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Behavior: The observable response a person makes to any situation.
 JoVE Behavior

Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Quantification of Social Behavior in Adult Rats

1Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of New Mexico, 4Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge

JoVE 52407

The goal of the protocol presented here is to describe procedures to expose rats to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal brain development and to quantify resulting alterations in social behavior during adulthood.

 JoVE Behavior

A Procedure to Observe Context-induced Renewal of Pavlovian-conditioned Alcohol-seeking Behavior in Rats

1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University

JoVE 51898

A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Radio Frequency Identification and Motion-sensitive Video Efficiently Automate Recording of Unrewarded Choice Behavior by Bumblebees

1School of Psychology, University of Ottawa

JoVE 52033

This video describes Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and motion-sensitive video recording methods to monitor choice behavior by bumblebees.

 JoVE Medicine

Driving Simulation in the Clinic: Testing Visual Exploratory Behavior in Daily Life Activities in Patients with Visual Field Defects

1Department of Neurology, Universitätsmedizin Charité, 2Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Universitätsmedizin Charité, 3Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin

JoVE 4427

Patients with visual deficits after stroke report about different constraints in daily life most likely due to variable compensatory strategies, which are difficult to differentiate in clinical routine. We present a clinical set-up which allows measurement of different compensatory head- and eye-movement-strategies and evaluating their effects on driving performance.

 JoVE Behavior

The Forced Swim Test as a Model of Depressive-like Behavior

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2School of Behavioral Sciences, Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo, 3Department of Education and Psychology, The Open University of Israel, 4School of Health and Life Sciences, Hadassah Academic College

JoVE 52587

This protocol describes the forced swim test, which is used for the study of depressive-like behavior in rodents. This procedure involves placing an animal in a container filled with water that eventually will lead to the exhibition of immobility behavior, which is considered to reflect behavioral despair.

 JoVE Biology

Design and Analysis of Temperature Preference Behavior and its Circadian Rhythm in Drosophila

1The Visual Systems Group, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center, 2PRESTO, JST

JoVE 51097

We recently identified a novel Drosophila circadian output, temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which the preferred temperature in flies rises during the day and falls during the night. TPR is regulated independently from another circadian output, locomotor activity. Here we describe the design and analysis of TPR in Drosophila.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Dyeing Insects for Behavioral Assays: the Mating Behavior of Anesthetized Drosophila

1Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool

JoVE 52645

This protocol describes a simple, cost effective way to individually identify Drosophila or other insects. Demonstration data investigating mating success across three species of Drosophila show that this method is comparable or better than the use of CO2 anaesthesia.

 JoVE Biology

Measuring the Effects of Bacteria on C. Elegans Behavior Using an Egg Retention Assay

1Department of Biological and Allied Health Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University

JoVE 51203

An egg-in-worm (EIW) assay is a useful method to quantify egg-laying behavior. Alterations in egg laying can be a behavioral response of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to potentially harmful environmental substances such as those produced by pathogenic bacteria.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Single-fly Assay for Foraging Behavior in Drosophila

1Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California-San Diego, 2Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, 3Dart NeuroScience, 4School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

JoVE 50801

In this video article, we describe an automated assay to measure the effect of hunger or satiety on olfactory dependent food search behavior in the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

 JoVE Behavior

Use of the Operant Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) to Measure Changes in Nociceptive Behavior

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Florida College of Dentistry, 2Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, 3Stoelting Co., 4Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida

JoVE 50336

We present a user-friendly, high-throughput operant system for the evaluation of pain behaviors in awake, conscious rodents. The Orofacial Pain Assessment Device (OPAD) can assess pain through a reward/conflict paradigm thus providing a more humane way of testing. This protocol will yield more clinically relevant and translational data from rodents.

 JoVE Behavior

The Modified Hole Board - Measuring Behavior, Cognition and Social Interaction in Mice and Rats

1Department of Animals in Science and Society, Utrecht University, 2Brain Center Rudolf Magnus

JoVE 52529

This protocol describes the modified hole board, which is a behavioral test set-up that comprises the characteristics of an open field and a traditional hole board. This set-up enables the differential analysis of unconditioned behavior of small laboratory mammals as well as the analysis of cognitive abilities.

 JoVE Behavior

Methods to Explore the Influence of Top-down Visual Processes on Motor Behavior

1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, 3Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, 4Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 5Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University

JoVE 51422

It is unclear how top-down signals from the ventral visual stream affect movement. We developed a paradigm to test motor behavior towards a target on a 3D depth inversion illusion. Significant differences are reported in both deliberate, goal-directed movements and automatic actions under illusory and veridical viewing conditions.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Optogenetic Stimulation of Escape Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University

JoVE 50192

Genetically encoded optogenetic tools enable noninvasive manipulation of specific neurons in the Drosophila brain. Such tools can identify neurons whose activation is sufficient to elicit or suppress particular behaviors. Here we present a method for activating Channelrhodopsin2 that is expressed in targeted neurons in freely walking flies.

 JoVE Biology

Recording Multicellular Behavior in Myxococcus xanthus Biofilms using Time-lapse Microcinematography

1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of South Carolina (USC), 2Department of Biology, Syracuse University

JoVE 2038

To study Myxococcus xanthus swarm behavior, we have designed a time-lapse microcinematography protocol that can be modified for different assays. It employs standard growth conditions adapted for microscopy, and yields reproducible results by the use of inexpensive, reusable silicone gaskets. We have used this method to quantify multicellular chemotaxis.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Simultaneous Recording of Calcium Signals from Identified Neurons and Feeding Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster

1Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School

JoVE 3625

The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, extends its proboscis for feeding, responding to a sugar stimulus from its proboscis or tarsus. I have combined observations of the proboscis extension response (PER) with a calcium imaging technique, allowing us to monitor the activity of neurons in the brain, simultaneously with behavioral observation.

 JoVE Biology

Isolating Intestinal Stem Cells from Adult Drosophila Midguts by FACS to Study Stem Cell Behavior During Aging

1Institut für Biochemie und Molekulare Biologie, Universität Ulm, 2Institut für Immunologie, Universitätsklinikum Ulm

JoVE 52223

Understanding the endogenous molecular changes in adult stem cells during aging requires isolating the cells of interest. The method described here presents a simple and robust approach to enrich for and isolate Drosophila intestinal stem cells and the enteroblast progenitor cells by FACS at any time point during aging.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Methods to Assay Drosophila Behavior

1Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2Department of Genetics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

JoVE 3795

Drosophila melanogaster is a genetically and behaviorally tractable model system that has been used to understand the molecular and cellular basis of many important biological processes for over a century 1. Drosophila has been well exploited to gain insights into the genetic basis of fly behavior.

 JoVE Behavior

Fat Preference: A Novel Model of Eating Behavior in Rats

1Center for Addiction Research, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch

JoVE 51575

Dietary fat content influences both energy intake and body fat composition in mammals. By examining rats’ preference for high fat food in a series of choice experiments, it is possible to test genetic differences and pharmacological interventions on their preference for high fat food.

 JoVE Behavior

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki

JoVE 51869

This method creates a tangible, familiar environment for the mouse to navigate and explore during microscopic imaging or single-cell electrophysiological recordings, which require firm fixation of the animal’s head.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Studying the Neural Basis of Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Insects

1Zoological Institute, University of Cologne

JoVE 2629

We describe a method to record motor activity, timed to the electrically recorded tarsal contact signal in a tethered insect, walking on a slippery surface. This is used to study the neural basis of adaptive behavior under reduced influence of mechanical interaction between legs through the substrate.

 JoVE Neuroscience

High-resolution Live Imaging of Cell Behavior in the Developing Neuroepithelium

1Neural Development Group, Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK, 2Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK

JoVE 3920

Imaging embryonic tissue in real-time is challenging over long periods of time. Here we present an assay for monitoring cellular and sub-cellular changes in chick spinal cord for long periods with high spatial and temporal resolution. This technique can be adapted for other regions of the nervous system and developing embryo.

 JoVE Neuroscience

State-Dependency Effects on TMS: A Look at Motive Phosphene Behavior

1Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 2Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory and Advanced magnetic Imaging Center, Aalto University School of Science and Technology

JoVE 2273

In this article, we examine the effects of visually relevant state dependency on TMS induced motive phosphenic presentations.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Establishment of an In vitro System to Study Intracellular Behavior of Candida glabrata in Human THP-1 Macrophages

1Laboratory of Fungal Pathogenesis, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Andhra Pradesh, India, 2Current location: VIB Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, UGent, Fiers-Schell-Van Montagu Building, Technologiepark 927, B-9052 Ghent (Zwijnaarde), Belgium

JoVE 50625

The current article outlines a protocol to establish an in vitro cell culture model system to study the interaction of a facultative intracellular human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata with human macrophages which will be a useful tool to advance our knowledge of fungal virulence mechanisms.

 JoVE Behavior

Early Metamorphic Insertion Technology for Insect Flight Behavior Monitoring

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University

JoVE 50901

We present a novel surgical procedure to implant electrodes in Manduca sexta during its early metamorphic stages. This technique allows mechanically stable and electrically reliable coupling with the neuromuscular tissue to study flight neurophysiology dynamics. We also present a novel magnetic levitation platform for tethered studies of insect yaw.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Migratory Behavior of Cells Generated in Ganglionic Eminence Cultures

1Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University, 2Neuroscience Program, Uniformed Services University

JoVE 2583

Time lapse imaging of 3D tissue culture allows studying migratory behavior of individual cells originating from ganglionic eminence in reaction to fractionated protein extract from cerebral cortex.

 JoVE Chemistry

Free Radicals in Chemical Biology: from Chemical Behavior to Biomarker Development

1ISOF - Bio Free Radicals, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

JoVE 50379

Radical-based biomimetic chemistry has been applied to building-up libraries necessary for biomarker development.

 JoVE Biology

A Microfluidic Device with Groove Patterns for Studying Cellular Behavior

1Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital

JoVE 270

We describe a protocol for the fabrication of microfluidic devices that can enable cell capture and culture. In this approach patterned microstructures such as grooves within microfluidic channels are used to create low shear stress regions within which cell can dock.

 JoVE Biology

Studying Mitotic Checkpoint by Illustrating Dynamic Kinetochore Protein Behavior and Chromosome Motion in Living Drosophila Syncytial Embryos

1Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, University of Newcastle, United Kingdom

JoVE 3763

The kinetochore is where the SAC initiates its signal monitoring the mitotic segregation of the sister chromatids. A method is described to visualize the recruitment and turnover of one of the kinetochore proteins and its coordination with the chromosome motion in Drosophila embryos using a Leica laser scanning confocal system.

 JoVE Biology

High-resolution Measurement of Odor-Driven Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

1Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, Rockefeller University

JoVE 638

In this video article, we describe a new method allowing the construction of odorant gradients with stable and controllable geometries. We briefly illustrate how these gradients can be used to screen for olfactory defects (full and partial anosmia) and to study more subtle features of chemotaxis behavior.

 JoVE Biology

An Explant Assay for Assessing Cellular Behavior of the Cranial Mesenchyme

1Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Medical Center

JoVE 4245

The cranial mesenchyme undergoes dramatic morphogenic movements that likely provides a driving force for elevation of the neural folds1,2. Here we describe a simple ex vivo explant assay to characterize the cellular behaviors of the cranial mesenchyme during neurulation. This assay has numerous applications including being amenable to pharmacological manipulations and live imaging analyses.

 JoVE Behavior

Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice

1Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 2Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 3Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences

JoVE 50871

This article presents a protocol for a contextual and cued fear conditioning test using a video analyzing system to assess fear learning and memory in mice.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Simple Behavioral Assay for Testing Visual Function in Xenopus laevis

1Ophthalmology Department, Center for Vision Research, SUNY Eye Institute, Upstate Medical University

JoVE 51726

Xenopus laevis tadpoles prefer swimming on the white side of a black/white tank. This behavior is guided by their vision. Based on this behavior, we present a simple assay to test the visual function of tadpoles.

 JoVE Biology

Using an Automated 3D-tracking System to Record Individual and Shoals of Adult Zebrafish

1R&D, xyZfish

JoVE 50681

The use of a 3D automatic video system that can track individual and groups of zebrafish is described. As application example we explore the effects of the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 on shoals of zebrafish.

 JoVE Behavior

A Treatment Package without Escape Extinction to Address Food Selectivity

1Department of Psychology and the Center for Children and Families, Florida International University

JoVE 52898

Feeding difficulties are a common problem for children with developmental disorders, including autism, and behavioral interventions often include escape extinction. Recent research has begun to evaluate treatments that do not include escape extinction. This manuscript describes a multicomponent treatment package that does not use escape extinction to treat feeding difficulties.

 JoVE Behavior

Using Chronic Social Stress to Model Postpartum Depression in Lactating Rodents

1Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 2School of Healthcare Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University

JoVE 50324

This article describes the use of chronic resident intruder social stress as an ethologically relevant paradigm to model postpartum depression and anxiety in lactating rodents.

 JoVE Behavior

Testing for Odor Discrimination and Habituation in Mice

1Institute of Biomedical Studies, Baylor University, 2Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University

JoVE 52615

This manuscript describes a protocol to examine the olfactory system of rodents. The olfactory habituation/dishabituation test will allow investigators to determine whether a mouse habituates to a repeatedly presented odor and whether the mouse demonstrates dishabituation when presented a novel odor.

 JoVE Behavior

Inchworming: A Novel Motor Stereotypy in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J Mouse Model of Autism

1Departments of Paediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Trinity College

JoVE 50791

Inchworming is a highly repetitive synchronous digging motion displayed by BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice when placed in a testing cage with sufficient sawdust bedding. The procedure is a modification of the juvenile social interaction protocol and is used here to assess repetitive motor stereotypies relevant to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Local and Global Methods of Assessing Thermal Nociception in Drosophila Larvae

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2Scholars Academy/MARC Scholar, University of Houston-Downtown, 3Genes and Development Graduate Program, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 4Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

JoVE 3837

In this article, we demonstrate assays to study thermal nociception in Drosophila larvae. One assay involves spatially-restricted (local) stimulation of thermal nociceptors1,2 while the second involves a wholesale (global) activation of most or all such neurons3. Together, these techniques allow visualization and quantification of the behavioral functions of Drosophila nociceptive sensory neurons.

 JoVE Behavior

Automated, Quantitative Cognitive/Behavioral Screening of Mice: For Genetics, Pharmacology, Animal Cognition and Undergraduate Instruction

1Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, 2Department of Psychology, Koç University, 3Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Fairfield University

JoVE 51047

Fully automated system for measuring physiologically meaningful properties of the mechanisms mediating spatial localization, temporal localization, duration, rate and probability estimation, risk assessment, impulsivity, and the accuracy and precision of memory, in order to assess the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on foundational mechanisms of cognition in mice.

 JoVE Behavior

Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment

1Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience, West Virginia University, 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, 3Department of Neurology, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Neuroscience, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 5GRECC, VA Medical Center, 6Center for Neuroscience, Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University

JoVE 52706

This manuscript describes a Morris water maze (MWM) protocol tailored for use with a commonly used mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The MWM is widely used in transgenic mouse models. Implementation of a procedure sensitive to the background strain of the mouse model is essential for detecting group differences.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research

1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University

JoVE 51057

The Proboscis Extension Response (PER) conditioning protocol, developed for the honey bee (Apis mellifera), provides an ecologically-relevant and easily quantifiable means for studying several different mechanisms of learning in many insect species.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting to Examine Cell-Type-Specific Gene Expression in Rat Brain Tissue

1Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Delaware

JoVE 52537

The goal of this protocol is to use the fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) technique to sort specific types of neural cells for subsequent analysis of cell-type-specific gene expression, epigenetic markers, and or protein expression.

 JoVE Behavior

Signal Attenuation as a Rat Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University

JoVE 52287

The goal of the protocol described in this paper is to induce compulsive-like behavior in rats for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This behavior is precipitated by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Analyzing the Effects of Stromal Cells on the Recruitment of Leukocytes from Flow

1School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, 2College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, 3School of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham

JoVE 52480

The ability of inflamed endothelium to recruit leukocytes from flow is regulated by mesenchymal stromal cells. We describe two in vitro models incorporating primary human cells that can be used to assess neutrophil recruitment from flow and examine the role that mesenchymal stromal cells play in regulating this process.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Peering into the Dynamics of Social Interactions: Measuring Play Fighting in Rats

1Department of Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge

JoVE 4288

Play fighting in the rat involves attack and defense of the nape of the neck, which if contacted, is gently nuzzled with the snout. Because the movements of one animal are countered by the actions of its partner, play fighting is a complex, dynamic interaction. This dynamic complexity raises methodological problems about what to score for experimental studies. We present a scoring schema that is sensitive to the correlated nature of the actions performed. Two experiments illustrate how these measurements can be used to detect the effect of brain damage on play fighting even when there is no effect on overall playfulness. That is, the schema presented here is designed to detect and evaluate changes in the content of play following an experimental treatment.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Agarose Microchambers for Long-term Calcium Imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans

1Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry

JoVE 52742

Imaging behavior and neural activity over long time scales without immobilization of the animal is a prerequisite to understand behavior. Agarose microfluidic chambers imaging (AMI) can be used to image neural activity and behavior for all life stages of Caenorhabditis elegans.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Environmentally-controlled Microtensile Testing of Mechanically-adaptive Polymer Nanocomposites for ex vivo Characterization

1Advanced Platform Technology Center, Rehabilitation Research and Development, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University

JoVE 50078

A method is discussed by which the in vivo mechanical behavior of stimuli-responsive materials is monitored as a function of time. Samples are tested ex vivo using a microtensile tester with environmental controls to simulate the physiological environment. This work further promotes understanding the in vivo behavior of our material.

 JoVE Behavior

Vagus Nerve Stimulation as a Tool to Induce Plasticity in Pathways Relevant for Extinction Learning

1School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas

JoVE 53032

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has emerged as a tool to induce targeted synaptic plasticity in the forebrain to modify a range of behaviors. This protocol describes how to implement VNS to facilitate the consolidation of fear extinction memory.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Optogenetic Activation of Zebrafish Somatosensory Neurons using ChEF-tdTomato

1Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles

JoVE 50184

Optogenetic techniques have made it possible to study the contribution of specific neurons to behavior. We describe a method in larval zebrafish for activating single somatosensory neurons expressing a channelrhodopsin variant (ChEF) with a diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser and recording the elicited behaviors with a high-speed video camera.

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