The observable response a person makes to any situation.
1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge
The goal of the protocol presented here is to describe procedures to expose rats to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal brain development and to quantify resulting alterations in social behavior during adulthood.
Published December 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Aggression, Alcohol Teratogenesis, Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorders, ARND, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, FASD, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, FAS, Social interaction
1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University
A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.
Published September 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Behavioral neuroscience, alcoholism, relapse, addiction, Pavlovian conditioning, ethanol, reinstatement, discrimination, conditioned approach
1Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University
A protocol is provided to use an Open Field Maze to access general locomotor activity, anxiety and emotionality in a laboratory mouse model.
Published February 6, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, Open Field Maze, Behavior, Animal Model, Anxiety, Locomotor Activity, Thigmotaxis, Drug Treatment
1School of Psychology, University of Ottawa
This video describes Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and motion-sensitive video recording methods to monitor choice behavior by bumblebees.
Published November 15, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, bumblebee, unlearned behaviors, floral choice, visual perception, Bombus spp, information processing, radio-frequency identification, motion-sensitive video
1Department of Neurology, Universitätsmedizin Charité, 2Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Universitätsmedizin Charité, 3Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin
Patients with visual deficits after stroke report about different constraints in daily life most likely due to variable compensatory strategies, which are difficult to differentiate in clinical routine. We present a clinical set-up which allows measurement of different compensatory head- and eye-movement-strategies and evaluating their effects on driving performance.
Published September 18, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Neuroscience, Physiology, Anatomy, Ophthalmology, compensatory oculomotor behavior, driving simulation, eye movements, homonymous hemianopia, stroke, visual field defects, visual field enlargement
1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2School of Behavioral Sciences, Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo, 3Department of Education and Psychology, The Open University of Israel, 4School of Health and Life Sciences, Hadassah Academic College
This protocol describes the forced swim test, which is used for the study of depressive-like behavior in rodents. This procedure involves placing an animal in a container filled with water that eventually will lead to the exhibition of immobility behavior, which is considered to reflect behavioral despair.
Published March 2, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, Depression, forced swim test, FST, mouse, rat, animal model, behavioral neuroscience, antidepressants, SSRI
1The Visual Systems Group, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, 2PRESTO, JST
We recently identified a novel Drosophila circadian output, temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which the preferred temperature in flies rises during the day and falls during the night. TPR is regulated independently from another circadian output, locomotor activity. Here we describe the design and analysis of TPR in Drosophila.
Published January 13, 2014. Keywords: Basic Protocol, Drosophila, circadian clock, temperature, temperature preference rhythm, locomotor activity, body temperature rhythms
1Department of Biological and Allied Health Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University
An egg-in-worm (EIW) assay is a useful method to quantify egg-laying behavior. Alterations in egg laying can be a behavioral response of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to potentially harmful environmental substances such as those produced by pathogenic bacteria.
Published October 22, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Microbiology, C. elegans, Behavior, Animal, Microbiology, Caenorhabditis elegans, Enterococcus faecalis, egg-laying behavior, animal model
1Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California-San Diego, 2Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, 3Dart NeuroScience, 4School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
In this video article, we describe an automated assay to measure the effect of hunger or satiety on olfactory dependent food search behavior in the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.
Published November 4, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila, olfaction, neuromodulation, chemotaxis, hunger, nervous system, behavioral sciences
1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Florida College of Dentistry, 2Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, 3Stoelting Co., 4Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida
We present a user-friendly, high-throughput operant system for the evaluation of pain behaviors in awake, conscious rodents. The Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) can assess pain through a reward/conflict paradigm thus providing a more humane way of testing. This protocol will yield more clinically relevant and translational data from rodents.
Published June 10, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Neurologic Manifestations, Pain, Chronic Pain, Nociceptive Pain, Acute Pain, Pain Perception, Operant, mouse, rat, analgesia, nociception, thermal, hyperalgesia, animal model
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, 3Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, 4Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 5Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University
It is unclear how top-down signals from the ventral visual stream affect movement. We developed a paradigm to test motor behavior towards a target on a 3D depth inversion illusion. Significant differences are reported in both deliberate, goal-directed movements and automatic actions under illusory and veridical viewing conditions.
Published April 16, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, vision for action, vision for perception, motor control, reach, grasp, visuomotor, ventral stream, dorsal stream, illusion, space perception, depth inversion
1Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University
Genetically encoded optogenetic tools enable noninvasive manipulation of specific neurons in the Drosophila brain. Such tools can identify neurons whose activation is sufficient to elicit or suppress particular behaviors. Here we present a method for activating Channelrhodopsin2 that is expressed in targeted neurons in freely walking flies.
Published January 25, 2013. Keywords: Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Genetics, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Behavior, optogenetics, channelrhodopsin, ChR2, escape behavior, neurons, fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, animal model
1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of South Carolina (USC), 2Department of Biology, Syracuse University
To study Myxococcus xanthus swarm behavior, we have designed a time-lapse microcinematography protocol that can be modified for different assays. It employs standard growth conditions adapted for microscopy, and yields reproducible results by the use of inexpensive, reusable silicone gaskets. We have used this method to quantify multicellular chemotaxis.
Published August 6, 2010. Keywords: Microbiology, microcinematography, Myxococcus, chemotaxis, time-lapse
1Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, extends its proboscis for feeding, responding to a sugar stimulus from its proboscis or tarsus. I have combined observations of the proboscis extension response (PER) with a calcium imaging technique, allowing us to monitor the activity of neurons in the brain, simultaneously with behavioral observation.
Published April 26, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, feeding, proboscis extension, calcium imaging, Drosophila, fruit fly, GCaMP, suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), live imaging, FLIES
1Institut für Biochemie und Molekulare Biologie, Universität Ulm, 2Institut für Immunologie, Universitätsklinikum Ulm
Understanding the endogenous molecular changes in adult stem cells during aging requires isolating the cells of interest. The method described here presents a simple and robust approach to enrich for and isolate Drosophila intestinal stem cells and the enteroblast progenitor cells by FACS at any time point during aging.
Published December 16, 2014. Keywords: Stem Cell Biology, Intestinal stem cells, Drosophila melanogaster, aging, midgut dissection, transcriptome, fluorescence activated cell sorting
1Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2Department of Genetics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Drosophila melanogaster is a genetically and behaviorally tractable model system that has been used to understand the molecular and cellular basis of many important biological processes for over a century 1. Drosophila has been well exploited to gain insights into the genetic basis of fly behavior.
Published March 7, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila, locomotor dysfunction, courtship, larval crawling, RING assay, neurodegeneration
1Center for Addiction Research, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch
Dietary fat content influences both energy intake and body fat composition in mammals. By examining rats’ preference for high fat food in a series of choice experiments, it is possible to test genetic differences and pharmacological interventions on their preference for high fat food.
Published June 27, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, obesity, fat, preference, choice, diet, macronutrient, animal model
1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki
This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.
Published June 29, 2014. Keywords: Empty Value, awake, in vivo two-photon microscopy, blood vessels, dendrites, dendritic spines, Ca2+ imaging, intrinsic optical imaging, patch-clamp
1Zoological Institute, University of Cologne
We describe a method to record motor activity, timed to the electrically recorded tarsal contact signal in a tethered insect, walking on a slippery surface. This is used to study the neural basis of adaptive behavior under reduced influence of mechanical interaction between legs through the substrate.
Published April 13, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, issue 50, insect, walking, turning, optomotor response
1Neural Development Group, Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK, 2Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
Imaging embryonic tissue in real-time is challenging over long periods of time. Here we present an assay for monitoring cellular and sub-cellular changes in chick spinal cord for long periods with high spatial and temporal resolution. This technique can be adapted for other regions of the nervous system and developing embryo.
Published April 12, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Live imaging, chick, embryo, spinal cord, time-lapse, developing neuroepithelium
1Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 2Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory and Advanced magnetic Imaging Center, Aalto University School of Science and Technology
In this article, we examine the effects of visually relevant state dependency on TMS induced motive phosphenic presentations.
Published December 28, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, state dependency, motive phosphenes, visual priming, V1/V2, V5/MT+
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Laboratory of Fungal Pathogenesis, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Andhra Pradesh, India, 2Current location: VIB Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, UGent, Fiers-Schell-Van Montagu Building, Technologiepark 927, B-9052 Ghent (Zwijnaarde), Belgium
The current article outlines a protocol to establish an in vitro cell culture model system to study the interaction of a facultative intracellular human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata with human macrophages which will be a useful tool to advance our knowledge of fungal virulence mechanisms.
Published December 10, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Candida glabrata, THP-1 macrophages, colony forming unit (CFU) assay, fluorescence microscopy, signature-tagged mutagenesis
1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University
We present a novel surgical procedure to implant electrodes in Manduca sexta during its early metamorphic stages. This technique allows mechanically stable and electrically reliable coupling with the neuromuscular tissue to study flight neurophysiology dynamics. We also present a novel magnetic levitation platform for tethered studies of insect yaw.
Published July 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Manduca sexta; telemetry; metamorphosis; bioelectronics; neurophysiology; electrophysiology; neuromuscular
1Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University, 2Neuroscience Program, Uniformed Services University
Time lapse imaging of 3D tissue culture allows studying migratory behavior of individual cells originating from ganglionic eminence in reaction to fractionated protein extract from cerebral cortex.
Published April 21, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, migration kinetics, corticogenesis, 3D culture, time-lapse imaging
1ISOF - Bio Free Radicals, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
Radical-based biomimetic chemistry has been applied to building-up libraries necessary for biomarker development.
Published April 15, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Chemical Biology, chemical analysis techniques, chemistry (general), life sciences, radiation effects (biological, animal and plant), biomarker, biomimetic chemistry, free radicals, trans lipids, cyclopurine lesions, DNA, chromatography, spectroscopy, synthesis
1Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital
We describe a protocol for the fabrication of microfluidic devices that can enable cell capture and culture. In this approach patterned microstructures such as grooves within microfluidic channels are used to create low shear stress regions within which cell can dock.
Published August 30, 2007. Keywords: Cell Biology, tissue engineering, microfluidic, apoptosis
1Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, University of Newcastle, United Kingdom
The kinetochore is where the SAC initiates its signal monitoring the mitotic segregation of the sister chromatids. A method is described to visualize the recruitment and turnover of one of the kinetochore proteins and its coordination with the chromosome motion in Drosophila embryos using a Leica laser scanning confocal system.
Published June 14, 2012. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Developmental Biology, Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), Mitosis, Laser scanning confocal microscopy system, Kinetochore, Drosophila melanogaster, Syncytial embryo
1Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, Rockefeller University
In this video article, we describe a new method allowing the construction of odorant gradients with stable and controllable geometries. We briefly illustrate how these gradients can be used to screen for olfactory defects (full and partial anosmia) and to study more subtle features of chemotaxis behavior.
Published January 3, 2008. Keywords: Neuroscience, issue 11, odor, olfactory, Drosophila, behavior
1Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Medical Center
The cranial mesenchyme undergoes dramatic morphogenic movements that likely provides a driving force for elevation of the neural folds1,2. Here we describe a simple ex vivo explant assay to characterize the cellular behaviors of the cranial mesenchyme during neurulation. This assay has numerous applications including being amenable to pharmacological manipulations and live imaging analyses.
Published January 20, 2013. Keywords: Neurobiology, Cellular Biology, Neuroscience, Medicine, Molecular Biology, Pharmacology, exencephaly, cranial mesenchyme, migration, neural tube closure, cell rearrangement, extracellular matrix, pharmacological treatment
1Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 2Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 3Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences
This article presents a protocol for a contextual and cued fear conditioning test using a video analyzing system to assess fear learning and memory in mice.
Published March 1, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Fear, Learning, Memory, ImageFZ program, Mouse, contextual fear, cued fear
1Ophthalmology Department, Center for Vision Research, SUNY Eye Institute, Upstate Medical University
Xenopus laevis tadpoles prefer swimming on the white side of a black/white tank. This behavior is guided by their vision. Based on this behavior, we present a simple assay to test the visual function of tadpoles.
Published June 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, eye, retina, vision, color preference, Xenopus laevis, behavior, light, guidance, visual assay
The use of a 3D automatic video system that can track individual and groups of zebrafish is described. As application example we explore the effects of the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 on shoals of zebrafish.
Published December 5, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, neuroscience, Zebrafish, Danio rerio, anxiety, Shoaling, Pharmacology, 3D-tracking, MK801
1Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 2School of Healthcare Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University
This article describes the use of chronic resident intruder social stress as an ethologically relevant paradigm to model postpartum depression and anxiety in lactating rodents.
Published June 10, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Physiology, Anatomy, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobehavioral Manifestations, Mental Health, Mood Disorders, Depressive Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, behavioral sciences, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Mental Disorders, Stress, Depression, Anxiety, Postpartum, Maternal Behavior, Nursing, Growth, Transgenerational, animal model
1Departments of Paediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Trinity College
Inchworming is a highly repetitive synchronous digging motion displayed by BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice when placed in a testing cage with sufficient sawdust bedding. The procedure is a modification of the juvenile social interaction protocol and is used here to assess repetitive motor stereotypies relevant to Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Published July 5, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, mice, inbred C57BL, social behavior, animal models, autism, BTBR, motor stereotypy, repetitive
1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2Scholars Academy/MARC Scholar, University of Houston-Downtown, 3Genes and Development Graduate Program, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 4Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
In this article, we demonstrate assays to study thermal nociception in Drosophila larvae. One assay involves spatially-restricted (local) stimulation of thermal nociceptors1,2 while the second involves a wholesale (global) activation of most or all such neurons3. Together, these techniques allow visualization and quantification of the behavioral functions of Drosophila nociceptive sensory neurons.
Published May 18, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Drosophila sensory neurons, thermal nociception, nociceptive sensitization, tissue damage, fly behavioral response, dendritic arborization neurons, allodynia, hyperalgesia, behavioral assay
1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 2Department of Psychology, Koç University, 3Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Fairfield University
Fully automated system for measuring physiologically meaningful properties of the mechanisms mediating spatial localization, temporal localization, duration, rate and probability estimation, risk assessment, impulsivity, and the accuracy and precision of memory, in order to assess the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on foundational mechanisms of cognition in mice.
Published February 26, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, genetics, cognitive mechanisms, behavioral screening, learning, memory, timing
1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University
The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.
Published September 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, PER, conditioning, honey bee, olfaction, olfactory processing, learning, memory, toxin assay
1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University
The goal of the protocol described in this paper is to induce compulsive-like behavior in rats for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This behavior is precipitated by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food.
Published January 9, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, OCD, signal attenuation, rat, animal model, pharmacology, lever-press, behavioral neuroscience
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, 2College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, 3School of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham
The ability of inflamed endothelium to recruit leukocytes from flow is regulated by mesenchymal stromal cells. We describe two in vitro models incorporating primary human cells that can be used to assess neutrophil recruitment from flow and examine the role that mesenchymal stromal cells play in regulating this process.
Published January 7, 2015. Keywords: Immunology, Endothelial cells, leukocytes, mesenchymal stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, co-culture, adhesion, inflammation, recruitment, flow based adhesion assay, Ibidi microslide, neutrophil
1Department of Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge
Play fighting in the rat involves attack and defense of the nape of the neck, which if contacted, is gently nuzzled with the snout. Because the movements of one animal are countered by the actions of its partner, play fighting is a complex, dynamic interaction. This dynamic complexity raises methodological problems about what to score for experimental studies. We present a scoring schema that is sensitive to the correlated nature of the actions performed. Two experiments illustrate how these measurements can be used to detect the effect of brain damage on play fighting even when there is no effect on overall playfulness. That is, the schema presented here is designed to detect and evaluate changes in the content of play following an experimental treatment.
Published January 18, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Behavior, Psychology, Anatomy, Physiology, Medicine, Play behavior, play, fighting, wrestling, grooming, allogrooming, social interaction, rat, behavioral analysis, animal model
1Advanced Platform Technology Center, Rehabilitation Research and Development, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University
A method is discussed by which the in vivo mechanical behavior of stimuli-responsive materials is monitored as a function of time. Samples are tested ex vivo using a microtensile tester with environmental controls to simulate the physiological environment. This work further promotes understanding the in vivo behavior of our material.
Published August 20, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Biophysics, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Electrical Engineering, Materials Science, Nanotechnology, Nanocomposites, Electrodes, Implanted, Neural Prostheses, Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems, Implants, Experimental, mechanical properties (composite materials), Dynamic materials, polymer nanocomposite, Young's modulus, modulus of elasticity, intracortical microelectrode, polymers, biomaterials
1Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles
Optogenetic techniques have made it possible to study the contribution of specific neurons to behavior. We describe a method in larval zebrafish for activating single somatosensory neurons expressing a channelrhodopsin variant (ChEF) with a diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser and recording the elicited behaviors with a high-speed video camera.
Published January 31, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Developmental Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Zebrafish, Behavior, Animal, Touch, optogenetics, channelrhodopsin, ChEF, sensory neuron, Rohon-Beard, Danio rerio, somatosensory, neurons, microinjection, confocal microscopy, high speed video, animal model
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Saint Louis University
Passive mechanical testing of mouse carotid arteries is described, with special consideration for adapting to different specimen ages. The procedures include determining the in vivo length of the artery, mounting it in a pressure myograph, recording data, measuring the unloaded dimensions and analyzing the resulting data.
Published February 23, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, blood vessel, artery, mechanics, pressure, diameter, postnatal development
1The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences & Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
This manuscript describes a protocol that applies comprehensive profiling for analysis of transcriptional programs induced in specific brain nuclei of rodents following behavioral paradigms. Herein, this approach is illustrated in the context of profiling genes induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice following acute cocaine exposure, utilizing microfluidic qPCR arrays.
Published August 26, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Brain, behavior, RNA, transcription, nucleus accumbens, cocaine, high-throughput qPCR, experience-dependent plasticity, gene regulatory networks, microdissection
1Department of Psychology, MacEwan University
A novel method for reducing variability when exposing fish to drugs is explained. Fish exposed to various patterns of ethanol exposure were found to have altered anxiety levels during withdrawal in a light/dark scototaxic assay.
Published November 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Zebrafish, Ethanol, Behavior, Anxiety, Pharmacology, Fish, Neuroscience, Drug administration, Scototaxis
1Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Houston
Confocal microscopy is used to image quiescent and flowing colloid-polymer mixtures, which are studied as model systems for attractive suspensions. Image analysis algorithms are used to calculate structural and dynamic metrics for the colloidal particles that measure changes due to geometric confinement.
Published May 20, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, confocal microscopy, particle tracking, colloids, suspensions, confinement, gelation, microfluidics, image correlation, dynamics, suspension flow
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 2Research Triangle MRSEC, Duke University
Elastin-like polypeptides are stimulus-responsive biopolymers with applications ranging from recombinant protein purification to drug delivery. This protocol describes the purification and characterization of elastin-like polypeptides and their peptide or protein fusions from Escherichia coli using their lower critical solution temperature phase transition behavior as a simple alternative to chromatography.
Published June 9, 2014. Keywords: Molecular Biology, elastin-like polypeptides, lower critical solution temperature, phase separation, inverse transition cycling, protein purification, batch purification
1Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, 2Department of Physiology, University of Toronto
The experiments demonstrate an easy approach for students to gain experience in examining muscle structure, synaptic responses, the effects of ion gradients and permeability on membrane potentials. Also, a sensory-CNS-motor-muscle circuit is presented to show a means to test effects of compounds on a neuronal circuit.
Published January 18, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Invertebrate, Crayfish, neurophysiology, muscle, anatomy, electrophysiology
1Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Audie L. Murphy VA Hospital, South Texas Veteran's Health Care System
The goal of this protocol is to perform a behavioral assay such as the attentional set shifting task (AST) to assess prefrontal cortex-mediated cognitive flexibility in mice.
Published February 4, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, cognitive flexibility, prefrontal cortex, behavior, attention, mouse, neuropsychiatric symptom, cognitive dysfunction
1Department of Neuroscience, Oberlin College
This protocol describes the 5-choice serial reaction time task, which is an operant based task used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. Test day challenges, which are modifications of the standard task, increase flexibility of the task and can be combined with other manipulations to more fully characterize behavior.
Published August 10, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, attention, impulse control, neuroscience, cognition, rodent