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Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (Dsm-iv)
 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL): Investigating Language Comprehension in Typically Developing Toddlers and Young Children with Autism

1Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut


JoVE 4331

A reliable home-based way to assess the language comprehension of very young typically developing children, as well as those with autism, is described. The method analyzes children's eye gaze while viewing side-by-side images but hearing an audio that matches only one image. Stimuli are designed with young participants in mind.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Eye Tracking Young Children with Autism

1School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 2Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


JoVE 3675

Eye tracking has long been used to study gaze patterns in typically-developing individuals, but recent technological advancements have made its use with clinical populations, including autism, more feasible. While eye-tracking young children with autism can offer insight into early symptom manifestations, it involves methodological challenges. Suggestions for best practices are provided.

 JoVE Behavior

Inchworming: A Novel Motor Stereotypy in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J Mouse Model of Autism

1Departments of Paediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Trinity College


JoVE 50791

Inchworming is a highly repetitive synchronous digging motion displayed by BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice when placed in a testing cage with sufficient sawdust bedding. The procedure is a modification of the juvenile social interaction protocol and is used here to assess repetitive motor stereotypies relevant to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

 JoVE Neuroscience

TMS: Using the Theta-Burst Protocol to Explore Mechanism of Plasticity in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome and Autism

1Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


JoVE 2272

In this article, we examine the effects of Theta-Burst TMS stimulation on cortical plasticity in individuals suffering from Fragile X syndrome and individuals on the autistic spectrum.

 JoVE Biology

Osmotic Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans: Synaptic Function of Two Genes, Orthologues of Human NRXN1 and NLGN1, as Candidates for Autism

1Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Córdoba, 2Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC)


JoVE 1616

Neurexins and neuroligins are membrane-neuron adhesion proteins which perform essential roles in synaptic differentiation and transmission. Neuroligin deficient mutants of C. elegans are defective in detecting osmotic strength, but when they also contain a mutation in the gene coding neurexin, they recover the wild type phenotype.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

A Strategy to Identify de Novo Mutations in Common Disorders such as Autism and Schizophrenia

1Centre of Excellence in Neuromics, CHUM Research Center and the Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, 2Center of Excellence in Neuromics, CHU Sainte Justine and CHUM Notre-Dame Research Centers, Universite de Montreal, 3Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal


JoVE 2534

Molecular genetic strategy for finding de novo mutations causing common disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Probing the Brain in Autism Using fMRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

1Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham


JoVE 3178

Neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging have become increasingly useful in characterizing the cognitive and neural deficits in autism. An examination of brain connectivity in autism at a network level along with adaptations for scanning children with developmental disabilities is presented.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

EEG Mu Rhythm in Typical and Atypical Development

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, 2Department of Educational Psychology, University of Washington


JoVE 51412

Assessment of the EEG mu rhythm provides a unique methodology for examining brain activity and when combined with behaviorally based assays, can be a powerful tool for elucidating aspects of social cognition, such as imitation, in clinical populations.

 JoVE Behavior

Marble Burying and Nestlet Shredding as Tests of Repetitive, Compulsive-like Behaviors in Mice

1Research and Development Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center and Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine


JoVE 50978

Disease, head injury, genetic modifications, and treatment of mice with drugs can have profound effects on behavior. Utilizing well-characterized and validated approaches such as marble burying and nestlet shredding, compulsive-like behaviors can be documented accurately in mice as models of human obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Combining Computer Game-Based Behavioural Experiments With High-Density EEG and Infrared Gaze Tracking

1Department of Human Development, Cornell University, 2Social Sciences Division, University of Chicago, 3National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India


JoVE 2320

Procedures for recording high-density EEG and gaze data during computer game-based cognitive tasks are described. Using a video game to present cognitive tasks enhances ecological validity without sacrificing experimental control.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Straightforward Assay for Quantification of Social Avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 2Department of Biology, York College/CUNY, 3Department of Biology, Western Ontario University


JoVE 52011

Here, we present a protocol to quantify the avoidance of stressed individuals. This paradigm is powerful yet user-friendly and can be used to assess the influence of genes and environment on one kind of social interaction in Drosophila melanogaster.

 JoVE Biology

Using an Automated 3D-tracking System to Record Individual and Shoals of Adult Zebrafish

1R&D, xyZfish


JoVE 50681

The use of a 3D automatic video system that can track individual and groups of zebrafish is described. As application example we explore the effects of the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 on shoals of zebrafish.

 JoVE Biology

Investigating Protein-protein Interactions in Live Cells Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer

1Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour


JoVE 51438

Interactions between proteins are fundamental to all cellular processes. Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer, the interaction between a pair of proteins can be monitored in live cells and in real time. Furthermore, the effects of potentially pathogenic mutations can be assessed.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors

1UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London


JoVE 52115

The molecular mechanisms that co-ordinate the formation of inhibitory GABAergic synapses during ontogeny are largely unknown. To study these processes,we have developed a co-culture model system which incorporates embryonic medium spiny GABAergic neurons cultured together with stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing functional GABAA receptors.

 JoVE Behavior

Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children

1Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychiatry Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Academic Division of Neonatology, Institute for Women's Health, University College London


JoVE 51705

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating the cortical sources of scalp measured electrical activity for cognitive neuroscience experiments. This article describes how high density EEG is acquired and how recordings are processed for cortical source estimation in children from the age of 2 years at the London Baby Lab.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Assessment of Social Interaction Behaviors

1Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 2Toronto Centre for Phenogenomics, Mount Sinai Hospital, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 4Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto


JoVE 2473

Here we describe a detailed protocol for examination of sociability in mice by using Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty test. We describe the advantages and possible applications for this procedure, including critical details important for correct interpretation of the results.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Metabolomic Analysis of Rat Brain by High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Tissue Extracts

1Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale, UMR 7339 CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, Aix-Marseille Université, 2Centre de Recherches en Oncologie Biologique et Oncopharmacologie, UMR 911 INSERM, Faculté de Médecine, Aix-Marseille Université


JoVE 51829

The neurochemistry of mammalian brain is changed in many neurological and systemic diseases. Characteristic profiles of cerebral metabolites can be efficiently obtained based on crude extracts of brain tissue. To this end, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is employed, enabling detailed quantitative analysis of metabolite concentrations (metabolomics).

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

A Neuroscientific Approach to the Examination of Concussions in Student-Athletes

1Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, 2Department of Physical Therapy Education, Elon University, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Duquesne University, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Elon University


JoVE 52046

There is great variability in an individual’s risk for concussion and their corresponding recovery. A multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation is warranted; including baseline testing of athletes before participation in sport and timely evaluation post injury. The goal of this protocol is to provide an appropriate multifaceted approach to examine concussions.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Network Analysis of the Default Mode Network Using Functional Connectivity MRI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Neurology Care Line, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, 3Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, 4Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles


JoVE 51442

The Default Mode Network (DMN) in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) is analyzed in the resting state of the brain using seed-based functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI).

 JoVE Neuroscience

Analysis of Dendritic Spine Morphology in Cultured CNS Neurons

1Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine


JoVE 2794

Numerous recent studies have identified mutations in synaptic proteins associated with brain pathologies. Primary cultured cortical neurons offer great flexibility in examining the effects of these disease-associated proteins on dendritic spine morphology and motility.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Targeted Training of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Aged and Parkinsonian Rats

1Department of Surgery-Division of Otolaryngology, University of Wisconsin, 2Department of Communicative Disorders, University of Wisconsin


JoVE 2835

Voice disorders are debilitating in aging and Parkinson disease. The ultrasonic vocalizations of rats, also affected by these conditions, can be used to study these voice disorders, their neural substrates, and the nature of functional recovery with behavioral intervention.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Isolating Nasal Olfactory Stem Cells from Rodents or Humans

1NICN, Aix Marseille University, 2LNPM, Aix Marseille University, 3ENT Department, Aix Marseille University, 4Gene expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 5Laboratory of Speech and Language, Aix Marseille University, 6Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Aix Marseille University


JoVE 2762

We describe here a method for biopsying olfactory mucosa from rat and human nasal cavities. These biopsies can be used for either identifying molecular anomalies in brain diseases or isolating multipotent adult stem cells that can be utilized for cell transplantation in animal models of brain trauma/disease.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Mosaic Analysis of Gene Function in Postnatal Mouse Brain Development by Using Virus-based Cre Recombination

1Neuroscience Graduate Program, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, 3Department of Cell and Neurobiology, Neuroscience Graduate Program, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California


JoVE 2823

An in vivo method to test gene function in postnatal brain is described. Recombinant AAVs expressing Cre and/or a fluorescent protein are injected into neonatal mouse brain. Mosaic gene inactivation and sparse neuronal labeling are achieved, allowing rapid analysis of gene function in processes critical to neural circuit development.

 JoVE Biology

Intravenous Injections in Neonatal Mice

1Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, 2Center for Gene Therapy, Nationwide Children's Hospital Research Institute, Ohio State University


JoVE 52037

Animal models of pediatric disease can experience early onset and aggressive disease progression. Clinically relevant therapy delivery to young mouse models can be technically difficult. This protocol describes a non-invasive intravenous injection method for newborn mice within the first two postnatal days of life.

 JoVE Behavior

Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice

1Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 2Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 3Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences


JoVE 50871

This article presents a protocol for a contextual and cued fear conditioning test using a video analyzing system to assess fear learning and memory in mice.

 JoVE Behavior

Irrelevant Stimuli and Action Control: Analyzing the Influence of Ignored Stimuli via the Distractor-Response Binding Paradigm

1Cognitive Psychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Trier University, 2Clinical Psychophysiology Unit, Institute of Psychobiology, Trier University


JoVE 51571

The distractor-response binding paradigm is described. It can be used to shed light on the influence irrelevant stimuli, competing with targets for a response, can have on human action. Both response retrieval effects and distractor inhibition effects can be analyzed within the paradigm.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Combining Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and fMRI to Examine the Default Mode Network

1Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


JoVE 2271

In this article, we examine the methodology and considerations relevant to the combination of TMS and fMRI to examine the effects of brain stimulation on the default network.

 JoVE Biology

Transgenic Rodent Assay for Quantifying Male Germ Cell Mutant Frequency

1Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Environmental Health Centre


JoVE 51576

De novo mutations in the male germline may contribute to adverse health outcomes in subsequent generations. Here we describe a protocol for the use of a transgenic rodent model for quantifying mutations in male germ cells induced by environmental agents.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Habituation and Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle in Rodents

1Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario


JoVE 3446

Habituation and prepulse inhibition of startle are operational measures of sensory gating. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia, and some other mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. We here describe a standard protocol to assess short-term and long-term habituation as well as prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses in rats and mice.

 JoVE Biology

Isolation and Physiological Analysis of Mouse Cardiomyocytes

1Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 51109

Individual cardiomyocytes from wild type and mutant mice can be isolated from the heart in order to study their contractility and calcium transients. This allows characterization of the contribution of cellular dysfunction to heart dysfunction from any cause.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Paired Whole Cell Recordings in Organotypic Hippocampal Slices

1Department of Physiology and Centre for Brain Research, University of Auckland, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University


JoVE 51958

Pair recordings are simultaneous whole cell patch clamp recordings from two synaptically connected neurons, enabling precise electrophysiological and pharmacological characterization of the synapses between individual neurons. Here we describe the detailed methodology and requirements for establishing this technique in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in any laboratory equipped for electrophysiology.

 JoVE Behavior

Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Quantification of Social Behavior in Adult Rats

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge


JoVE 52407

The goal of the protocol presented here is to describe procedures to expose rats to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal brain development and to quantify resulting alterations in social behavior during adulthood.

 JoVE Biology

Assessment of Selective mRNA Translation in Mammalian Cells by Polysome Profiling

1Apoptosis Research Centre, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, 3Apoptosis Research Centre, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa


JoVE 52295

The ability of cells to adapt to stress is crucial for their survival. Regulation of mRNA translation is one such adaptation strategy, providing for rapid regulation of the proteome. Here, we provide a standardized polysome profiling protocol to identify specific mRNAs that are selectively translated under stress conditions.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

How to Measure Cortical Folding from MR Images: a Step-by-Step Tutorial to Compute Local Gyrification Index

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Geneva School of Medicine, 2Signal Processing Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, 4Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 3417

Measuring gyrification (cortical folding) at any age represents a window into early brain development. Hence, we previously developed an algorithm to measure local gyrification at thousands of points over the hemisphere1. In this paper, we detail the computation of this local gyrification index.

 JoVE Neuroscience

GABA-activated Single-channel and Tonic Currents in Rat Brain Slices

1Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Sweden


JoVE 2858

We use the patch-clamp technique to measure GABA-activated single-channel currents (GABAA channels, GABAA receptors) and the synaptic and tonic currents they generate in neurons. Activation of the channels decreases neuronal excitability in health and disease 1,2,3,4.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Ex utero Electroporation and Whole Hemisphere Explants: A Simple Experimental Method for Studies of Early Cortical Development

1Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University


JoVE 50271

This protocol describes an improved explant procedure that involves ex utero electroporation, dissection and culture of entire cerebral hemispheres from the embryonic mouse. The preparation facilitates pharmacological studies and assays of gene function during early cortical development.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Inducing Dendritic Growth in Cultured Sympathetic Neurons

1Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California, Davis


JoVE 3546

We describe a protocol for using bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) or Matrigel to selectively induce dendritic growth in primary sympathetic neurons dissociated from the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of perinatal rats.

 JoVE Behavior

P50 Sensory Gating in Infants

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Colorado State University


JoVE 50065

Methods to record auditory P50 sensory gating, a physiological marker of cerebral inhibition which reflects early stages of attention, are described.

 JoVE Biology

A Chromatin Assay for Human Brain Tissue

1Psychiatry, Brudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School


JoVE 717

Until recently, expression studies on human brain were limited to quantification of RNA or protein. With the chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques described in this paper, it will be possible to map histone methylation and other epigenetic regulators of gene expression in postmortem brain.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Assessment of Cerebral Lateralization in Children using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound (fTCD)

1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford


JoVE 2161

Functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) is a simple and non-invasive ultrasound technique which can be used to assess the lateralization of cognitive functions, especially language, and is suitable for use with children.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Forebrain Electrophysiological Recording in Larval Zebrafish

1Epilepsy Research Laboratory, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco


JoVE 50104

A simple method to record extracellular field potentials in the larval zebrafish forebrain is described. The method provides a robust in vivo read-out of seizure-like activity. This technique can be used with genetically modified zebrafish larvae carrying epilepsy-related genes or seizures evoked by administration of convulsant drugs.

 JoVE Biology

A Practical Approach to Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping: A Visual Guide to Mark and Track Cells In Vivo

1Department of Neuroscience, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University


JoVE 1687

Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM) marks and tracks cells with fine spatial and temporal control in vivo and elucidates how cells from a specific genetic lineage contribute to developing and adult tissues. Demonstrated here are the techniques required to fate map E12.5 mouse embryos for epifluorescent and explant analysis.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Brain Imaging Investigation of the Neural Correlates of Observing Virtual Social Interactions

1Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta, 2Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, 3Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 4Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, 5Department of Marketing, Business Economics, and Law, University of Alberta, 6Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 7Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


JoVE 2379

This article demonstrates an experimental design in which whole-body animated characters are used in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of observing virtual social interactions.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Investigating Social Cognition in Infants and Adults Using Dense Array Electroencephalography (dEEG)

1Department of Psychology, University Toronto Scarborough


JoVE 2759

Dense array electroencephalography is being used increasingly to study social cognitive functions in infants and adults. Here we present an established methodology that represents a significant improvement on conventional methodologies for studying EEG in infants and adults.

 JoVE Neuroscience

T-maze Forced Alternation and Left-right Discrimination Tasks for Assessing Working and Reference Memory in Mice

1Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 2Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 3Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences


JoVE 3300

This article presents the protocol of T-maze tests using a modified automated apparatus for assessing the learning and memory functions in mice.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Co-analysis of Brain Structure and Function using fMRI and Diffusion-weighted Imaging

1Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, 2Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 3Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, 4Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh


JoVE 4125

We describe a novel approach for simultaneous analysis of brain function and structure using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We assess brain structure with high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging and white-matter fiber tractography. Unlike standard structural MRI, these techniques allow us to directly relate anatomical connectivity to functional properties of brain networks.

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