in vivo studies of genetically modified GABAergic precursors. Here, we show viral labeling techniques to target specific interneuron subgroups using existing Cre lines and Cre-dependent reporters.
Published April 23, 2015. Keywords: Developmental Biology, MGE, interneuron, transplantation, lentivirus, cell labeling, somatostatin, Cre
1Institute of Biomedical Studies, Baylor University, 2Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University
This manuscript describes a protocol to examine the olfactory system of rodents. The olfactory habituation/dishabituation test will allow investigators to determine whether a mouse habituates to a repeatedly presented odor and whether the mouse demonstrates dishabituation when presented a novel odor.
Published May 5, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, Odor discrimination, anosmia, odor habituation, mouse olfactory testing, social behavior, autism, ASD
The use of a 3D automatic video system that can track individual and groups of zebrafish is described. As application example we explore the effects of the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 on shoals of zebrafish.
Published December 5, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, neuroscience, Zebrafish, Danio rerio, anxiety, Shoaling, Pharmacology, 3D-tracking, MK801
1Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour
Interactions between proteins are fundamental to all cellular processes. Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, the interaction between a pair of proteins can be monitored in live cells and in real time. Furthermore, the effects of potentially pathogenic mutations can be assessed.
Published May 26, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Protein-protein interactions, Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, Live cell, Transfection, Luciferase, Yellow Fluorescent Protein, Mutations
1UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London
The molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the formation of inhibitory GABAergic synapses during ontogeny are largely unknown. To study these processes,we have developed a co-culture model system which incorporates embryonic medium spiny GABAergic neurons cultured together with stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing functional GABAA receptors.
Published November 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
1Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychiatry Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Academic Division of Neonatology, Institute for Women's Health, University College London
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating the cortical sources of scalp measured electrical activity for cognitive neuroscience experiments. This article describes how high density EEG is acquired and how recordings are processed for cortical source estimation in children from the age of 2 years at the London Baby Lab.
Published June 30, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, EEG, electroencephalogram, development, source analysis, pediatric, minimum-norm estimation, cognitive neuroscience, event-related potentials
1Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 2Toronto Centre for Phenogenomics, Mount Sinai Hospital, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 4Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto
Here we describe a detailed protocol for examination of sociability in mice by using Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty test. We describe the advantages and possible applications for this procedure, including critical details important for correct interpretation of the results.
Published February 25, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Mice, behavioral test, phenotyping, social interaction
1Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale, UMR 7339 CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, Aix-Marseille Université, 2Centre de Recherches en Oncologie Biologique et Oncopharmacologie, UMR 911 INSERM, Faculté de Médecine, Aix-Marseille Université
The neurochemistry of mammalian brain is changed in many neurological and systemic diseases. Characteristic profiles of cerebral metabolites can be efficiently obtained based on crude extracts of brain tissue. To this end, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is employed, enabling detailed quantitative analysis of metabolite concentrations (metabolomics).
Published September 21, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, metabolomics, brain tissue, rodents, neurochemistry, tissue extracts, NMR spectroscopy, quantitative metabolite analysis, cerebral metabolism, metabolic profile
1Université Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire de Physiomédecine Moléculaire, CNRS UMR7370, and Laboratories of Excellence Ion Channel Science and Therapeutics
The first part of this article shows how to select mutant cell lines expressing vesicular Na+/H+ exchangers at their plasma membrane. The second part provides protocols based on intracellular pH measurements and fast ion uptake, which are used to determine the ion selectivity and the kinetic parameters of these exchangers.
Published March 30, 2015. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Intracellular compartments, Somatic cell genetics, Na+/H+ exchangers. Intracellular pH measurements. Fast kinetics of ion flux. Kinetic parameters.
1Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, 2Department of Physical Therapy Education, Elon University, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Duquesne University, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Elon University
There is great variability in an individual’s risk for concussion and their corresponding recovery. A multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation is warranted; including baseline testing of athletes before participation in sport and timely evaluation post injury. The goal of this protocol is to provide an appropriate multifaceted approach to examine concussions.
Published December 8, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Concussions, Student-Athletes, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Genetics, Cognitive Function, Balance, Gait, Somatosensory
1Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Neurology Care Line, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, 3Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, 4Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles
The Default Mode Network (DMN) in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) is analyzed in the resting state of the brain using seed-based functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI).
Published August 5, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Default Mode Network (DMN), Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), fMRI, MRI, functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI), blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD)
1Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Numerous recent studies have identified mutations in synaptic proteins associated with brain pathologies. Primary cultured cortical neurons offer great flexibility in examining the effects of these disease-associated proteins on dendritic spine morphology and motility.
Published July 13, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Excitatory synapse, neuroscience, brain, cortex, cortical neurons, primary culture, confocal microscopy, time-lapse imaging, remodeling.
1Department of Surgery-Division of Otolaryngology, University of Wisconsin, 2Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Wisconsin
Voice disorders are debilitating in aging and Parkinson disease. The ultrasonic vocalizations of rats, also affected by these conditions, can be used to study these voice disorders, their neural substrates, and the nature of functional recovery with behavioral intervention.
Published August 8, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, ultrasonic vocalization, rat, aging, Parkinson disease, exercise, 6-hydroxydopamine, voice disorders, voice therapy
1NICN, Aix Marseille University, 2LNPM, Aix Marseille University, 3ENT Department, Aix Marseille University, 4Gene expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 5Laboratory of Speech and Language, Aix Marseille University, 6Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Aix Marseille University
We describe here a method for biopsying olfactory mucosa from rat and human nasal cavities. These biopsies can be used for either identifying molecular anomalies in brain diseases or isolating multipotent adult stem cells that can be utilized for cell transplantation in animal models of brain trauma/disease.
Published August 22, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, stem cell, nose, brain, neuron, cell therapy, diagnosis, sphere
1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University, 3Neuroscience Program, McMaster University
Prolonged and comprehensive monitoring of mice in a home-cage environment provides a deeper understanding of aberrant behavior in murine models of brain diseases. This paper describes the Integrated Behavioral Station (INBEST) as the key component of contemporary behavioral analysis.
Published April 23, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, behavioral phenotyping, Integrated Behavioral Station, disease models, home-cage monitoring, computerized tracking, chronic studies, mice
1Neuroscience Graduate Program, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, 3Department of Cell and Neurobiology, Neuroscience Graduate Program, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California
An in vivo method to test gene function in postnatal brain is described. Recombinant AAVs expressing Cre and/or a fluorescent protein are injected into neonatal mouse brain. Mosaic gene inactivation and sparse neuronal labeling are achieved, allowing rapid analysis of gene function in processes critical to neural circuit development.
Published August 1, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Adeno-associated virus, Cre, mosaic analysis, sparse labeling, mouse, postnatal, brain development
1Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, 2Center for Gene Therapy, Nationwide Children's Hospital Research Institute, Ohio State University
Animal models of pediatric disease can experience early onset and aggressive disease progression. Clinically relevant therapy delivery to young mouse models can be technically difficult. This protocol describes a non-invasive intravenous injection method for newborn mice within the first two postnatal days of life.
Published November 11, 2014. Keywords: Basic Protocol, intravenous injection, systemic delivery, neonate, AAV, gene therapy, brain, spinal cord, muscle, temporal vein
1Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 2Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 3Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences
This article presents a protocol for a contextual and cued fear conditioning test using a video analyzing system to assess fear learning and memory in mice.
Published March 1, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Fear, Learning, Memory, ImageFZ program, Mouse, contextual fear, cued fear
1Cognitive Psychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Trier University, 2Clinical Psychophysiology Unit, Institute of Psychobiology, Trier University
The distractor-response binding paradigm is described. It can be used to shed light on the influence irrelevant stimuli, competing with targets for a response, can have on human action. Both response retrieval effects and distractor inhibition effects can be analyzed within the paradigm.
Published May 14, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, stimulus-response binding, distractor-response binding, response retrieval, distractor inhibition, event file, action control, selection task
1Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Audie L. Murphy VA Hospital, South Texas Veteran's Health Care System
The goal of this protocol is to perform a behavioral assay such as the attentional set shifting task (AST) to assess prefrontal cortex-mediated cognitive flexibility in mice.
Published February 4, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, cognitive flexibility, prefrontal cortex, behavior, attention, mouse, neuropsychiatric symptom, cognitive dysfunction
1Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
In this article, we examine the methodology and considerations relevant to the combination of TMS and fMRI to examine the effects of brain stimulation on the default network.
Published December 28, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, rTMS, fMRI, Default Mode Network, functional connectivity, resting state
1Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Environmental Health Centre
De novo mutations in the male germline may contribute to adverse health outcomes in subsequent generations. Here we describe a protocol for the use of a transgenic rodent model for quantifying mutations in male germ cells induced by environmental agents.
Published August 6, 2014. Keywords: Genetics, sperm, spermatogonia, male germ cells, spermatogenesis, de novo mutation, OECD TG 488, transgenic rodent mutation assay, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, genetic toxicology
1Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2VCU Alcohol Research Center, Virginia Commonwealth University
Straightforward assays for measuring ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in Drosophila facilitate the use of this model organism for investigating these important ethanol-related behaviors. Here, a relatively simple, scalable assay for measuring ethanol sensitivity and rapid tolerance in flies is described.
Published April 15, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, ethanol, alcohol, behavior, sensitivity, Drosophila, fruit fly, assay
1Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario
Habituation and prepulse inhibition of startle are operational measures of sensory gating. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia, and some other mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. We here describe a standard protocol to assess short-term and long-term habituation as well as prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses in rats and mice.
Published September 1, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Startle responses, rat, mouse, sensory gating, sensory filtering, short-term habituation, long-term habituation, prepulse inhibition
1Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University
Individual cardiomyocytes from wild type and mutant mice can be isolated from the heart in order to study their contractility and calcium transients. This allows characterization of the contribution of cellular dysfunction to heart dysfunction from any cause.
Published September 7, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, cardiomyocyte isolation, Langendorff, contractility, calcium transients
1Department of Physiology and Centre for Brain Research, University of Auckland, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University
Pair recordings are simultaneous whole cell patch clamp recordings from two synaptically connected neurons, enabling precise electrophysiological and pharmacological characterization of the synapses between individual neurons. Here we describe the detailed methodology and requirements for establishing this technique in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in any laboratory equipped for electrophysiology.
Published September 28, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, hippocampus, paired recording, whole cell recording, organotypic slice, synapse, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity
1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge
The goal of the protocol presented here is to describe procedures to expose rats to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal brain development and to quantify resulting alterations in social behavior during adulthood.
Published December 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Aggression, Alcohol Teratogenesis, Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorders, ARND, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, FASD, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, FAS, Social interaction
1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School
Gonadal hormones such as estrogen modulate memory formation in a number of experimental paradigms including fear extinction memory. This protocol describes a set of methods for investigating the influence of gonadal hormones specifically during extinction in naturally cycling females, including estrous cycle monitoring and exogenous estrogen administration.
Published February 23, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, estrogen, fear extinction, sex differences, estradiol, proestrus, metestrus, female, PTSD, anxiety
1Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, 2Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine
Here we present techniques for imaging local IP3-mediated Ca2+ events using fluorescence microscopy in intact mammalian cells loaded with Ca2+ indicators together with an algorithm that automates identification and analysis of these events.
Published March 3, 2015. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Calcium, imaging, total internal reflection microscopy, algorithm, automation, fluorescence
1Apoptosis Research Centre, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, 3Apoptosis Research Centre, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa
The ability of cells to adapt to stress is crucial for their survival. Regulation of mRNA translation is one such adaptation strategy, providing for rapid regulation of the proteome. Here, we provide a standardized polysome profiling protocol to identify specific mRNAs that are selectively translated under stress conditions.
Published October 28, 2014. Keywords: Cellular Biology, cellular stress, translation initiation, internal ribosome entry site, polysome, RT-qPCR, gradient
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Geneva School of Medicine, 2Signal Processing Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, 4Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital
Measuring gyrification (cortical folding) at any age represents a window into early brain development. Hence, we previously developed an algorithm to measure local gyrification at thousands of points over the hemisphere1. In this paper, we detail the computation of this local gyrification index.
Published January 2, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, neuroimaging, brain, cortical complexity, cortical development
1Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Sweden
We use the patch-clamp technique to measure GABA-activated single-channel currents (GABAA channels, GABAA receptors) and the synaptic and tonic currents they generate in neurons. Activation of the channels decreases neuronal excitability in health and disease 1,2,3,4.
Published July 17, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, brain, patch-clamp, ion channels, tonic current, slices, whole-cell current, single-channel current, GABAA, GABA
1Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University
This protocol describes an improved explant procedure that involves ex utero electroporation, dissection and culture of entire cerebral hemispheres from the embryonic mouse. The preparation facilitates pharmacological studies and assays of gene function during early cortical development.
Published April 3, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Genetics, Neurobiology, Developmental Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, preplate splitting, in vitro preparation, dendritogenesis, gene function assay, in utero electroporation, GFP, hemisphere explants, gene expression, plasmid, explant, tissue, cell culture, tissue culture, animal model
1Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California, Davis
We describe a protocol for using bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) or Matrigel to selectively induce dendritic growth in primary sympathetic neurons dissociated from the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of perinatal rats.
Published March 21, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), Matrigel, dendrite, dendritogenesis, neuronal morphogenesis, sympathetic neurons
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Colorado State University
Methods to record auditory P50 sensory gating, a physiological marker of cerebral inhibition which reflects early stages of attention, are described.
Published December 26, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Child Development, Psychophysiology, Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Evoked Potentials, Auditory, auditory evoked potential, sensory gating, infant, attention, electrophysiology, infants, sensory gating, endophenotype, attention, P50
1Cytogenetics Department, Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, 2Cytogenetics Department, Viapath Analytics
Array CGH for the detection of genomic copy number variants has replaced G-banded karyotype analysis. This paper describes the technology and its application in a diagnostic service laboratory.
Published February 21, 2015. Keywords: Molecular Biology, array CGH, aCGH, copy number variant, CNV, deletion, duplication, hybridization, fluorescent labeling.
1Psychiatry, Brudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School
Until recently, expression studies on human brain were limited to quantification of RNA or protein. With the chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques described in this paper, it will be possible to map histone methylation and other epigenetic regulators of gene expression in postmortem brain.
Published March 21, 2008. Keywords: Neuroscience, Postmortem brain, Nucleosome, Histone, Methylation, Epigenetic, Chromatin, Human Brain